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Full text of "History of Chicago. From the earliest period to the present time"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofchicago02andr 



6HICA60. 



The original picturE — a copy of "which is given Dn the 
oppositE page — was prESEntedj through thE propriEtors of thE 
LnNEDN (England G-RAPHIC, to t±LE City of Chicago, ZlftEr 
thE immEdiatE nECESsitiES of thE snffErErs by thE firE of 
IB 71 had tiEEn allEviatEd, and it was annonncEd that no 
morE nionEy from abroad would de nEEdEd, thErE rEmahiEd 
a largE sum in thE hands of thE propriEtors of thE LDNHDN 
Graphic, Being unablE to rEturn thE monEy to thE donors, 
it was dEtErminEd to use thE saniE towards thE purchasE of 
this picture for thE City of Chicago, Mr, Ed 5rmitagB is 
the artist, 



•URBS INCIKERATA. 



HISTORY 



OF 



CHICAGO. 



FROM THE 



Earliest Period to the Present Time. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 



VOLUME II. — FROM 1857 UNTIL THE FIRE OF 1S71. 



BY A. T. ANDREAS. 



CHICAGO : 
THE A. T, ANDREAS COMPANY, PUBLISHERS. 

1885, 



R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS, 
PRINTERS, 

THE LAKESIDE TRESS. 



A. J. COX & CO., 

BINDERS, 

144 MONROE STREET. 



Copyright Secured, 18S5. 
THE A. T. ANDREAS COMPANY, 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



BLOMGREN BROS. & CO., 

ELECTROTYI'ERS, 

162 A 164 CLARK STREET. 



HUGHES & JOHNSON, 

LITHOGRAVURES, 
253 KINZIE STREET. 



PREFACE. 



OF the general plan of the History and its specific treatment of subjects, it is requisite that 
something explanatory should be said. It has already been stated, in the anterior volume, 
why it was found absolutely needful to make topical essays of the various matters under consideration, 
and this mode has been continued in the present volume. By this method, chronology and the 
presentation of facts can be more easily conserved — which is the province of the historian, — and the 
drawing of inferences avoided — which is the realm of the essayist. In furtherance of this aim, and 
heeding the line of demarcation between history and essay, it has been the principle of the collaborator 
to present compendia of incidents, in the particular dissertation, as they transpired, rather than a 
general account of the event toward which the incidents tended. It is sufficiently easy to realize that 
a certain number of acres were devastated by the Chicago fire, but without the aid of the historian 
it would be difficult to acquire any knowledge of the various causes which rendered such destruction 
not only practicable, but easy. 

For the same reason, there are given the biographies of many of Chicago's citizens. These 
give the history of the men and women who performed the actions that have made history ; their 
lives and their deeds are the kevs to the marvellous progress and achievement that have made the 
name of Chicago a household word throughout the habitable globe. If further advocacy were needed 
for the presentation of the deeds of " common - place, every -day men" — who are those with whom we 
deal in in common - place, every -day life — it would be found in these words of the historiographer, 
Charles Knight : " The history of manners, of common life, is essentially dependent upon the civil, 
the military, the religious history of a nation. Public events act upon the condition of a people, 
and the condition of a people interchangeably acts upon public events." Hence, the biography of 
an individual acts as a plane mirror in reflecting the macrocosm around it, or as the facet of a 
diamond refracts the beauty of the sun. " History is philosophy teaching by example," and the 
precedents of our merchants, our professional men and our artisans is worthy of all emulation — such 
examples being rendered possible by the magnitude of our city's transactions and the splendor of her 
commercial prosperity. 

In procuring matter for the various topics of which chapters have been made, manifold courtesies 
and valuable information were received from large numbers of our citizens, among them the publishers 
are especially indebted to Hons. John Wentworth, William Bross, Henry Booth, and Messrs. 
Joseph Medill, Joseph O. Rutter, John H. Dunham, John R. Walsh, John G. Shortall, J. Adams 
Allen, William J. Onahan, Samuel H. Kerfoot, Robert Fergus, Charles C. Bonney, Elias Colbert, 
Joseph P. Ross, Gil. W. Barnard, C. C. P. Holden and George P. Upton. The resources of the 
Public Library and of the Chicago Historical Society have been heavily taxed by the collaborators, 
but both of these Institutions, as well as their respective directors, William F. Poole and Albert D. 
Hager, have furnished vast quantities of most valuable information The Press, without exception, 
has been most courteous and painstaking, and from the large fund of its varied experience and 
cosmopolitan knowledge has given copiously. That there are so many reproductions of ante -fire 
edifices and views of parts of the city is principally ascribable to the kindness of Messrs. P. B. Greene, 
Lovejoy & Foster, A. I. W. Copelin, A. Hesler and John E. Woodhead ; while to Joshua Smith the 
publishers are indebted for permission to reproduce his copyrighted view of the ruins of Chicago. 
In brief, whenever an individual or family, a corporation or society, was applied to for data it was 
unhesitatingly furnished. 



PREFACE. 

During the process of compilation it was found expedient to abolish any attempt at an 
historical resume of the subject-matter of the preceding volume. Two reasons made the serial story 
precedent an undesirable one to follow : first, that such a syllabus would be too brief to be valuable, 
or even comprehensibly accurate, and second, that there is not a page to spare in the entire second 
volume. This latter fact renders needful a quasi -apology for this work — happily the only condonation 
required. 

In making a synthesis of the various topics prepared by the collaborators, it was ascertained 
that several matters that might have been elaborated in this volume, and whose treatment pertains to 
this epoch, would have to be excluded, because their introduction and satisfactory recital would amplify 
the book beyond reasonable dimensions and render it unwieldy. A dilemma was then instituted, in 
the query as to what should be ignored or excised ? The narrative of the War could neither be 
curtailed nor syncopated from the work, for the story of Chicago's heroism and patriotic devotion to 
the Union and her soldiers constitutes one of the grandest pages in her wonderful history. The 
recital of the burning of the city could not be abscinded, as that is the grand climacteric of the 
volume and the apotheosis of the trials and sufferings of our people. And the introduction of these 
two topics being conceded to be necessary, a review of the space they occupv will render 
comprehensible the need for curtailment elsewhere. This elision, however, is only an elision from 
epochal dissertation, as in the ensuing volume all the missing historical fibers will be taken up and 
interwoven into a complete and harmonious termination. In fact, experience has shown that in a 
number of instances continuous narration is more expedient than an interrupted recital. 

In perusing this volume, some cursory idea may be formed of the enormous quantity of labor 
that has been bestowed upon its authorship ; the expenditure of such work is an index to the 
amount that was utilized in the construction and improvement of the city up to October 8, 187 1. 
Step by step have the compilers followed the citizens of Chicago during the erection of their 
habitations and commerce ; as their pencils recorded the vast amount of progress in all branches of 
the arts and sciences, in mechanics and agriculture, in trade and manufacture, they realized the 
unparalleled advance of the Garden City from 1S57 to 1871, and as their records were examined for 
this work, it was apparent that the principal difficulty in recording it was not what to write, but 
what not to write. Only fourteen years of a city's existence, and a folio volume of eight hundred 
pages is inadequate to fully record it. Mirabile dictu ! 

Relative to the accuracy of the statements made, it is pertinent to remark that neither time, 
labor nor money have been spared in gathering the material, which, after its compilation, was submitted 
to competent judges of its verity ; and upon their dicta were excisions, additions or changes made. 
It is not considered that perfection has been attained, but every precaution and care has been utilized 
to insure accuracy. The publishers are cognizant of the fidelity and scrupulous pains that have been 
taken in every process of making this book, and give it to the citizens of Chicago, confident that 
everything possible has been done to make it worthy of the city of which it is the history. 

THE A. T. ANDREAS COMPANY. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CORPORATE HISTORY. 

The Corporation : Municipal changes ; Wards. .49 — Elections 
-.49 — Rosters, 1S58 to 1872. .49-50 — Statistics. .52.-49-56 

Board of Public Works: Commissioners, 1S61 to 1872. .56 — 
Street improvements; Statistics- -56-59 — Bridge building; 
Statistics_.6o-62 — Bridges destroyed in "great fire"_.62 — 
River tunnels. -63-65 — Sewerage system; Statistics. -65-66 — 
City Hall -.66 — Water system: The Water Works; The 
Lake tunnel ; Statistics- -66-70 .- ..56-70 

River, Harbor and .Marine : Harbor and River improvements ; 
Statistics- .70-72 — Dockage_-72 — The Marine; Statistics-- 
73-74 — The " Skjoldmoen". .74 — Ship building- -74 — Not- 
able marine disasters. -74-77 — Vessels destroyed in 1871.-77 

— Lake, etc., transportation companies. .80-82 70-S2 

Police Department : Changes in organization. -83 — Uniforms 

--S3-S4 — Badges-.S3-84 — Police Commissioners, 1S61 to 
1S70..S4 — Precincts and Stations. -S4-S6 — The Detective 

Force. .87 ..- --- 83-90 

Fire Department : Last of the Volunteers.. 90 — Paid Fire De- 
partment- _go — Fire Commissioners. -91 — Fire limits in 1871 
-.91 — Fire Companies in iS7i-_gi-g2 — Telegraph- -g2-g4 

— Insurance Patrol. -94 — Benevolent Association. .94-95 — 
Company Sketches. -95-99 — Notable fires, 1863 to 1S72-- 
gg-102- go-102 

Public Schools : Changes in organization. . 102-103 — City Board 
of Education ; Presidents and Members of.. 102-104 — ^ ta ~ 
tistics..l03 — Music, Drawing, and German introduced-- 106- 
107 — Special funds. . 107-108 — Statistics. - 108 — Histories of 
Schools. -108-1 14 — School buildings destroyed in 1871-.114- 
115 — Teachers' Institute. -115 102-115 

Private Schools : Location, etc., from 1857 to 1872 115-117 

LOCAL TRANSPORTATION. 

Omnibus Routes, 1858 to 1864 118-119 

City Railways: Chicago City Railway. -119-121 — "Wabash 
Horse Railroad Swindle "..120-121 — North Chicago Railway 

_.I2I — ChicagoWest Division Railway. .121 II9-121 

ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL. 
History of, from 1S58 to 18S4 : Trustees, 1858 to 1871--123 — 
Commissioners, 1S71 to 1884--123-124 — Tolls received, 

1857 to 1SS3--124 123-124 

TELEGRAPH AND EXPRESS. 

Telegraph Companies, 1858 to 1871 125 

Express Companies, 1845 to 1S71 -.125-126 

RAILROADS. 

Histories of : Illinois Central; Statistics. . 128-133 — Chicago & 
• North-Western . - 133-140 — Chicago & Alton . - 140-143 — Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy ; Statistics- . 143-146 — Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago -.146-147 — Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul.. 147 — Union Depots. . 148-153 — Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific-148-151 — Chicago & Southwestern.. 151 — 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern. .153-155 — Michigan Cen- 
tral. _ 1 55-1 56 — Chicago & Eastern Illinois. _ 156 — Pittsburgh, 
Cincinnati & St. Louis.- 156-157 — Chicago & Iowa.-i57 — 
General Summary-- 157 — Railroad legislation._i57 — Pull- 
man's Palace Car Co.-- 157 — Railroad traffic. -1 57-1 5S — First 

regular time-table.- 158 12S-158 

MILITARY HISTORY. 

Awakening of the War Spirit : First War meeting- -I5g, 160 

— Second War meeting. . 160 — The clergy preach patriotism 
--160 — Governor Yates calls for six regiments of militia.- 160 
— Metropolitan Hall rally..i6o — General Orders (State) 
Nos. I and 2.. 160 i5g-i6o 

War Material in Chicago: 60th Regiment, I. S. M...i6i — 
Washington Independent Regiment. No. 1..161 — Chicago 
Light Dragoons.. 161 — Chicago Light Guard. . 161 — Emmet 
Guards. -161 — Shields' Guards..i6i — United States Zouave 
Cadets..i6i — Chicago Light Artillery. . 161 — Washington 
Light Cavalry. . 162 — Washington Rifles. . 162 — Washington 
Grenadiers.. 162 — Black Jaeger Rifles.- 162 — Independent 
Zouaves -.162 1 60-1 62 



Re-organization ok Regiments: Zouave_-i62 — Washington 
Independent-. 162 — Taylor's Light Artillery--i62.----.-i62 

Action of the Citizens: War meetings.. 162-163 — Cairo gar- 
risoned.- 163 - - 162-163 

Recruiting in Chicago : The " Irish Brigade"--i63 — Swedish 
company- -163 — "The Home Guard ".. 164 — Fourteen Chi- 
cago companies received for service in the State-- 164 — Ten 
Chicago companies drilling — 164 — 163-164 

Acceptance of Soldiers: The "Ten-regiment bill"-- 164 — 
Distribution of Chicago companies.- 164, 165 — " State-at- 
large" Regiment -.164, 165 — "Hecker Jreger Regiment".. 

165, 166— Sturges Rifle Corps.. 165 — The " Yates Phalanx " 
__i6s — The " Irish Brigade "..165 — The Zouave Regiment 
..166 — Chicago Dragoons. -166 — Washington Light Cav- 
alry--i66 — Cos. "A" and " B," Chicago Light Artillery.. 
166 164-166 

Aid by the Citizens: War Finance committee 165-166 

Chicago's Performance of its Duty: Relief Associations.. 

166, 167 — Union Defense Committee.. 167 166-167 

The Draft of 1864 : Cook County quota. . 167, 168 — Men fur- 
nished; Tables; Amounts paid as bounties and as relief.. 16S 

Chicago Regiments, Histories of : 12th Illinois Infantry. -i6g 

— igth Illinois Infantry-- 179 — Ellsworth's Chicago Zouaves 
--IS7 — 23d Illinois Infantry. .190— 24th Illinois Infantry.. 
195 — 371I1 Illinois Infantry. . 199 — 3gth Illinois Infantry.. 
203 — 42d Illinois Infantry. .208 — 51st Illinois Infantry. . 
213 — 57th Illinois Infantry.. 21S— 58th Illinois Infantry.. 
221 — 65th Illinois Infantry__225— Three-months Regiments 
of 1S62 227 — 72d Illinois Infantry- -227 — 82d Illinois In- 
fantry. .231 — 88th Illinois Infantry. .235 — 89th Illinois In- 
fantry -.244— 90th Illinois Infantry.. 24g — 113th Illinois 
Infantry--252— 127th Illinois Infantry_.257 — One Hundred- 
Day Regiments of 1864.-258 — Sturges Rifles..258 — Cav- 
alry Regiments. .258 — 8th Illinois Cavalry. .259 — 9th Illi- 
nois Cavalry. -261 — 12th Illinois Cavalry. .263 — 13th Illinois 
Cavalrv-.265 — 16th Illinois Cavalry. .267 — 17th Illinois 
Cavalry- .268 — Artillery : Old Batterv "A," Chicago Light 
Artillery. -269 — Old Battery "B," Chicago Light Artillery.. 
271 — Battery "B," 1st Illinois Light Artillery. .274 — Co. 
"I," 1st Illinois Artillery- . 275 — Colvin's Battery--276 — 
Co. "L," 2d Illinois Light Arti!lery_-276 — Co. " M," 2d 
Illinois Light Artillery- -277 — Chicago Board-of-Trade Bat- 
tery. .278 — Chicago Mercantile Battery.. 282 169-287 

Tabular Record of Chicago Officers 2SS-2gg 

Camp D0UGLAS--300 — The Chicago Conspiracy. .307. ..300-310 

Soldiers' Homes: Chicago_-3io — Cairo.-3i3 3 IO_ 3i4 

Relief Work in Chicago: The First Nurses-_3i4 — Inception 
and Organization of Chicago Sanitary Commission. .314-31 5 

— Active Work of the Commission.. 315 — Early Difficulties 
-.315 — Field Work. -316 — Depot at Paducah.. 316 — Con- 
tributions to the Work- -31 7 — Labors of Nurses_-3I7 — The 
Woman's Council. .318 — Work in the Front. .318 — First 
Chicago Sanitarv Fair. .320 — Change in Officers. .321 — Sec- 
ond Sanitary Fair. .322 — Last Work of the Commission- .323 

— Northwestern Branch of Christian Commission. -323 — 
Camp Douglas Aid Society. .324— Ladies' Relief Society.. 

324 — Ladies' Loyal League.-324 - 3M~324 

THE BOARD OF TRADE. 
Introductory. -325— The Year iSjS-jg : Inspection of Wheat.. 

325 — Telegraphic reports. .325 — First Stock Transactions. . 
325 — Reciprocity Treaty. . 326 — Charter of Board.. 326 — 
The Year iSjQ-60 : Repair of the North Pier.. 333 — New 
Rooms occupied- -333— The Year iSbo-bi : Sustentation of 
Reciprocity Treaty- -336 — The Year 1861-62 : The War Pe- 
riod-. 336— The Board-of-Trade flag.. 336 — War Finances 
..336 — Depreciation of Securities.. 337 — News of First Vic- 
tory.. 337 — Reproving Southern Sympathizers. -33S — 7 he 

Year 1862-63 : Grain Inspection. .342 — Alleged Warehouse 
frauds. -343 — Further War Annals. . 343 — Oath of Allegi- 
ance.-343 — Raising of Troops. .345 — Still-hunt for Trai- 
tors. .346 — Arrival of the " Sleipner "-.347 — Miscellaneous 
War \York-_347 — The Mercantile Association.. 34S — Cur- 
rencv reforms. .34S — The Ship CanaL-349 — The Year 1863- 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



bi: The War record -.351 — Recruiting Agency.-35i — The 
Chamber of Commerce- - 35 2 — /'tie )'e,ir 1864-65 : Currency 
s ion.-354 — Close of the War Period-. 355 — The Year 
/SPi-00 : The Chamber of Commerce. .357 — The Year 1866- 
V Law against Short selling--359 — The Year 1S67-6S : 
The Warehouse Bill.. 360 — Convention. .361 — The Year/868- 
60 .• Soldiers' Monument- -362 — The Year 1869-70 : Cornerin 
Corn. -365 — The Elevator difficulty. -366 — The Year iSyo- 
7/. .366 — The Year 187 t-J2 : National Board of Trade- -367 

— The Warehouse Law. .367 — The Munn & Scott difficul- 
ties -367— The Kire.-36S — List of Officers, etc., 1858 to 

-- -369 325-373 

ELEVATORS: Destroyed and Remaining in 1S7I--373 — Estab- 
lished. 1856 to [872.-374-376 — Cram Warehousing- .376 — 

Warehouse Law.. 377 — Grain-weighing- -378 373-379 

Pork-Packing: The first summer packing .379 

Board of Trade Statistics 379-382 

FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS. 

Military Division of the Missouri : Its Organization and 

Change of territory 383 

JUDICIARY : Change of Districts -3S4 

SECRET Service : Chicago Branch -3S4 

CUSTOM House: History of__3S5 — Collectors and Deputies. _ 
385-86 — Statistics- -385-S7 — The Appraiser's Office. -3S7 — 

Special Agents of the Treasury. -3S7 _ 3S5— 387 

The Internal Revenue Department: Collectors, Assesssors 

and Statistics 3S7-3S8 

The Pension Agency ..388 

The United States Sub-Treasury : Receiving and disbursing 

officers _ --.388-389 

The Post-office: Sketch of, 1857101873.-389 — Postmasters 
--3S9-90 — Locations of office. .389-90 — Chicago as a distri- 
buting center.. 3S9 — Burning of. .3S9 — The letter-carrier sys- 
tem. -3S9-90 — Statistics- .390 — Routes. .390-91 - . -3S9-391 
Harbor Improvements: North Pier.-3gi-92 — Light-house. . 
391-92 — Federal appropriations. .392 — U. S. Engineers in 
charge, 1S33 to 1874.-391-92 — Light-house Keepers, 1833 to 

I--I--39 2 -- --- 39 r -392 

Life-Saving Service: Sketch of _ 392 

UNITED States Marine Hospital: History of 392-394 

Diplomatic Relations: History of Consulates at Chicago, 1864 

toiSS5--394 — Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and Consular Agents 

-394-95 394-39° 

RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

Catholic Church: Diocesan History, iSjj to /<?7/_ -397-98 — Rt. 
Rev. James Duggan.-397-gS — Rt. Rev. Thomas Foley--3g8 

— Society of Jesus -.397 — Franciscan Order.. 397 — Redemp- 
torist Fathers.-397 — Benedictine Fathers__3g7 — Ladies of 
the Sacred Heart- 397 397-398 

Churches, Sketches of: St. Mary's.-3g8 — St. Louis'.-399 — Notre 
Dame.. 400 — St. Patrick's. .400 — St. PeterV-400 — St. 
James' -400 — Holy Family.. 401 — Holy Name 404 — St. 
Michael's. -405 — St. John's. .405 — Immaculate Conception 
..406 — St. Joseph's. -406 — 'St. Boniface- .406 — St. Paul's 
..406 — St. Francis Xavier's Academy. .407 398-407 

Protestant Episcopal Church : Diocesan History, 1852 to 1874 
-407-8 — Rt. Rev. II. J. Whitehouse. .407-9 407-409 

Churches, Sketches of: Atonement, Church of the. .408 — St. 
James. .409 — Grace.-4lo — St. John's. .411 — Holy Com- 
munion. .411 — Ascension- -411 — Christ. .412 — Trinity. .41 5 

— St. Stephen's- .416 — St. Mark's. -416 408-416 

I ; i.RiAN CHURCH: First. 416 — Second. .417 — Third. - 

41- — South. .419 — Central. 420 — North.. 420 — First 
•<h.-42o — Calvary. .421 — Associate Reform. .421 — First 
United -421 — Edwards. .422 — Seventh.-422 — Westminis- 
ter. .422 — F:ighth..422 — Fifth. -422 — Thirty-first Street. . 

422 416-422 

METHODIS1 CHURCH: First --423 — Trinity.-424 — Clark-street 
M ission .424 — Grace . . 424 — Park-avenue . . 426 — Wabash- 
avenue. .426 — Haisted-street .426 — Ada-street- .426 — West- 
ern-avenue. .426 — Indiana-avenue 427 — Langley-avenue. . 
427 — Oakland. 427 — Portland-Avenue German 428 — 
Tyng Mission. .428 423-428 

Congregational Church : First .428 — New England 429 — 

Plymouth 429 — South.. 430 — Edwards 431 — Union Park 

.431 — Tabernacle -.43 1 — Bethany. 431 428-431 

Oil' \<,', I HEOLOGICAL Seminary: Condensed history of. .432 — 
Proposed union with Oberlin College.. 432 — The Seminary's 

funds. .432 — Endowments- .432 432-433 

Baptisi Church: first 434 — North Star Mission. .435 — Sec- 
ond-. 435 — I diversity Place .436 — Wabash-avenue. .436 — 

Hen Will 438 414-438 

■•> Baiii 1 Theological Seminary 138 \y> 



Unitarian Church : First. -439 — Unity.. 439 439-440 

UNIVERSALIS'!' CHURCH : First--440 — Second. .441 140-442 

Evangelical Churches: F'irst German Emanuel. -442 — Second 
..442 — German United Zion's Church.. 442 — Third German 
Salem's Church._442 — Fourth German St. Peter's Church- - 
443 — Salem's Church of the Evangelical Association. .443 — 
St. Ansgarius'. -443 — Our Savior's Norwegian Lutheran 
Church: Knud Iverson's drowning. .444 — Railroad Chapel. . 
445— The Bethel.. 445 142-445 

Chicago Bible Society : History 1S58-71..445 — General work 
and Statistics. .446 _ 445-446 

Jewish Congregations: Early Congregations. .446 — Kehilath- 
Anshe Maarab._446 — Sinai Congregation. .446 446-447 

Miscellaneous: Western Hebrew Christian Brotherhood. .447 — 
The Brethren of the United Faith__447 — The International 

Church- - 447 — The Spiritualists. -44S 147-448 

CHICAGO CEMETERIES. 

Introduction- .448 — RosehilL -449 — Graceland. .449 — Oakwoods 
. -449 — Forest Home. .449 — Waldheim.-450 — Wonder. .450 

— St. Boniface- .450 — Calvary. .450 — Hebrew. 450 — Kehi- 
lath Anshe Maarev.-446 446; 448-450 

THE BENCH AND BAR. 
Introduction _ .-- 451 

United States Courts: Circuit. -451 — District.. 452 — Location 

-.453 — Officers. -453 451-453 

State Courts : Circuit.-454 — Superior.-456 — Recorder's- -457 

— County- -458 454-45S 

Miscellanea: Lincoln's last case.-458 — Rock Island Bridge 

case. .458 — First decision of the legal-tender question. 45S 

— Government licenses-_45g — The Stamp Act.-45g — The 
City Cemetery case_-45g — Bar dinner.. 459 — Application of 
Statutes _- 459 — Case extraordinary .. 459 45S-460 

Chicago Law Institute. 4 fj ° 

Union College of Law 460-461 

State's Attorneys 461 

The Bar: Sketches of prominent lawyers 461-483 

THE LITERATURE OF CHICAGO. 

Introductory: Publishers-. 483, 485, 4S6 — Authors--4S4 — 
Printers, book-binders, etc.--485-4go — Statistics of Trade 
--49° --■ - 483-49° 

History of the Press : Leading newspapers in 185S--490 — 
Evening Journal.. 4gi — Tribune.. 4g2 — Times. .495 — Re- 
publican. .497 — Illinois Staats-Zeitung. -499 490-500 

Western Associated Press: Organization of 500 

Western News Company... 500 

hotel history. 
Prominent Hotels: Tremont.-5oi — Sherman--502 — Clifton 
503 — Matteson.-504 — Massasoit._505 — Cleveland- .505 — 
Revere.-505 — Hatch's.-505 — Barnes__505 — Metropolitan 
..506 — Richmond. .506 — Orient- .506 — Hamilton -.506 — 
Boardman.-5o6 — City. .506 — Briggs. .507 — Bigelow.-507 
Wright's- - 508 — Burlington . . 508 — Central. . 508 — Anderson 
..508 — St. James.-5o8 — Minor hotels, 1860-71-.508 — 
Michigan-Avenue Hotel. .508 — Palmer--5og — Grand Pacific 

--5°9 ■ 5°i-5°9 

Restaurants 509, 510 

SOCIAL PROGRESS. 

Introductory 510 

Societies: Young Men's Christian Association. .511 — Farwell 
Hall. .511 — Young Men's Association. .513 — Historical So- 
ciety.-5i3 — Academy of Sciences.. 514 — Astronomical So- 
ciety. -515 — Old Settlers' Society- -5 17 — First Golden Wed- 
ding. .517 510-52° 

MEDICAL HISTORY. 

Prefatory 521 

Colleges: Rush Medical ; Faculty, students and graduates, 1S44 
to 187I-- 521-22 — Chicago ; Faculty, students and graduates, 
1859 to 1 87 1 . -531-32 — Academy of Medical Science._538 — ■ 

College of Pharmacy- 53S 521-^32; 538 

HOSPITALS, ETC.: Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary- -535 — City 
..535=— Cook County.-536 — Small-pox. -536 — St. Joseph's 
. .536 — Mercy. .537 — Jewish.. 537 — Alexian Brothers'- .537 
— St. Luke's.. 538 — Brainard Free Dispensary. .539 — Pro- 
testant Deaconess' -539 — Hospital for Women and Children 

--547 535-539 1 547 

Chicago Medical Society 53S 

Medical Relief 539-540 

HOMEOPATHY: Resume of its history in Chicago .540 — Hahne- 
mann College ; Faculty, students and graduates, i860 to 1872 
. 541 — Homeopathic Medical Society 545 Homeopathic 
Dispensaries ?J5 ' 54°-545 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



7 



Dentistry: Dental Society -. 545-546 

Women as Physicians : Dispensary for Women and Children.. 

546 — Hospital for Women and Children.. 547. 546-548 

Eclectic Medicine: Bennett Medical College 548-549 

Electro-Medical School 549 

Sanitary History : Unsanitary condition of the city from 1858 
to i860. .549 — Police Board created.-549 — Health officer 
appointed- -549 — The Small-pox epidemic. .549 — Systematic 
scavengering provided, and steps taken to clean the river and 
city. .550 — Chicago Medical Society names a consulting board 
of physicians- .550 — Cholera epidemic of 1866. .550 — Sta- 
tistics.-55l-52 — Board of Health re-created- -552 — Drain- 
age and Sewerage- 553 — Statistics.-553 — Cleaning the 
River.. 553-54 — Vital Statistics, 1867 to 1871-.554 — Mor- 
tality Statistics, 1843 to 1871.-555 — Boards of Health, 1834 
to 1871-- 555-56 549-556 

ART AND ARCHITECTURE. 

Art: First Art Exposition.-556 — Art Union-. 557 — Academy 
of Design.. 557 — Crosby Opera House Drawing.-558 — Art 
Journal. -559 _. 556-562 

Architecture: Resume for 1858-71--562 — Notable ante-fire 
buildings- .563 _ .562-567 

REAL ESTATE INTERESTS. 

Real Estate Investments: Past and current considered- .567 

— Early real-estate dealers, 1854 to 1871.-568 — Resume of 
real-estate values, 1858 to 1871 ; Statistics. .571-73 — South 
Branch Dock Company-. 582 567-586 

The Abstract Business : The " Chicago System " and its expo- 
nents 5S6-5S9 

MUSIC AND DRAMA. 

Music : Opera in Chicago, until 1871.-590 — Musical Societies.. 
591 — Composers and Musicians.. 591 — Musical Instrument 
Manufacturers.. 595 _ 590-596 

The Drama: Rice's Theater.-5g6 — McVicker's Theater-_5g7 

— Crosby's Opera House. -601 — Wood's Museum-.6o7 — 
Kingsbury Hall-_6og — Bryan Hall. -609 — Hooley's Thea- 
ter- -609 — North's Amphitheater- -610 — Varieties. -611 — 
Aiken's Theater. -611 — Dearborn Theater. -61 1 — Smith & 
Nixon's Hall-.6ii — Metropolitan Hall. .611 — Academy of 
Music. -612 — ■ Staats and Globe Theaters- -612 596-612 

Bill Posting _ 612-613 

athletic amusements. 
Chronological History, 1S36 to 1S71 .613-616 

BANKING HISTORY. 

Resume of History, prior to 1858. .616 — Wisconsin Marine and 
Fire Insurance Company.-6i6 — Panic of 1857 • > ts effect on 
Illinois Banks .618 — " Wild-cat "and " Stump-tail " currency 
..618 — Appreciated cost of Eastern exchange in 1857-58.. 
6iS.... . 616-618 

General History for 1858-71 : Bank-bills discredited.. 619 — 
Southern securities and currency depreciated- -619, 622, 623 — - 
Currency values fixed by circulation -securities. -619 — The 
Democrat scores the "wild-cat'' and "stump-tail" bankers. -619 
-21 — Board of Trade reproves The Democrat- -620 — Marine 
Bank difficulties. -620 — Chicago Marine and Fire Insurance 
Company. .620 — Exhibit of Southern and Northern securities 
and specie owned by Illinois banks. -62 1 — Solvent and sus. 
pended banks in November, 1862. .621 — List of failed banks 
(93) and value of bills.. 621 — Bank Commissioners call on 
certain banks to increase their securities.. 622 — Notes thrown 
out. -623 — State Banking Law of 1861..623 — Chicago re- 
demption agents. -623 — Circulation of Illinois banks existing 
at end of 1861.-623 — Union State Bank Act of 1862.-623 — 
Eastern currency takes the place of Illinois bills. -624 — Na- 
tional Bank Act of March 25, 1863. -624 — United States 
treasury notes and National Bank bills the currency standard .. 
624 — Board of Trade manifesto in favor of "legal tender" 
notes..624 — Banking failures during fall of 1864.-625 — Na- 
tional Banks organized in Chicago__625 __ .. 619-625 

Banks, Banking Institutions and Bankers: Sketches of. -626- 
633 — Banking statistics, 1 865. -632 — Chicago Clearing House 
organized- -632 — Chicago Building and Loan Association. - 
632 — Banking Statistics, 1S69, 1S70--632-633 — Banking in- 
stitutions and Bankers, 1852-71. .633 626-633 

INSURANCE. 

Prefatory: First foreign company's agency. -635 — First local 

company chartered.. 635 — First insurance agent .. 635 — 

Agents, 1S36 to 1S71--635, 636, 637, 639, 642, 643, 645, 650 — 

Chicago companies- -635, 636, 637, 638, 640, 641, 644, 646, 



647, 648, 649, 650 — -Foreign companies, 1836 to 1850. 635 
637 — First table of rates. .639 — Number of agents and of 
companies, 18.54 to 1871.-639 — Boards of Underwriters.. 639, 
642, 643, 650 — Table of short-time rates. -640 — First salvage 
corps.-640 — Board of Underwriters incorporated.. 644 — In- 
surance law of 1849 648 — Chicago companies in 1871..650 

— Foreign companies in 1S71..651 — First "great fire ' loss 
paid--653 — "Great fire" statistics. -653-54 635-654 

MASONIC HISTORY. 
INTRODUCTORY--654 — Lodges, local history 654-59 — Chapters, 
local history. -660-62 — Illinois Grand Chapter organized 660 

— Councils, local history. -662 — Knights Templar, local his- 
tory..662-64 — Illinois Grand Commandery._662 — Grand 
Encampment of the United States. 662, 663 — Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite, local history. -664 — Rite of Memphis, 
local history- .666 654-666 

Relief Measures after "great fire" 658,660, 664 

Adoptive Masonry, Local history of 666 

ODD FELLOWS. 

Grand Lodge of the United States meets in Chicago 666 

Lodges: Local history of 666 

Encampments: Local history of 666 

Order of Rebekah in 1871 _ .667 

Relief Measures after "great fire " 667 

BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 

Knights of Pythias: Local Lodges__667 — Relief measures 

after "great fire ".-667 667 

Sons of Malta : Grand and Local Lodges 667 

Red Men : Local Tribes _ -667-66S 

Good Templars : Local Lodges _ .668 

Temples of Honor : Local Temples 668 

Sons of Temperance : Local Divisions .._ 668 

American Protestant Association : Local Lodges 668 

Harugari: Local Lodges - ... 668 

Strong Band (Patriotic association) : Headquarters and State 

Officers, and Local Encampment .- 668 

United Americans : Local Chapters. 668 

Good Fellows : Local Lodges 66S 

Druids : Local Groves (alias Heins) 668 

Chaldeans: Local Lodges 668 

Sons of Hermann : Local Lodges _-_668 

Labor Societies in 1871 ._ 668 

Chicago Mutual Improvement Association 668 

Early-Closing Association 668 

German Societies, 1854 to 1871 669 

Sundry Societies .. 669 

St. George's Benevolent Association .669 

Illinois St. Andrew's Society 669 

St. Patrick's Society... 669 

German Society ..669 

B'nai B'rith 670 

Chicago Relief and Aid Society -.670 

Chicago Home for the Friendless 671 

Old Ladies' Home 671 

Chicago Nursery and Half-Orphan Asylum 672 

trade and manufactures. 

The Coal Supply : Introductory. -673 — Statistics, 1852 to 1871 

--673 ■'--- - 673-674 

The Iron Industry: Resume, 1857 to 18S0. .674 — Manufacturing 
Statistics, 1860.-674 — First Rolling-Mill__674 — First steel 
rail rolled.-674 — North Chicago Rolling-Mill. -674 — Union 
Steel Works. -677 — Foundries: The first erected. -677 — 
Statistics.. 67S — First boiler-maker. -67S — First stove 
foundry..679 — Statistics. -6S1 — First wholesale hardware 
house 682 — Chicago Iron Manufacturing Statistics for 1870 
-.684 — The McCormick Reaping Machine.. 6S4-85. . 674-6S5 
The Lumber Interest: Apology. -6S9 — Early transactions.. 689 
First lumber merchant. .689 — First cargo of lumber. .689 — 
First lumber raft..6Sq — Early saw-mills. .689 — Early deal- 
ers.. 6S9-92 — Statistics. .692-93 6Sg-6g3 

Dry Goods Merchants -694-696 

Boots and Shoes .696-698 

Sundry Industries _ 698-700 

BURNING OF CHICAGO. 
Introductory': Cause of the fire.-7oi — Locale._7oi, 707 — 
Water and Gas supply. .701 — Fire Department apparatus. - 
702 — Police Force.. 702 — Science of the fire. .702 — Rain- 
fall- .703 — Architectural and other defects. .703 — Fire-limits 
1S71.-703 — Fires of previous week.-704 — October 7 fire. . 
704-7 - 70I-JO7 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



The Great CONFLAGRATION : The starting; point. -707 — Investi- 
gation ; Testimony of Mrs. O'I.eary and others.-7o8-7i3 — 
Origin and outbreak. .70S-11, 713-16 — Fire Department 
action- -71 1-13 — Progress of fire -.7 17-20 — Crosses to South 
Side. .719-20 — Expansion of the lire. . 720 — Burning; of Post- 
office and Custom-house -.72 1 -24 — Burning of Court House.. 
724 — Spreading of the fire. .725 — Varied scenes on the South 
Side 728-30, 731—38 — The fire as seen from the South.-73i 

— The West Side during the fire.-730-3I — Stoppage of the 
fire on South Side.-73S-4o — The fire reaches the North Side, 
its Progress there__740-54 — Scenes and Incidents.-754-5g 

— Incendiarism- .757-5? — Oases of Unburned Buildings. - 
759 — First book about the fire.. 759 — Temporary Water sup- 
ply-759 — Gas Supply -.760 — Boundaries of the Burned Dis- 
trict -.760 — Area of the Burned District- .760 — Losses by the 
fire. .760-61 — Immediate Relief Measures. .761-72 — Official 
action.-773-So-. 707-780 

Narratives: Of Henrv H. Xash.. 721-23 — Of Alonzo Hannis.. 
723, 757 — Of Mrs. Alfred Hebard.. 727-28 — Of H. W. S. 
Cleveland._73l-32 — Of Hon. William Bross._732-34 — Of 
Horace White. .734-35 — Of Hon. Alexander Frear.. 735-37 

— Of Hon. Thomas Hoyne. -737-3S — Of Hon. Lambert Tree 
-.742-45 — Of Arthur M. Kinzie. .745-46 — Of George Pay- 



son.-746 — Of Hon. Isaac N. Arnold. .748-49 — Of Patrick 
\Vebb.-749 — Of Mrs. Mary Fales.. 750 — Of George M. Hig- 

ginson.. 750-54 — Of C. C. P. Holden.. 761-72 721-772 

C. C. P. Holden s Narrative : Introductory. . 761-62 — Establishment 
of Relief Headquarters. .762 — Police measures. .763 — Ad- 
ditional measures taken. .763 — Water Supply._763 — Other 
important measures. .764 — Arrival of the Mayor. .764 — 
Relief Committee organized. .764 — Specific organization in- 
stituted -.764 — Arrival of supplies. .765 — Alleviation of suf- 
fering. .765 — Tuesday morning__765 — Indianapolis assist- 
ance._765 — St. Louis sympathy. .765 — Other arrivals.. 765 

— Action of delegations. .766 — Further organizations at the 
Church 766 — General Relief work. .766 — Money contribu- 
tions.-767 — Exodus from the City 767 — More help prom- 
ised.. 767 — Scenes among the sufferers.. 767 — Work done by 
the Committee. -76S — Organization by the Churches. .768 — 
Committees continue to arrive.. 768 — More thorough systemi- 
zation of the Committee. -76S — The New York train.-768 — 
Thursday's work 769 — Work transferred to Relief and Aid 
Society. .769 — Cincinnati's action for our sufferers. -7 70 — 
What St. Louis did. .770 — Louisville's Committee. .771 — 
Resume of work. .771 — The Water Supply resumed. .771 

— Unrecorded gifts.. 771 761—773 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Aarhaus, Lewis K 65S 

Abbey, Frederick J 189,200, 290 

Abbott, Abial R. 47& 

Abbott. Charles II. 49, 643 

Abbott, James E 49 

Abbott, "James L 55b 

Abbott, Wade 476 

Abel, Jonathan - 3(14 

Abel, Sidney - 39° 

Abrahams, Frederick... 290 

Ackerman, William lv... 12S, 132, 657 

AckhofT, Henry 50 

Ackley, J. B. - 641 

Ackley (John P.) & Co 643 

Adair, William K.. 295 

Adam, A. B 696 

Adams, Abbott L 279, 2S2, 299 

Adams, A. W 158 

Adams, Benjamin --333. 3&9, 37° 

Adams, B. & Co 333, 334 

Adams, Benjamin F. 103, 439 

Adams, Cyrus 507 

Adams, Cyrus H _ 363 

Adams, F. Granger..l63, 626, 631, 632, 633 

Adams, Francis --49, 54 

Adams, George E. — 470 

Adams, Gustavus P 334, 625 

Adams, Uev. Henry — _. 412 

Adams, Henry W 257, 295 

Adams, Hugh L 352, 363, 370, 371 

Adams, James 333, 334 

Adams, James F 633 

Adams, J. McGregor — 670 

Adams, John.. - . 660 

Adams, John M .. ._ 657 

Adams, Joseph _ 6S9 

Adams, Robert - --I91, 2S9 

Adams, Robert D 218, 291 

Adams, T. W 658 

Addison, Robert A _ 657 

Addy, Edward 655 

Adler, Alexander ._ 116 

Adler, Dankmar _ 566 

Adler, Rev. I.iebman 116, 446 

Adolphus, Philip.-. 553 

Adsit, Charles C 634 

Adsit, James M 512, 625, 632, 633, 634 

Adsit, J. M. Jr... 634 

Affeld Brothers... 650 

Agnew, Francis 94, 95 

Ahearn, G. E 666 

Aiken, Edmund .345,515,625, 62S 

Aiken, Frank E 609, 611 

Aiken, Gerritt V. S 1S9 

Aiken, S. Norton. 633 

Ainsworth, I.. II 506 

Akin, Andrew 164 

Albaugh, William 54s 

Albee, C. P 656 

Albert, Ed 649 

Albrecht, Rev. Philip __ 406 

Aldrich, B. F 408 

Aldrich, Clarence. 264, 297 

Aldrich J. H _ 641 

Aldrich, William 661 

Aleckner, David _ 49 

Alexander, L. E 511, 633 

Allan, Mrs. R. I 59S 

Allen David R 612 

Allen, H. C _ 541 

Allen, James P 690-691, 693 

Allen (J. P.)& Co 690 

Allen, R. J.. 59S 

Allen, Stewart S 2S9 

Allen, William T 646 



Allerton, Samuel W 341, 342, 628, 704 

Allen, J. Adams 522, 524, 537, 539 

Allison, Alexander... 489 

Allison, Gardner 22S, 292 

Allport, W. W 545 

Almini, P. M -657, 661 

Alston, John 49 

Alstrup, J. F. 774. 775 

Amberg, Adam 634 

Ambrose, Rev. J. E 517 

Ambrose G. H_. 692 

Amerman, George K 535, 536, 53S 

A met Charles L. 263, 297 

Amick, Hiram 91, 95 

Amick, Pleasant 763 

Amick, Mrs. Pleasant 766 

Anderson, Miss Ann 536 

Anderson, Charles .' 709 

Anderson, C. K 612, 691 

Anderson, Edward 199, 201, 290, 421 

Anderson, Rev. Galusha 460 

Anderson, George 164, 669 

Anderson, Isaac 459 

Anderson, John 4S9, 661 

Anderson, Patrick -370, 665 

Anderson, Thomas W._ 661 

Anderson, W. D. S --. 93 

Andrews, Mrs. C. W 312, 313 

Andrews, Edmund, 29S, 514, 515, 522, 526, 

53i> 532, 539. 549, 550, 733- 

Andrews, James — 555. 691 

Andrews, Joseph H. 5S2 

Andrews (P. B.) & Co 678, 679 

Andrews, R. H 666 

Andrews, Wesley P 20S 

Anthony, Elliott 49, 159, 471, 552 

Anton Philip L 282 

Antrobus, John. 557 

Appell, Fred. 65S 

Arbuckle, William 164 

Archer, George A 609 

Arion, C. P. J 632 

Armour, George, 163, 346, 349, 369, 370, 374, 

375, 445, 511, 617, 626, 641, 644. 

Armour, Dole & Co 341, 373, 375, 624 

Armour, Philip D 331 

Armstrong, Charles M 341 

Armstrong, E. R. T 159 

Armstrong, George Buchanan. 390, 391, 559 

Armstrong, John M 19, 554 

Armstrong, Thomas II 514 

Armstrong, W. W 661 

Arnold, Rev A. N 43S 

Arnold, Arthur 748 

Arnold, David 221 

Arnold, Isaac N. 159, 160, 163, 193, 315, 458, 

4S4, 495, 513, 514, 626, 627, 670, 735, 

74S. 

Arrington, Alfred W 462, 465 

Arrington, Alfred W., Mrs 323 

Arthur, William R ...163, 352 

Artingstall, Samuel George 62 

Asay, Edward G 470, 495 

Ash, Isaac N 371 

Ashley, Augustus G . 364 

Atchison W. D 54S 

Atkins, Arthur Rollin Heber..655, 660, 663 

Atkinson, Edward M 295 

Atkinson, Manning F 200 

At water, J 116 

Atwater, Merritt A 213, 291 

Atwater, Samuel T. 340, 369, 370, 625, 639, 

642, 643, 644. 645, 646. 

Atwood L. L 506 

Augenstine, Rev. C 442 

9 



Page 

Augustine, Henry 218 

Austin, Henry A -. 664 

Austin, Henry Seymour 473 

Austin J. 15 .. 657 

Austrian, Joseph __ ..81, 82 

Averell, Albert J -449, 575. 57b, 752 

Avery, Charles E - 689 

Avery, D. J 659 

Avery T. M. 104, 369, 429, 511, 554, 646, 
670, 763. 

Avery, William 677 

Avery, William H 678 

Ayer, Benjamin Franklin 132 

Ayer, John V 352 

Aykroyd, George M 655 

Ayres, Enos. 577 

Avres, Marshall 629, 644 

Babbitt, John W 221 

Babcock, Charles Ferdinand 113 

Babcock, Franklin .. 650 

Babcock, Miss Jane A 314 

Babcock, Miss Mary E _ 314 

Babcock W. S 692 

Babst, Frederick 293 

Bachelor, Merritt P 228 

Bachmann, C 666 

Bacon, Ebenezer 163, 170, 228, 2S8, 292 

Bacon, Moses S 368, 370, 371, 631 

Badger, Alpheus C 625, 632, 633 

Baedeker, Adolphus 660 

Baerlin, Louis 394 

Bagley, Charles 193 

Bailev, Bennett 517 

Bailey, F. H 56 

Bailey. John C. W ..668, 669 

Bailey, Jonathan B 370 

Bailey, Jonathan N. 327, 390 

Bailey, Joseph 327 

Bailey, Michael B 50 

Bailey R -. 698 

Bailhache, Preston H 180. 181 

Baine, Alexander 116, 511 

Baird, Azariah M 253, 254, 294 

Baird, Lvman 574, 640 

Baker, C. H 650 

Baker (George) & Co.. 645 

Baker, Hiram _ 568 

Baker, Rev. Samuel 436 

Baker, Theodore E 279 

Baker, William. 512 

Baker, William D ._ 489 

Baker, William T 370, 661 

Balatka, Hans.. 591, 593, 609 

Balck, Otto 234, 293 

Balding, Thomas E 350 

Baldwin, C. W. 505 

Baldwin Herbert L 692 

Baldwin, John -691, 692 

Baldwin, John A 162, iSg, 506 

Baldwin, Silas D 165, 21S, 219, 221, 291 

Ball, George C 364 

Ball, James M 363 

Ball, Mrs. R. S 313 

Ballantyne, James F 104, 497 

Ballard^ Ad'dison 374 

Ballard, Dr. E. A 541 

Ballard, Joshua S 235,237. 293, 351 

Ballingall, Patrick 54, 669 

Balshan, W. H 658 

Baltzwell, W. II. 535 

Bangs, Edward W 364 

Bangs, George H._ 8S 

Bangs, George S 391 

Bangs, J. S 164 

Bangs, Lester G 187 



SPECIA1 INDEX. 



Page 

Banker Brothers t v Greene - 650 

Rannard, Lyman & Co • 634 

Banta, J. \V. 74 

Banyon, Augustus H 77'' 

Baragwanath, William 1 1. 669 

Barber, Edwin L 242, 293 

Barber, Jabez 6S9, 690, 691 

Barclay, Daniel 662 

Barclay, Joseph C - t8g 

Barker, Mrs. Alice 116 

Barker, Charles \V 161, 164, 265, 667 

Barker, John Clarke 481 

Joseph N... . 104 

Barlow, J. \V 392 

Barnard, Paniel E 236,242, 294 

Barnard, Gilbert Wordsworth 655, 660, 663 

664, 666. 

Barnes, David M... 505 

Barnes, Gilbert L 20S 

Barnes, Henry 22S, 292 

Barnes. J. S 657 

Barnes. Royal B - 505 

Barnet, Alexander 421, 657, 65S 

Barnet, George _ 617 

Barnett, James . 421 

Barnev, Albert M 3S7 

Barney, Mrs. W. J ---323, 533 

Barr, Joseph W 2S6, 299 

Barrell, James 375 

Barrell, Joshua 503, 509 

Barrett, Jared , 555 

Barrett, John P. 91, 93, 95 

Barrett, Oscar W 127, 642, 643, 647, 650 

Barrett, Samuel E...271, 272, 273, 274, 2gS 

Barrett. Stephen 49, 50 

Barrett, Rev. Stephen M. A... 400 

Barron, William T 159, 45S 

Barrows, Rev. John H 416 

Barry, Rev. A. Constantine 441 

Barry, Garrett 116 

Barry, George 295 

Barry, Joseph H 295 

Barry, Thomas 94, 95, 96, 100 

Barry, Wallace 657 

Barry, Rev. William 513, 514, 535, 550 

Barry. William E 252, 294 

Barstow, Gardner S 655, 661 

Bartlett, A. C. 6S3 

Bartlett, J A 666 

Bartlett, John 547 

Bartlett, M. B 627 

Bartlett, N. Gray 539 

Bartlett, Rev. Samuel C..429. 431, 432, 433 

Bartlett, Rev. William Alvin -430, 431 

Barton, Rev. John O. 40S, 411 

Bascom, Rev. Flavel _ 690 

..'>, A. D - 666 

Bass, 1'erkins 103 

Bassett, E. J 636 

' ieorge . 517 

Bassett Henry D 696, 697 

Batchelor, Merritt P 189, 292 

Bateham, William B. 50, 655, 656, 710, 717, 

71-. 7*3, 7 f <4. 766, 767, 771. 

\ J 44S 

Bates, Eli 309i370,439, ' 

George C 611 

L. . 650 

J. P. 'fi- 
liates, William S 041 

W. W 666 

all, Frank H 295 

Batter man, William 50 

Vugust 

Bauer, George '. 234, 293 

Bauer, Herman ... 

Bauer, Julius 59;, 737 

Bauer, Julius, Jr 

Bauer, Richard 595 

Bauer, William 595 

Baogb, Rev. J. M _•_._ (22 

Raumann. Edward. 

Bauraann. Frederick I 

123, 424 
Baumer, Gustav II.. 



Page 

Bausenbach, Charles G. -- - 267 

Baxter. Albert F 27S, 299, 345 

Baxter, Dr. A. T. - --- 765 

Baxter, Daniel F 340, 342 

Baxter, Henry J _ 27S, 345 

Baxter, Morris A 661 

Baxter, William G 49S 

Bay. Mrs. Clara 536 

Bay. (ieorge B 536 

Bavley, William E 296 

Bayliss, Rev. J. H 424, 426 

Bean, Edwin 656 

Beardsley, I.. S _ 632 

Beary, John F 34S, 365, 369, 538 

Beatty, Thomas M 1S7, 288 

Beaubien, Alexander 517 

Beaubien, Mrs. A. M. 314, 320 

Beaubien, Jean Baptiste 327, 570 

Beaubien, Madore. 327 

Beaubien, Mark 327,392, 574 

Beaufort, Francis 26S, 298 

Beaumont, C. E. 170 

Bechstein, Frederick 232, 293 

Becker, C. S 661 

Becker, Eliza 116 

Becker, Leopold - 196, 289 

Beckers, Oscar E 166, 272 

Beckwith, Corydon 464,465, 763 

Beckwith, J. I... 650 

Bedford, Meredith & Co 625 

Beebe, Gaylord D 540, 541 

Beebe, George T 5° 

Beebe, L. A.. 658 

Beebe, Thomas H. -325, 333, 369,632, 

641. 

Beecham, Horace King 663 

Beecher, A. D -- 562 

Beecher, Jerome 121, 330, 449, 702 

Beecher, Mrs. Jerome 311 

Beecher, M.J 661 

Beeks, James C - 572 

Beem, Martin 476 

Beers, Cyrenius 407, 408, 517. 641 

Beers, Rev. H. W 412 

Behrend, William iSg 

Beidler, J 691 

Beiersdorf, Robert 65S 

Belcke & Fisk 116 

Belden, J. S.— - 652 

Belden, Oliver W._ 6S2 

Belke, C. J "6 

Bell, Alexander 350 

Bell, B. Bradford 187 

Bell, Charles A 265, 266 

Bell, DigbyV .159, 164 

Bell, George R. I9g, 200, 290 

Bell, John B 5=9 

Bell, Joseph Warren 265,266, 297 

Bell, William W. . 267,297, 388 

Bellamy, Meeker & Co 673 

Bellinger, Richard 759 

Bellows, George L 213, 215, 291 

Belomy, Robert J 296 

Bender, George A 294, 775 

Bendixen * >l e _ _ 775 

Bendley, Ileinrich 159 

Benedict, Amzi.. 349, 626, 643 

Benedict, Mallorv & Farnham 696 

Benedict, R - 4'2 

Bengley, A - 50 

Benbam, John - 697 

Benjamin, Schuyler s — 503 

Benner, Mathias 91, 709 

Bennett, A - 4-' 

l;- nm tt, Ammi Merchant. 370, 371, 657, 65S, 

(.'.2, 663, 664. 

Henry F 276. 278, 2S1, 299 

Bi am m, Robert J.- 699 

1, William.. - 296 

Benoit, Adiion 30 2 

Bensley, George F. 33 2 

Uensley, John Russell 332, 37" 

Bei on KYancisF.- 440 

. 1 W 661 

-dam - 128 



Bentley, Cyrus 159, 31S, 321. 323, 511, 513. 

535- 6 43- 

Bentley, Orr & Warnock 691 

Bentley, Rev. Robert 426 

Berdell, Charles.. 519 

Berg, Adolph... 658 

Berry, H.C... 664 

Berger, Louis A. 50 

Bergh, Oscar Julius 293 

Berry, L. D. ... - 657 

Berteau, Felix G 116 

Berry, Joseph S 292 

Best, W. E.. 657 

Betts, Josiah T. - 555 

Belts, Nathaniel B 213 

Bevan, Thomas . 531,536,538, 547 

Beveridge, John L.-.259, 260, 268, 269, 296 

Beye, William 54 

Bice, Augustus A. _ 162, 1S9 

Bickerkike, George . 576 

Bickerdyke, Mrs. Mary, 316, 317, 318, 320, 

322. 

Bickford, C. D 628 

Bickford, Frederick B 2S2, 2gg 

Bigelow, A — - isg 

Bigelow, Daniel F.. 536, 561 

Bigelow, Edward A 372 

Bigelow, Gilbert F ---235, 2g3 

Bigelow, James L. 372 

Bigelow, John C - — 295 

Bigelow, Liberty 119 

Biggs, Charles 6;6 

Bill, W. A 6g 7 

Billings, A. M _ 702 

Bingham, Charles B 127 

Bingham, Henry W 23S, 2g4 

Bingham. R. H 661 

Bingham, Rev. S. R --. 422 

Binz, August 65S 

Binz, Francis X. 2g5 

Bird, A. T 660, 661 

Bird, H. G 612 

Bird, J. Herman 654. 655 

Bise, William R. 275 

Bishop, Albro E. 53g 

Bishop, Edward F 244, 247, 2g4 

Bishop, Rev. H.N 443 

Bishop, William 274, 288 

Bissell, Charles H - 504 

Bissell, George F 645 

Bissell, K. M 431 

Bitter, August igS, 2go 

Bixby, C. S 657 

Bixby, Edward 50 

Black, William P. 200, 201, 203 

Blackmail, Carlos H 34g 

Blackman, Chester S 34g, 350 

Blackman, E. 104 

Blackman, Orlando.. 106 

Blackman, R. J... 164 

Blackman, Willis L 349 

Blackstone, John. 327, 328 

Blackstone, Timothy B 141 

Blackwell, Robert S. - 46 1 

Blaikie, Andrew. 420 

Blaikie, Elizabeth A. Miss,3I2, 313, 320, 420 

Blain, Mrs. W. D 313 

Blair, Chauncey B. 625,630,633, 6S2 

Blair, Chauncev T 371 

Blair, Edward T 682 

Blair, Fergus M... 656,657 

Blair, John 3 2 3 

Blair, Lyman --353, 360,369,370, 682 

Blair, William, 370, 449, 630, 641, 671. 682, 

683, 684, 702. 

Blackall, A. II.. 700 

Blackall, E. S 700 

Blackburn, Martin.. 657 

Blackman Edwin 626 

Blackstone, T. B 646 

Blackwelder, I. S 652 

Blaisdell, Timothy M 273, 29S 

Blake, Charles V.. 230 

Blake E. Nelson ... n>. 371, 4i9 

Blake, Herbert M.. 244,246,249, 294 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Blake. Samuel C. 180, 204, 288, 290, 535, 536, 

53s, 547. 55°- 

Blakely, A. W 658 

Ulakelv, C. II --- 49 s 

Blakely, David 3SS, 49S 

Blakie, A 549. 55& 

Blanchard, Francis G 56S 

Blaney, Tames V. Z 449, 513, 514, 515, 522, 

523. 538, 539. 552, 655, 656, 660, 662. 

Blanke. H. K. W -.-196, 198, 2S9 

Blatchford, Eliphalet W. 315, 320, 321, 322, 

449. 5ii. 514, 515, 644. 
Blatchford, Mrs. Eliphalet W. .. .315, 322 

Blatherwick, Edward G. . - 291 

Blattner, Henry. 65S 

P.Iayney, Thomas W 650 

Winn, 'Odelia 547 

Bliss, A. II - 125 

Bliss, Philip Paul.. 594 

Bliss. Sylvesters 53S 

Bliss, -Mrs. Sylvester S 743 

Bliss, William 723 

Block, Otto \V._ 196 

Blodgett, Edward A 203, 294 

Blodgett, Henry W 452 

Blodgett, Wells H 199,200,290 

Blood, Henrv S 21S, 291 

Blood, I. W. 658 

Bloodgood, James 53S 

Bloom, A 625 

Bloom, James W.. ._ .278,345 

Bloomer, William H._ .208, 290 

Blount, Fred M 721 

Bluthardt, Theodore J 295, 533 

Boal, Charles T 235, 294, 6S0 

Boardman, Henry K. W 541, 545 

Boardman, J. W 506 

Bodman, Albert II.. 50, 499 

Boesenberg, H. H 666 

Boettiger A... 666 

Bogardus, Charles D 614 

Bogue, George Marquis __ 449. 578 

Bogue, Hamilton B 573 

Bogue, Roswell G. 180, 181, 187, 2S8, 536, 

533. 

Boise, J. R 438, 484 

Bolderwick, L. H 601 

Bolles, Matthew 644 

Bolter, Andrew 679 

Bomard, M 1 16 

Bomemanus, E _ 159 

Bond, Heman 327, 32S 

Bond, Kelsey _ 292 

Bond, Lester Legrand.-49, 5°. I0 4. 477. 7& 2 

Bond, Thomas N. 362 

Bond, Thomas S 53r 

Bonfield, John S6 

Bonfield, Joseph 104 

Bonney, Charles Carroll .471, 513, 663, 680 

Boomer, Lucius Bolles. 656 

Boomer, Lucius S. _ .. 677 

Boomer, W. H ..661 

Boone, Levi 11. 163 449, 527, 555 

Boone, Samuel S 1S9, 28S 

Boore, Harry _ 49S 

Booth, Daniel -. 505 

Booth, Mrs. Elizabeth W. 339 

Booth, Heman D 339 

Booth, Henry.. 40S, 455, 460, 461 

Booth, Louis F. _. 296 

Booth, Mary McVicker 599 

Booth, R. N. 127 

Booth, William Sidney.. 345 

Borcherdt, Albert 669 

Borden, John ._ 5S7 

Borden, J. U _ 656 

Boring, E. M. 424, 671 

Bormann, George __ 670 

Bornemann, Edward 290, 655 

Borner, William __ 656 

Boss, Daniel W 164, 667 

Botkin, Alexander -. _ 497 

Botsford, Benjamin B 1 89 

Botsford, Bennett B. . 631 

Botsford. Henrv 370 



Botsford, Jabez K., 49, 159, 321, 630, 63T, 

641, 650. 

Botslord, Mrs. Jabez K ... 311 

Botsford, John R. .270,271 

Botsford, Minerva 671 

Boudreaux, Rev. Florentine J. 402 

Bouton, William H . 276, 299 

Bouton, Edward 275. 276, 299 

Bouton, Nathaniel S..235, 293, 512, 670, 6S1 

Bowen, Chauncey T 50, 604, 645 

Bowen, E. R... _ 647 

Bowen, George S -5J3. 547, 646 

Bowen, Ira 746 

Bowen, James H 167, 625. 629, 647 

Bower, R. A 4S7 

Bowers, George 279 

Bowers, John H 661 

Bowers, J. N. 65S, 666 

liowker, Andrew G 666 

Bowler, Brookhouse 611 

Bowles, Mrs. Samuel . 732 

Bowman. Justin 057 

Boyce, A. D. ._ 666 

Boyd, James 625, 633 

Boyd, James S. 213, 291 

Bovd, Rev. Robert 436 

Boyd, W. H 531 

Boyden, James W 3SS 

Boyden. Mrs. James W 765, 766 

Boyer, Valentine A _ 526 

Boyington, William W...509, 512, 516, 564, 

601, 632, 644. 

Boynton, Amasa J 392 

Boynton, Charles H 392 

Boynton, Charles W. _ 370 

Boynton, Mrs. Emily _. 392 

Brackett, Mrs. E. S 313 

Bradbury, Charles W. B 641 

Bradish, Alvah _ 55S 

Bradley, A. D -159, 160, 600, 609 

Bradlev, A F 555 

Bradley, Cyrus Barker.. 84, 86, 94, 150, 161, 

271, 555. 667. 

Bradley, David C... --225, 637 

Bradley, Francis 575, 640 

Bradley, Luther P...2IO, 213, 214, 217, 21S, 

291. 

Bradley, Timothy 460 

Bradley, William IIenry__i2I, 164 445, 453, 

513, 591, 645. 701. 

Bradwell, Miss Ada 312 

Bradwell, James B 313, 321, 322, 323,454, 

45S. ' 

Bradwell, Mrs. Myra 312, 313, 321, 323 

Brady, S. P __ 327, 32S 

Bragg, F. A _ 5S3 

Brainard, Daniel 159, 163, 393, 522,535, 

554. 555. 556. 557- 

Brainard, Ezra L. . 213, 291 

Brainard, William N 367, 369, 370,371, 

625. 

Braisted, E. E 625,628, 632 

Brand, Alexander 669 

Brand. Edwin I .162, 1S9, 213 

Brandt, Henry.. 641, 642 

Brass, Rogers J 669 

Brayman, Mrs. J. O 312, 313 

Bravman, M 513 

Breakev, Benjamin A 683 

Breck, J. Jr 637 

Bredberg, Jacob .408,443, 444 

Bremner, David F. _.iSo 1S6, 1S7, 28S 

Brenan, Thomas 195, 2S9 

Brennan, C. H. — 659 

Brennan, J 252, 400 

Brentano, Lorenz 104, 109, 159, 499 

Brewer, Alexander T. H 208 

Brewster, Edward W 103 

Brewster, Theron D 623 

Brewster, W. F 647 

Bridge, Norman 531 

Bridges, J. B 517, 612 

Bridges, Lyman, 1S0, 1S2, 274, 275, 279, 

29S, 438. 
Bridges, T. B. 536, 556 



Brierly, Mrs. J. F 

Briggs, Clinton, 336, 337, 34S, 352, 369, 

371, 604. 

Briggs, Jeremiah B _ 

Briggs, Samuel A. 104, 1 10, 625, 628, 

630, 646, 649. 

Briggs, William 

Brine, George ] 332, 353, 360, 370, 

Brine, William _ 

Brinkerhoff, John _ _. 

Bristol, Mrs. H. L 312,313, 

Bristol, R. C .568, 636,637, 

Broadway, Albert S. ._ _ 

Broadway, Charles H 

Broadway, Daniel H 

Broadway, J. H. ... 

Broadway, Morris D 

Broderick, Rev. A 

Brodie, John 

Bronson, Stephen 263, 

Bronson, Tracy J. 345, 353, 369, 370, 

628. 

Brooks, A. L 418, 422, 

Brooks, C. W 

Brooks, J 

Brooks, James C. 

Brooks, John W 

Brooks, Joseph P -103, 637, 

Brooks, Orson . 

Brooks, William 

Bross, Miss Jessie _ 

Bross, John A. 159, 235, 237, 243, 293, 

464, 493- 

Bross, Richard --732, 

Bross, William 49, 159,447, 44S, 491, 

512, 513, 515, 557, 616, 625, 630, 

693. 733- 

Brosseau, Zenophile P. 

Brother Alex 

Brother Bonaventura 

Brower, Charles Homan -647, 662, 

Brower, Daniel Roberts 525, 

Brown, Andrew J 

Brown, A. L 

Brown, B. I 

Brown, Charles E _. . 

Brown, Charles T 94, 

Brown, Daniel G 

Brown, David C 263, 

Brown, Edward H 20S, 

Brown, Edwin Lee 

Brown, Francis C 

Brown, Frank 252, 

Brown, Frederick T 

Brown, Henry 

Brown, Henry H 644, 645, 

Brown, J. 

Brown, Jeduthan 

Brown, John 

Brown, Rev. John H 

Brown, Joseph E. 

Brown, Lorenzo 235, 

Brown, Maurice B 

Brown, Rufus 327, 

Brown, Samuel 655, 

Brown, S. L. . — 

Brown, Theodore ¥ 213, 

Brown, Thomas B 84, 710, 764 

Brown, W. C._ __ 

Brown, William II.. . 110,159, 513. 5 T 4. 

555, 568, 625, 630, 645, 670, 678. 

Brown, William J 

Browning, I). M .665, 

Bruce, Elijah K...360, 361, 369, 370, 

625. 650. 

Bruce, J. H 

Bruce, Thaddeus W. .Il6, 

Bruhn, Anton 232. 234. 

Brundage, Mrs. D. M 

Pruning, Augustus -• .232, 

Brtins, \V. H. 

Bryan, Frederick Augustus .. 5 3 s , 555, 
Bryan, Thomas Barbour, 159, 163, 167, 

312, 321, 322, 323, 44>, 477. ;r2 

517. 587. 59L 609. 6 44. 753 



507 
371 
353 
555 
323 
642 
613 
613 
613 
612 
612 

399 
369 

264 

374. 

43i 
661 
558 
692 
583 
642 
660 
388 
733 
295. 

734 
492, 
645, 

345 
537 
537 
664 
537 
424 
548 
763 
645 

95 
370 
297 
290 
513 

49 
294 
420 
555 
650 
624 
506 
289 
423 
641 

293 
623 
328 
660 
517 
291 
780 
535 
535, 



371. 

657 
5" 
293 
314 
293 

159 

663 
310, 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Bryant, James M 334 

Buchanan, Iohn_ 419 

Buchanan, M. D. 627, 632 

Buchanan, T 627 

Bucher, Charles Ambler 230, 52S 

Buck, Dudley 593 

Buck, George 53S 

Buck, Henry A 215, 2gi 

Buck. Ira A. W 656 

Buck, lonas L. 26S, 29S 

Bucket, Miss C. A _ 546 

Buckie, John, Jr 490 

Buckingham, Alvah 374, 634 

Buckingham, C. P — 374 

Buckingham, Ebenezer 368, 374, 629, 646 

Buckingham, John 374 

Buckingham, J. & E 373,374 

Buckley, George ._ 494 

Buckley, Thomas H 94,643 

Buckley. William S7 

Buckner, Simon B. 494 

Buehler, John. 50, 52, 450, 666, 763, 764, 
771. 

Buel, Ira W 49, 641 

Bugbee, L. H 316, 424. 425 

Buhrle, Lucas 655, 65S 

Bulbony, Francis -327, 328 

Bulhvinkle. Benjamin F - 94, 704 

Bunce, Joseph A 655 

Burch, L H --315, 513. 626, 636, 671 

Burch, Thomas R 639 

Burchett, John C -657, 661 

Burchward, W 2^7 

Burcky, Frederick . 517 

Burden, F. 1 65S 

Burdock, \V."A..__ 656 

Burg, Werner W 295 

Burgess, William 4S9 

Burgie, Mrs. Anna M .. 680 

Burgie, Henry C 679, 6S0 

Burger, H. A 632 

Burke, Rev. Thomas 398 

Burkhardt, Adolph 228, 292 

Burley, A. G 655 

Burley, Augustus H. - 56, 94, 167, 439, 4S8, 

626, 627, 631. 

Burling, Edward 358, 512, 564 

Burlingham, E. P.. 640 

Burnam, Ambrose 555, 556 

Burnham, Edwin 349 

Kurnham, Mrs. M. A 312, 313 

Burns, James 2S9 

Burns, Jennie 116 

Burns. Robert Ferrier 421 

Burr, Ionathan..io8, 449,514,626,627, 641, 
"671, 672. 

Burroughs, Adoniram J 257 

Burroughs, J. C...323, 435, 436, 515, 517, 

666. 

Burrows, Mrs. M. E 612 

Burt, A. S 369 

-eph G -- 222 

Burt. J. R 650 

fames K. -701, 702 

Burton, John _ 569 

Burton, Styles 506, 507 

Burwell, Henry 657 

Busack, Charles 658 

Busby, Charles 427 

Busch, Julius _ 632 

Buschwah, M.. 658 

Bush, Hiram 187 

545 

Bushnell, William II 485 

Bushnell, Winslow 631 

I ritz 218, 220, 291 

' iustav A 1 29] , 771 

1 harles II 297 

Butler, Kev. I) I .j 

Butler, Erastus G 261, 262 

I. W . 615 

Butler, Mrs. Joseph I ,' l{ , 

Patrick T 399, 406 

II 376, 377 

ThaddeusJ. 191,289,397,398, 406 



Butler, Walter 

Butler, William M - 

Butterfield, J. A 

Butterfield, Justin 

Butterfield, *M. D 

Butterfield, W 

Buttolph Albert C 

Button, Peter 

Button. Mrs. T 

Butts, Jesse D 

Butz, Casper 162, 

Buxton, F.S 

Byford, William H..522, 531, 532, 536, 

Byrne, James P 

Byron, James _.. 

Caberey, Henry R 656, 

Cable, Ransom R._ 

Cadv, C. M 

Caldwell, Billy 

Caldwell, Peter . 

Calhoun, William A. 1S7, 

Calkins, Allen C .50,412, 

Calla, Charles. _. 

Callahan, J 

Callow, Edward . 

Cammack, John 

Cameron, Charles S. 

Cameron, Daniel 495, 

Cameron, Daniel Tr 225, 226, 

Campbell, Ann M'cGill 

Campbell, A. H._. 644, 

Campbell, Benjamin 

Campbell, Frank W 

Campbell, James B 

Campbell, James L.--50, 164, 583,757, 

771- 

Campbell, John , 

Campion, John 

Campbell, John B 

Campbell, J. F _ 

Can field, Edmund 

Canfield, W 

Caniffe, Hyacinthe 

Canman, Leo - 

Cannon, R. M 

Carey, H. G 

Carbine, Thomas 

Carlstadt, Charles 

Carney, Thomas 

Carpenter, Benjamin --49> 

Carpenter, George Benjamin . . 

Carpenter, John H 50, 261, 

Carpenter, Pb.ilo.-I03, 104, 108, 113, 

430 432, 433, 517, 535, 555, 620, 

Carpenter, William R 263, 

Carqueville, Edward 

Carr, E. S - 

Carr, John D. M 

Carr, Watson -408, 

Carrey, Edmond 

Carroll, Rev. John _ 

Carson, George W 

Carter, Asher 

Carter, Artemus 49, 690, 

Carter, A. II 

Carter, James 

Carter, R. M 164, 

Carter, S. P 370, 

Carter, T. B.. 

Carter, William II.. 50, 56, 

(artwright, J._ 

Carver, Benjamin F. .. 163, 513,550,626, 

64 T. 

Carver, David 327, 

Carver, Thomas G 

Cary, Eugene. 

Case, Charles 

Case, Charles II. 

I ase, 1,. W 

Case, S. M 

Casey, Peter 190, 250, 

1 'asi-y. Zadoc 

(.'ashman, I). A 657,658, 

Cass, I.. W 

Cassclman, Christian 



420 
517 
594 
745 
517 
517 
699 
660 
313 
208 
555 
598 
539 
669 
657 
658 
151 
59i 
327 
292 
288 
533 
614 
612 
657 
689 
261 
669 
656 
116 
645 
616 
583 
568 
763, 

666 
711 

633 
!59 
646 
738 
288 
658 
37o 
657 
666 
116 
50 
56 



33°. 
670 
296 

489 
522 
664 
641 
395 
407 
666 
626 
716 
535 
617 
624 
624 

159 

104 
164 
633. 

689 
412 
652 
292 
650 
522 
699 
294 
623 
666 
650 

49 



Page 

Casselman, C.J 50 

Cassidy, D. E 508 

Castle, Edward Herrick 580 

Catlin, Seth 333,336,348, 369 

Caton, J. D.. 125,574, 717 

Caulfield, Bernard G 495, 669 

Cella, Giovanni L. 304, 395 

Chadbourne, Alexander S. 235, 237, 238, 293 

Chadburn, Benjamin 11 218, 291 

Chadwick, William P 669 

Chaffee, Charles W. 658 

Chaksfield, George _ 330 

Chalmers, Thomas. . 666 

Chamberlain, I. S. 660 

Chamberlain, I.eander T. -429, 445 

Chamberlin, E. P 701, 728, 755 

Chambers, Bennett B 421 

Chambers, H. O 342 

Champion, Annie. 610 

Champion, Patrick 250, 252, 294 

Chandler, Alphonse B. 634 

Chandler, Charles 644 

Chandler, Edward Bruce 91, 93, 711 

Chandler, Frank R 634 

Chandler, George . 235, 293 

Chandler, George B 345 

Chandler, George W. 235, 236, 237, 242, 243, 

244. 293. 

Chandler, Henry B -278, 495, 496 

Chandler, Peyton R 632 

Chandler, William ... 299 

Chapin, Charles H 91 

Chapin, John P 555, 568, 636, 641 

Chapin & Foss 705, 718 

Chapin 6c Marsh 691 

Chapman, Charles 330 

Chapman, Charles H 568 

Chapman, Earl H 264, 296 

Chapman, George H . 568 

Chapman, Henry 641 

Chappell, D. N 517 

Chard, Thomas S 645 

Charles, Oscar.. __ 297 

Charles, William 650 

Charlton, James 143 

Chase, Charles C 103, 5S9 

Chase, Charles E 663 

Chase, C. T 31S, 320 

Chase, David F 271 

Chase, Dudley 407, 4°S 

Chase, Horace G 589 

Chase, Samuel B 585, 5S9 

Chase, Brothers & Co 5S5, 5S9 

Chatel, Louis 598 

Cheesebrough, Henry T._ 295 

Cheetham, E 658 

Cheney, C. C._ 641 

Cheney, Charles E. 40S, 409, 412, 413, 414, 

415. 

Cheney, Lucian P 556, 660 

Chenoweth, W. H .. 679 

Cherrie, Miss Eliza 765, 766 

Chesbrough, Ellis S. 56, 65, 67, 553, 554, 

681. 

Chesbrough, H. F. 522 

Chester, Dean R 235, 236, 23S, 242, 293 

Chester, Edward 76 

Chester, Henry W. 228, 292 

Chetlain, August L. 169, 170, 172, 173, 175, 

630, 645. 

Chicago Relief and Aid Society 760, 769 

Chickering, John W..-I59, 164, 235, 238, 

242, 293. 

Chidester, William M 296 

Childs, Shubael Davis 4S8, 658 

Chipman, John L 495 

Chisholm, Henry 77 

Chisholm, James 492 

Chisholm, William 677 

Chittenden, George R 664 

Chladek, A. B 650 

Chrimes, John 656 

Christian, George C 549 

Christy, Byron... 609 

Christy, W. A 609 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



'3 



Page 

Chrom, Thomas^ 655 

Cfironiger, Cliarles B 199, 290 

Chumasero, John T. 694 

Church, Elijah S 208 

Church, Goodman & Donnelley. 484,485, 4S7 

Church, J. E 655, 659, 660, 661 

Church, I.. H. 643 

Church, Thomas 555, 641, 683 

Church, Mrs. Thomas 313 

Church, William L 517 

Churchill, H. P.._ 627 

Claflin, H._ - 650 

Clague, John E 660 

Clancy, Thomas D 666 

Clapp, HenryC 538 

Clapp, O. W -. 624 

Clark, A. A _ 661 

Clark, Alson E 350 

Clark, Anson L S4S, S49 

Clark, BelaP .. 208 

Clark, Charles M 204, 290 

Clark, Mrs. Charles M 313 

Clark, C. W. 159 

Clark, Darius- __ 691 

Clark, D. W„ Jr. _ _ 762, 763 

Clark, Mrs. D. W., Jr ._. 766 

Clark, G. C 438 

Clark, H. A. 643 

Clark, Jonathan 512, 55S 

Clark, J. F 650 

Clark, John K 327 

Clark, [ohn L . 733 

Clark, John S _ 525 

Clark, Rev. John W 410 

Clark, Lincoln 420 

Clark, Michael M._ 252, 294 

Clark, Robert 50, 104 

Clark, William 555 

Clark, William H _ 439 

Clark, Mrs. William H _ 311 

Clarke, George C.-.77, 104,632, 645,646, 

650. 
Clarke, George R. ._. ___252, 253, 254, 294 

Clarke, H. W 637 

Clarke, James C. .- _ 128, 131 

Clarke, John V 370, 632 

Clarke, L. H 154 

Clarke, N'orman 568 

Clarke, Robert ._ 746 

Clarke, Thomas Cordis 657 

Clarke, Rev. William B 429 

Clarke, William Edwin 529 

Clarke, William H _ 752, 753 

Clarke, William M 50 

Clarkson, J. J. __ 667 

Clarkson, James T _ 632 

Clarkson, Robert H. 409, 410, 443, 513 

Clarkson Thaddeus S 265, 267, 297 

Clary, Stephen, 332, 333, 336, 344, 352, 369, 

370, 650. 

Claussenius, Henry 394, 395, 396, 635 

Cleaves, Benjamin I .. 460 

Clement, Stephen 370,675,676 

Cleveland, A 505 

Cleveland, II. W. S _ 731 

Cleveland, Ralph 731, 732 

Cleveland, Reuben.. 259, 296, 655, 660. 664 

Cleveland, S. E._ 50 

Cleveland, W. C 615 

Cliff, Thomas _ 195, 2S9 

Closser, J. A 650 

Cloud, G.J 522 

Clowry, Jeremiah _ 50 

Clowry, R. C 126 

Cluett, J. C 662 

Clybourn, Archibald 327, 32S 

Clybourn, James A 162, 189 

Clybourn, John H... 162, 163, 164,165, 180, 
189, 190, 263, 264, 296, 658, 661. 

Clyde, John W 655 

Coan, Cyrus 614 

Coates, Al bert L _ 293 

Coates, Edwin M _ 189 

Coats, Henry H 666 

Coatsworth, George 235, 237, 293 



Coatsvvorth, Mrs. George 

Cobb, James W. 

Cobb, Silas B 164, 330, 

Coburn, Edwin 195, 

Cochran, Peter 657, 

Cochrane, John Crombie 558, 

Coe, Albert L 159, 213, 291, 575, 

Coe, M. E 

Coe, William 

Coey, David 

Cogger, B. F._ __ 

Cogswell, W _ 

Cohen, Charles 654, 

Cohen, G M 

Cohen, Isaac R _ 

Cohen, Peter ,.327, 

Colbert, Elias._i67, 168,485, 494, 517, 
702, 703, 719, 750, 752, 756. 

Colburn, Mrs Levi 

Colburn, Luke.. _ 

Colburn, K. J 

Colby, Charles A 1S0, 

Colby, Enoch 271, 273, 

Colby, George W 228, 

Colby, John F 

Colby, William .49, 641, 

Cole, David D 518, 762, 763, 

Cole, Frederick W 292, 297, 

Cole, Henry _ _ 

Cole Rev.'H. H 

Cole, Josiah D. Jr. ..361, 369, 370, 371, 

Cole, Lewis B 235, 23S, 

Colgate, Josiah S 

Coleman, Henry V _ 712, 

Collier, Robert Laird 126. 439, 445,670, 

Collins, Mrs. Harriet A 

Collins, James A _ 

Collins, James L 679, 

Collins, John 

Collins (S. B.) & Co.. .568, 

Collins, William R. 

Collins & Burgie -679, 

Collis, George S __ 

Collyer, Robert 166, 315, 336, 439, 

445. 435. 513. 630, 670, 672, 759. 

Colton, D. Alphonso 

Colver, Nathaniel 435, 436, 

Colvin, Harvey D 127, 159, 167, 

Colvin, John H 276, 

Colwell, E. E._ 

Comiskey, John.. 49, 50, 190, 554, 669, 

762. 

Comley, E. L 

Commerell, John A 

Compton, James _ 

Comstock, Charles --629, 

Comstock, E. F. . - 

Conant, Augustus H 1S0, 

Cone, Pinckney S. . 282, 2S6, 2S7, 

Condon, Charles B. _. 

Condon, Maurice S. - 

Congdon, I. W 

Conlan, James..- _ 

Conley. William J. 

Conly, Philip. .-49, 163, 190, 191, 3S5, 

Connell, C. J ._ 

Connelly, Philip _. _. 

Conner, Freeman 164, 

Conn o van, Morris 

Conover Charles H 

Conrad, Jacob G -625, 633, 

Conroe, Isaac 296, 

Converse, Rev. James M. 

Conway, E. S 

Conway, J. _ 

Conway, James J 252, 254, 

Conway. Michael W 95, 711, 

Conway, Rev, Patrick 

Conway, Rev. P. J 400, 

Cook, Burton C 

Cook, B. F : 

Cook, Charles W _ 631, 

Cook, Edward _. 

Cook, Ezra A 

Cook, George C 318, 348, 69S, 



Page 
316 
40 

517 

289 

661 

566 

591 
164 
662 
50 
125 
553 
657 
446 
116 
568 
701, 

538 
164 
661 



292 
657 
656 
765 
657 
657 
412 
374 
293 
656 
718 
768 
6S0 
666 
680 
487 
636 
680 
680 
556 
440, 

541 
438 
646 
299 
661 
715, 

666 
290 
291 
646 
477 
288 
299 
372 
116 
659 
49 
295 
388 
630 
506 
1S9 
715 
683 
650 
689 
402 
595 
624 
294 
712 

399 
401 

137 
670 
644 
656 
431 
700 



Pap 

Cook, Isaac 149, 3S9, 390, 495, 505, 733 

Cook, J. F. . 548, 549 

Cook, John H 156 

Cook, Melvina _ 116 

Cook, Thomas 689 

Cook, William .. 641 

Cooke, Alexander Hardy _ 531 

Cooke, David B 127, 485, 4S6 

Cooke, Elias.-. 669 

Cooke, George T. 661 

Cooke, Nicholas F 541, 543, 656, 657 

Coolbaugh, William F. . 352, 370, 554, 604, 

615, 625, 630, 632, 647, 738 777. 
Cooley, Charles G...2S2, 299, 34S, 350, 370, 
371- 

Cooley, F. B 626, 627 

Cooley, George B. 290 

Cooper, William II 412 

Corbett, John 700 

Corbett, Michael J _ 402 

Corcoran, J 661 

Corcoran, John T 505 

Cornell, Paul -457, 478, 479 

Cornell, W. B _ 648 

Corning, J. L. 429 

Corse, John M --387, 388 

Corwith, Nathan 630 

Cosgrove, James F -I91, 2S9 

Costion, David 2S9 

Couch, Ira ._ 501 

Couch, James --501, 502, 517 

Coughlin, Dennis 49 

Counselman, Charles 371 

Courtwright, Henry II. 142 

Coventry, Alexander C 84, gi, 552 

Coveny, Rev. John .. 402 

Cowan, John F _ 421 

Cowdery, Asa A 295 

Cowdery, Hiram C. W -655, 656, 660 

Cowles, Alfred 491, 492 

Cowles, Edward _ 733 

Cowles, T. Z 615 

Cowper, George 655, 656, 660 

Cox, A.J .487, 488 

Cox, D 555 

Cox, Rev. Henry _ _ 426 

Cox, William 50, 505 

Cracraft, Rev. J. W ._ 411 

Cragin & Co 624 

Cram, C. H 696 

Cram, T. J._ 392 

Crandall, Edwin J 282 

Crane. Albert _ 414 

Crane, Charles S 6S0, 681 

Crane, Richard T 670 6S0, 681, 759 

Crane Bros.' Manufacturing Co 680, 694 

Crane, Samuel 508 

Craven, Thomas ._ 426 

Cravens, William. 657 

Crawford, John A 79, 657 

Crawford, Peter _ 691 

Crawford, R 661 

Crawford, William __ 77 

Cregar, John. 513 

Cregier, D. C. 59, 656, 65S, 659, 666, 742, 
759' 

Crego, David R.__ 282,299, ° 01 

Creighton, John 447 

Crerar, Adams & Co. . 639 

Crerar, John 141, 639 

Crews, Hooper 427 

Cribben, Henry 680 

Cribben, Sexton & Co 6S0 

Cribben, W. H 6S0 

Crighton, lohn 334 

Crilly, D. F 661 

Critchell, R. S 650 

Crittenden, George R 625 

Crocker, George F. 49 

Crocker, Mrs. L. V _. 666 

Crocker, O. W._ 658 

Crocker, W. H _ 666 

Crockett, P. L 658 

Croft, Edward 164 

Cromlish, T 658 



M 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Cronkhite, 627, 650 

Crosby, Albert 607 

: . I". II. 163, 370, 556, 557, 559, 601, 
602, 604, 605, 606, 614. 

Crowley, Daniel _ 161, 2S9 

Crurubaugh, F._ .- 646 

Cudney, Albert -276, 299 

Culbertson, C. McClay 335, 369, 370 

Culbertson, James M 202 

Cullerton. Edward F 50 

Culver, Allan M 763 

Culver, Belden F. - 656 

Culver, Benjamin F. 369, 370, 371, 515. 536, 
538. 

Culver, Charles E 334, 367, 3C9, 370, 371 

Culver, Mrs. Charles E 766 

Culver & Co — 335, 624 

Culver. George N 335 

Culver. H. Z. 762 

Culver, Mrs. H. Z 766 

Culver, John -- 650 

Culver, Page & Hovne 4SS 

Culver, W. I. . - 47S 

Cumins, Soion 370 

Cumming, Gilbert W. .-.213, 214, 21S, 291 

Cummings (E. A.) & Co 641 

Cummings, George D __ 672 

Cummings, Joseph 460 

Cummings, P. D ._ 666 

Cunningham, A 661 

Cunningham, D. A 1S0, 182 

Cunningham, James - 277, 299 

Cunningham, J. C 164 

Cunningham, Rev. T. M. 419 

Curran, O. P - 640, 650 

Currier, Amos B. .. 506 

Currier, Charles L 646 

Currier, JuliusH _. 646 

Curtis, Charles __ 614 

Curtis, Charles H — 159, 337, 369, 370 

Curtis, George D. 20S 

Curtis, George M _ _ 230 

Curtis, Harvey.- 416, 445 

Curtis, Henrv - - 660 

Curtis, William B 28S 

Curtiss, Frank S. 257 

Curtiss, James _ 555 

Curtiss, Jacob S _22S, 292 

Cushing, Edward F .- 681 

Cashing, Mrs. E. H _. .311, 312 

Cushing, G. II. - 545 

Cushing, Henry H 235, 242, 293 

Cushing, X. S._ 517 

Cushman, Hardin & Bro 633 

Custer, Jacob K. 47S 

Cutler, Alonzo - 644 

Cutler, Asa E 655, 658 

Cutler, Joseph A 204, 290 

Cutler, 'William II 162, 189 

Cuyler, Edward J 140 

Cuyler, J. W. ._ _ 392 

Dagenhardt, Mrs. L 312, 313 

Daggett, William E.. - .394, 395 

Daggy, Peter ... 50, 128, 132,66s, 771 

Da e, William M. 539, 548, 669 

Dalliba, James E j_. .. 655 

Dalton, Mrs. Catharine i^m.. . 714 

Dalton, James 691, 714 

Dalton, James E __ 713, 714 

Dalton, James E. jr. 714 

fames F. X... 714 

'.nits -j 263, 261. 2')t> 

D.dv. Maurice S 616 

Daly, M. C. 609 

Damen, Rev. Arnold 397, 4<)f, 402, 405 

Dana, Charles A 4.(7 

611 

W. C. 424 

Danenhower, W. W 1 , I, I 

Danforth, Kcyes 207, l'm; 

1, Willis 541, 548 

era, Antonio 213, 291. 662 

M 657 

Daniels, S. 658 

Daniels, William G5S 



Page 
Daniels, W. H _ 424 

Danks, Albert W 295 

Danks, Harvey 164, 637 

Danks, William N -.162. 189 

Danolds, D. II 506 

Danolds, S. A... 506 

Darby, Thomas 661 

Darcey, John R 244, 247 

Darlington, Herbert __ 646 

Dart, John H __ 660 

Dater, Philip W 366, 367, 369, 371 

Davenport, Edward A _. 263 

Davenport, Ullman & Co 633 

Davies, Dr. John 545 

Davies, John E. _ 531 

Davis, Ambrose D 650 

Davis, Charles G _ 530 

Davis, Charles J._ 369, 370, 371 

Davis, Charles W. 213, 214, 215. 216, 218, 

291. 

Davis, David 451, 495 

Davis, Edwin S._ 250, 251, 294 

Davis, George _. 694 

Davis, George R 637, 655 

Davis, Hasbrouck 50, 263, 264, 265, 296 

Davis, Lewis H. -641, 650 

Davis, Myra D _ 116 

Davis, Nathan S. 163, 461, 513, 514, 522, 

523. 531. 537. 53S, 539. 540, 549. 55°, 

670, 768. 

Davis. Pope & Co 62 s 

Davis, S. N 666 

Davis, William A. -_ 390 

Davis, W. H. _ 549 

Davison, Benjamin F. __ 7S 

Davison, Benjamin F , Jr 78 

Dawe, Joseph 625 

Dawson, John R.__ 294 

Dawson, T. II. _ 182 

Day, Edward.. _ 550 

Day, Henry M 206 

Day, Isaac C. - 647 

Day, J. G 667 

Dean, J. C 545 

Dean, M. S 545 

Dean, Philip., 555 

Deane, Frederick G 279 

DeBlieck, John 402 

Decatur, C. F 662 

De Clancey, Mrs. E 598 

De Clercq. G. 763, 767 

De Clercq, Julia C 766 

Deering, G. W 655, 656, 660, 662, 664 

Dehez, Miss Rosalie 592 

Dehrend, William 162 

Deitzel, Hermann 234 

DeKoven, John — 449,630, 632 

DeKoven, Mrs. John 627 

Delear, John E: 218, 221 

Deluce, Eugene F 655 

Demers, James 65S 

Dempster. Daniel 296 

Dennis, J. S -- 440 

Dennison, A.I 370 

Dennison, William . 449 

Denniston William Scott 538 

Denslow, VanBuren 460, 497 

Densmore, E II 641 

Densmore, Eleazer W 359. 369 370 

Dent, Thomas _ 465 

Denton, Darius II 371 

Denton, Solomon F 282 

Dergeron, A. L _. 400 

Dethmann, A. 666 

Develin, J. 707 

Deven, J, G 412 

DeVille, Titus 531 

Devillers, Charles A. 189, igo 

Devine, M. A 50,764, 766 

Devine, P. 657 

Dewey, E. M. 656 

Dewey, II. O 661 

D I R 650 

DeWitt, James W 162, 189 

D'Wolf, William 274,410, 479 



Page 

DeWolf, Calvin 50, 330, 427, 4S2 

DeWolf, Henrv 133 

DeWolf, William F 479 

Dexter, Wirt- .472, 495, 554, 670, 769, 770, 
77i. 777- 

Dickerson, John Oscar 663 

Dickey, Hugh T 569, 641, 645, 701, 733 

Dickey, J. 513 

Dickinson, Albert _. 356 

Dickinson, Albert F 356 

Dickinson, Charles 356 

Dickinson, Charles E 295 

Dickinson. Mrs. C. P 312, 322 

Dickinson, E. F. 671 

Dickinson, Mrs. E. F 312 

Dickinson, G. D 625 

Dickinson, Mrs. G. F 313 

Dickinson, J. R. _ 626 

Dickinson & Son 623 

Dickinson, Nathan 356 

Diehl, Conrad ._ 558 

Diehl, C. H 449 

Diehl, C. L. 159 

Dietrichson, Gustav F 444 

Dill, James H 244, 245, 294, 430 

Diller, Alexander W 225 

Diller, J. R 644 

Dillon, Matthew --398, 404 

Dillon, Patrick 405 

Dixon, Arthur 50 

Dixon, Joseph H 87 

Dixon, Romeyn A 295 

Doane, John W 627 

Dobbins, Thomas J 631 

Dobson (I. F.)& Co... 641, 645, 646 

Dobsori, W. H._ ..654, 6; 7 

Dochez, Louis A... 595 

Dockrell, William 425, 612 

Dodge, Clark E. 275, 298 

Dodge, Isaac C 200, 290 

Dodge, John C. -555, 636, 637, 639, 642, 643 

Dodge, Lewis 666 

Dodge, Martin 502 

Dodge, William C, Jr 658 

Doggett, J. B 661 

Doggett, Theodore M 21S, 219, 291 

Doggett. William E 34S, 370, 513, 515, 

626, 627, 644, 646, 670, 696, 697. 

Doggett, Mrs. William E 321 

Dolan, James C 292 

Dole, Charles S. ... 369, 370, 376, 377 

Dole, George W 50, 326,327, 390, 535, 

55°. 555. 5 6 S, 636, 637, 641, 670. 

Dole, James Henry 341, 370, 371 

Dole, lulia 671 

Dole (J. H)& Co. 341, 624 

Dole, Rumsey & Co 326, 328 

Dominick, William F._ 6S2 

Donahue, William 401 

Donaldson, Robert 661 

Donaldson, S. H 661 

Doney, Jacob 517 

Donnellan, Patrick M 50 

Donnelley, Cassette & I.oyd _ 4S7 

Donnelley, Richard Robert 4S6 

Donnelley (R. R.) & Sons 487 

Donnelly, John 93 

Donnelly,). M S3 

Donnersberger, Joseph 586 

Donniker, J. B. 661 

Do'olittle, Edgar Man tlebury 663 

Doolittle, Harvey 623,625,632, 633 

Doolittle, L. A._ _ 517 

Dorchester, John 645 

Dorchester, William H 268 

Dore, Charles .. 505 

Dore, John C...103. 106, 113, 167, 352, 357, 

359. 369. 370, 371, 513. 554. 604, 620, 

625, 628, 644. 

Dorman.O.M 6S4 

Dorney, John. - 401 

Dorr, E. P 636 

Dorselen, J. P. V 395 

Dorset, C. P 4" s . 4" 

Dorsey, E. W 658 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



'5 



Page 

Doty, Theodoras. 164, 330, 507 

Dougall, Margaret no 

Douglas, Charles 392 

Douglas, Sholto. 678 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold.. ... 303, 398, 559 

Douglas, Mrs. Stephen A 735 

Douglas, William S7 

Douglass, John M 128, 131, 167, 370 

Dox.A. J 65S 

Dow, Asa. -339, 342, 352, 369, 370, 371, 630 

Dow, J. C. 339 

Dow & Moran 340 

Dow, Quirk & Co 339 

Downal, Stephen 327, 3 

Downing, Benjamin F _- 633 

Downs, Hyler A 1S7 

Downs, James B 263, 298 

Downs, Samuel Hopkins 657 

Dox, Hamilton 1! 264, 295, 296, 626 632 

Doyle, James M. — 289 

Doyle, Rev. Joseph II -400, 404 

Drake, Carlton 655, 657 

Drake, F 625 

Drake, J _ . 639 

Drake. John B. 141. 502, 509, 614, 646, 736 

Draper (J. F.) & Co 506 

Dreier, Emil 104, 394, 395 

Drew, Charles W 647 

Drew, Frank 611 

Drew Rev. J. B 43S 

Drew, Stephen 7SO 

Drexel, J. W. 633 

Dreyer, E. S 449 

Driscoll, Daniel D 50, 459 

Drummond, Frank- 297 

Drummond, Thomas 163, 164, 167, 384, 

452, 458. 

Drury, John H. _ 560 

Ducat, Arthur Charles.- 163, 170, 172, 179, 

2SS, 638, 639, 640, 643, 644, 650. 

Duffy, David. 250,251, 294 

DuFoe, Nathaniel H 208 

Duggan, Rt. Rev. James 397, 3gS. 399, 

400, 402, 405, "557. 

Dun, Joseph.. _ 615 

Duncan, Robert 505 

Duncan. Thomas C --543, 545 

Dunham, Henry - __ 535 

Dunham, John H. -554, 626, 627, 670 

Dunham, Ransom W 345, 371, 637, 655 

Dunham, W. N ._ . 656 

Dunlap, Geo. L.-135, 13S, 513, 554, 597, 656 

Dunlap, Mrs. George L 597 

Dunlap, John 49 

Dunlop. Hugh 690, 691 

Dunn, Hugh 505 

Dunn, John -2S9, 395 

Dunn, R. 43S 

Dunn, William __ 715 

Dunne, Rev. Dennis 249, 252. 397, 400, 

402, 404, 405. 

Dupee, Charles A 471 

Dupee, Cyrus _ 33S 

Dupee, John, Jr ._ 342 

Dupee, judah& Willard ._ 471 

Dupries, Frederick __ 279 

Durham, Benjamin, Jr ..22S, 292 

Durand, Calvin 27S, 2S2, 699 

Durand, Calvin, Jr. 345 

Durand, C. E _ 69S 

Durand, H. C. ..698, 699 

Durand, John M 698, 699 

Durant, j. T 517 

Dushek, Joseph. 714 

Dutch, James I! 271, 298 

Djitcher, Gilbert . 505 

Duval!, Harry __ 659 

Dwight, John H 370, 371 

Dwight, Mary A._ _ 116 

Dwyer, E. P _ 604 

Dyas, Dr. \V. Godfrey.. .537, 538, 546, 547 

Dyer, C. H .' ... .. 77 =; 

Dyer, C. S _ 642 

Dyer, Charles V 121, 449, ,17, 535,550, 

555. 6 4i- 



Dyer, Thomas.. 4Sg, 555, 56S, 636, 67S, 

Dyer, Mrs. Thomas _ 

Dyhrenfurth, Julius 116,591, 

Dyhrenfurth, Robert G. - 267, 26S, 297. 

Eames, H. K 

Eames, M. C 159, 

Eames, Oliver E 187, 

Easson, James B 271, 

Eastman, Francis A. 104, 3S9, 390, 497, 

Eastman, Zebina 49S, 

Ebbert, John 

Ebert, Albert E. ._ 

Eckardt, Thomas _. 

Edbrooke, Willoughby J 

Eddv, Albert . . 

Eddy, R. H 

Eddy, T. M 

Edwards, Alfred 

Edwards, Arthur 427,640, 

Edwards, Edward N 657, 661, 

Edwards, Edward W 309, 

Edwards, F 

Edwards, John T -. 49, 94, 

Edwards, Richard 

Edwards, Rev. William .. 404, 

Egan, Wiley M. 360, 369, 370, 371, 640, 
655, 657, 65S, 659, 660, 661, 662, 

Egan, William B 449, 504, 555, 

Eichhold, Abraham --360, 

Eisendrath, Nathan 

Eiterman, L. H. 

Eldred, D. W. 

F2Idredge, George C 

Eldridge, Daniel G 

Eldridge, Hamilton N 257, 

Eldridge, Isaac. 

Elkins, Henry K. 362, 

ElIeson(W. P.) & Bros 

Ellinwood, Charles N. ._ 

Elliott, G. T 

Elliott, Horace M. 

Elliott, William H 

Elliott, W. S 

Ellis, j. A.__ 604, 625, 

Ellis, j. Ward 545, 664, 666, 

Ellis, Samuel 327, 328, 

Ellis, Samuel A. ._ 244, 

Ellis, Rev. Sumner _.. .. 

Ellison, George 

Ellsworth, Elmer E 187, 189, 

Ellsworth, L. C. ... 642, 

Elson, T. J 

Ely, David J. 410, 515, 517, 

Emden, Solomon P 

Emerson, Darius F 

Emerson, J. P. .. 

Emery, S. Hopkins 

Emmons, Francis A. 295, 

Enderis, Henry 394, 

Endicott, William F 

Engel, Benjamin 

Engel, Robert 

Engel, Samuel .. 

Engelstedt, Emanuel 

Engle, C. S. 

Engstrom, Frederick E °57, 

Ennis, Charles 

Ennis, James 

Ennis, William . ._ 

Ennis, W. II 

Enzenbacher, Andrew. 

Erbe, Arthur 196, 198, 

Erby, William 

Erickson, Christian 234, 

Ernst, Joseph II _ 

Erskine, Albert 266, 

Erskine, Ebenezer 

Eschenburg, J. William .. 

Esctienburg, X. 

Eschenburg, W. S 

Esher, Rev. J. G .. -442, 

Esterbrook, J. S .. 

Etheridge, James Henry 522, 

Evan, John 159, 449, 

Evans, Albert S 



702 
410 
592 
298 
777 
666 
666 
660 
755 
636 
158 
539 
510 
566 
422 
C>47 
424 

643 
641 
663 
534 
624 
641 
632 
406 

6 43, 
663 
568 
624 
6 34 
442 
647 
372 
295 
258 
661 
369 
508 
292 
625 

87 
658 
651 
629 
667 
658 
294 
44i 
625 
190 
643 
657 
645 
297 
508 
691 
429 
533 
442 
628 
657 

5° 
65S 
295 
657 
661 
631 
4S2 
1 So 
631 

49 
290 
657 
293 
449 
297 
422 
656 



Pag. 

Evans, John 522, 661 

Evans, Mrs. Mary 314 

Everest, James G 288 

Everett, Charles W 271, 272 

Everingham, Lyman 356 

Everingham (L.) & Co 356 

Everts, Charles E 658 

Everts, William Wallace. .434, 438, 515, 672 

Ewell, Marshall D 461 

Excern, Maria 671 

Fairbank, Nathaniel K._ 337 33S, 347, 350, 
352, 354, 365, 368, 369, 370, 371, 614, 
670, 764, 766, 769. 

Fairbank, Mrs. Nathaniel K 538 

F'airs, Rev. W. W .. 422 

Fake, Frederick L 244, 294 

Falch, Charles H 657 

Fales, David 750 

Fales, H. D 697 

Fales, Mrs. Mary 750 

Falk.JamesA ._ 116 

Fallis, Sylvanus W _ 489 

Fanning, Rev. John. _ 399 

Fargo, C. E _.. 697 

Fargo. Mrs. C. G 312, 321 

Fargo, Charles H _. 697 

Fargo, James C 127, C04. 646 

Fargo, S. M 697 

Farlin, J. Whitney 419 

Farmer, George T ..651 

Farmer, J.. 644 

Farnham, Henry 626, 627, 670 

Farnsworth, John F. 259, 268 

Farnum, Henry 513 

Farovid, J. A. 645 

Earquhar, John M...244, 245, 247, 240, 294 

Farr, M. A _. 677 

Farr, R. F. _ 661 

Farrer, Henry W 491 

Farrington, S. P 324. 672 

Farwell, Charles B.-.159, 458 6r5, 616, 641, 

647, 663, 694, 705. 
Farwell, John V.. .227, 322, 323, 324,346, 
343."353. 3 6 9. 370. 445. 497- 5". 512. 
547, 554. 6 3°. 6 3S, "44- 6 47. 6 7Q, 694. 

Farwell, Simeon 490, 694 

Farwell, William W. 159, 369, 455, 461, 513 

Farwell, Mrs. W. W . 766 

Faulkner, James R ._ .1S0, 28S 

Faulkner, Samuel 700 

Faulkner, S. W. . 700 

Fauntleroy, Henry -- 420 

Favor, Otis S. — 294 

Faxon, Albert E.._ 695, 696 

Fay, A. S 164 

Fay, Ezra E. 374 

Fay, Martin 117 

Feeney, Patrick 250, 251, 294 

Feindt, Wilhelm H 658 

Feldkamp, John 659 

Felsenthal, Rev. B 4,6, 447 

Felsenthal, II. _ 104 

Felsenthal, Michael... 635 

F'elton, Charles H 2gq 

Felton, J. O. 164 

Felton, W. if 164 

Fenn, C. T.._ _ 522 

Fergus Brothers 483 

Fergus, George H 189 

Fergus, Robert 485 

Ferguson, Alexander 615 

Ferguson, Charles H _. 636 

Ferguson, Daniel 252,253, 294 

Ferguson, Duncan __ _ 658 

Ferguson, Nicholas P 208 

Ferguson, W. G 645 

F'enno, A. W _ 602 

Ferns, John Porter 633, 665 

Ferrier, Alexander.. _. 422 

Eerrill, William 657 

Ferry, W. M 691 

Few, John 297 

Fichter, Frederic 290 

Fick, Lewis Wesley 716 

Field, C. R 313 



1 6 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Field, George, 362, 370 

Field. Marshall 370, 371, 513, 694, 695 

Field. Leiter & Co --639, 695, 734, 771 

Fielding, William 666 

Finerty, James ...:. 666 

Fink, Rev. Louis Maria 406 

Finley, Henry C..-.. — 294 

Finley, James W 369,370, 374 

Finney, Thomas J - 639 

Finacane, James — - 2S9 

Finucane, M. -- -- 50 

Firman. L. B - 93 

Fischer. F 666, 700 

Fischer. George Henry 116 

Fischer, Guslav 460 

Fischer, H - 116 

Fischer, Rev. Peter - 400 

Fish. S. H 3 6 9 

Fisher, A 539, 547 

Fisher, E. P.. 639 

Fisher, Frank P - 650 

Fisher, Fred. P 642, 645 

Fisher, James K 370, 371 

Fisher, Philip E - 263 

Fisher, William 170 

Fisk, D. B 656, 695 

Fisk, Franklin \V.__416, 430, 431, 433, 672 

Fitch, Calvin M 526 

Fitch, Charles H 65S 

Fitch, Giles. -_ - 164 

Fitch, Graham N 522 

Fitch. Thomas D., 527. 53°, 538. 540, 547, 
666. 

Fitch, T. L 611 

Fitzgeraid, James 191, 194, 289 

Fitzpatrick, J. H -- 609 

Flanders, F. L .- 313 

Flannagan, Rev. P. M 400, 404 

Flannigan, Timothy 401 

Fleetwood, Stanley H 569, 62S 

Fleishman, S. M 657 

Flint, Austin 522 

Flint, T. f. S 352, 375, 641 

Flint, Odell & Co 375 

Flood, A. L 666 

Flood, E. F. _ 705 

Floto, Jenne A 4S9 

Floyd, John 507 

Foglesberg, A 632 

Foley, Patrick 2S9 

Foley, Rt. Rev. Thomas 398, 404, 536 

Foley, Thomas 614 

Follansbee, Charles 159, 412, 555, 644 

Follansbee, Mrs. Charles 313 

Follansbee, Merrill- __ 159 

F"olsom, — -- 316, 317, 318 

Foot, D. A 666 

Foole, Erastus 752 

Foote, Rev. II 432 

Foote, Henry G - 641 

Forbes. Albert M 277 

Ford, David M.. 66S 

Ford. Delevan 230 

Ford, Mrs. Frances M n6 

Ford, II. (,'..- ---557, 558 

Ford, Seth I 279 

Ford, S. A 164 

Ford IS. A.) & Co - 374 

Fordham, O. C... 4-1 

Forman, John 548 

Forrest, Joseph K. C 488, 497, 498 

Forrest, Thomas L 517, 633, 746 

Forrester, \V C 598 

r. Mrs. W. C 59S 

Forsyth. George A.. 259, 260, 296 

Forsyth. I< 677 

Forsythe, John 419, 550,645 

Fosk'ett, Alice 1 666 

' W 625 

j'obert II 49, 660, 67-. 

Foster, Addison Howard 533 

Mrs. Ambrose 310, 311, 312, 313 

\mo- I; 327 

Charles II - 142 

Foster & Holt 691 



Page 

Foster, John H. 103, 104, 107, no, 513, 535, 
550', 626, 627, 679, 705, 754. 

Foster, John W 315 

Foster, Joseph W 208 

Foster, Marcus P 25S 

Foster, Miss Mary E. M __ 314 

Foster, R. N _ 541 

Foster, Robert J _ 296 

F"oster, Rev. W. C - 431 

Fowler, C. H 424, 426, 427, 445 

F'owler, Emily. __ 766 

Fowler, William 508 

Fox, William 536 

Fox & Howard _. 74 

Frahm, H 666 

Frake. James 460 

Frank, A 446 

Frank, Mayer A 232, 293 

Franklin, Angrean _ 276 

Franklin, Mrs. Sarah 538 

Franklin, Mrs. W. E 320 

Franks, C. J. _ 659 

Frantzen, Fritz 83 

F'ranzen, Martz 162 

Franzen, Mathias 49, 50 

Franzoni, John - 116 

Fraser, John 421 

Fraser, Roderick . _ 65S 

Fraser, William 615 

Fraunberg, F. W 657 

Frazer, Andrew H 213 

Frazer, D. R _. 678 

Frazer, Isaac 242, 293 

Frazer, James 691 

Frazer, W. 661 

Frazier. Walter S 625 

Frear, Alexander 735, 736, 737 

Freeman, Andrew W 546 

Freeman, Charles E. .. 66S 

Freeman, John 315, 320, 426 

Freeman, Robert 330 

Freeman, William 65S 

Freer, James W._ 514, 515 

Freer, Joseph Warren 522, 535, 536, 550 

Freer, Lemuel C. P 159, 164, 473, 644 

French, George H. - - 507 

French, Hayes C. — _ 548 

French, Henry D 228, 292, 666 

French, S - 650 

Frey, Emil 196, 232, 234, 293 

Fricke, Henry 116 

Fricke, William C 116 

Fricks, N 116 

Friedlander, Rev. Solomon 446 

Friedrich, J. H 65S 

Frink, George M 513 

F'risbie, A. 650 

Frisbie, Henry M. 199, 200, 290 

Fritsch, Julius - 196 

Fritz, Charles 198, 290 

Frost, Jacob..- 657 

Fruin, George W... 189 

Fry, Jacob 385 

Fullaber, Oscar 116 

Fuller, A. M 699 

Fuller, Alexander N 555 

Fuller, C. W. 658 

Fuller, D. W 741 

Fuller, George A - 164 

Fuller, George F2 93 

Fuller, Henry 119, 392, 517, 587, 670 

Fuller, Henry W 511, 538 

Fuller, fohn C 545, 663 

Fuller, Mrs. J. S 313, 323 

Fuller, Melville W .413,414,465, 513 

Fuller, Oliver F - 515 

Fuller, Samuel W 462, 741 

Fuller, Sidney 1 289 

Fullerton, Alexander N. 569, 690 

Fulton, Kev. William 412 

Furber, Henry J - 482 

Furnald, Hcrrick G 228 

Gabriel, August 679 

Gackley, Rev. Amos 443 

Gage, A, L, 506 



Page 

Gage, Albert S.- (></> 

Gage Bros. & Drake 159, 502 

Gage, David A. -.49, 50, 119, 125, 459, 502, 

5°3. 5°5, 614, 615, 616, 76S. 

Gage, E. B 696 

Gage, George W. 49, 50, 160, 161, 163, 502, 

505, 513, 644, 670. 

Gage, Lyman J 628, 632 

Gage, S.T 327, 330 

Gale, George H 657 

Gale, J 163 

Gale, Stephen F --488, 518 

Gale, William H 664 

Gallagher, Mrs. Joseph-. 666 

Gallagher, William B._ 228, 292 

Galloway, A. J 668 

Gallup, Benjamin E. 49, 5S4 

Gamble, J. E 658 

Gardner, Freeland B. 164, 547, 549, 554 

Gardner, George.. 663 

Gardner, G. W. 637 

Gardner, Isaac N 213, 292 

Gardner, P. G __ 658 

Gardner, S. S 50 

Garfield, MaryR.. _ 116 

Garlock, Grant E. 159 

Garrett, Augustus 555, 56S, 636 

Garrett, James 76 

Garrett & Seaman 636 

Garrick, John 717, 718 

Garrigue, R. H 642 

Garrison, C. K 702 

Garrison, George 735 

Garrison, Harod D 548, 549 

Garwood, M. S 624 

Gary, Joseph E 456 

Gasman, Rev. J. G.- 443 

Gassf.tte, Norman T 4S7, 662 

Gastrield, William .. 49, 50, 666 

Gatchell, H. P 541 

Gates, James L 656 

Gates P. W._ 554, 627, 67S 

Gault, JohnC - 759. 765 

Gauske, William 116 

Gavin, Charles H 399, 400 

Gavin, Rev. Edward ... 399 

Gavin, John - 450 

Gebhardt, F'erdinand 116 

Geddes, Peter 619 

Gehr, Samuel 53S, 576 

Geib, Clark 762' 

Geiger Henry - 530 

Geis, Ignatz _ 100 

George, Erastus B 505 

George, Henry P 658 

Gentry, William 702 

Gephart, J. T. B 536 

Gerard, John B 592 

Gerber, John L 94, 666 

Gerbing, F. C .. 65S 

Gerhardt, August _ 19C 

Gerhardt, Hugo 19S, 290 

Germain, J- V 665 

Gerstley, M. M 651 

Gest, Joshua II. ---655, 651., 660 

Gettman, Joseph N -..2oS, 290 

Geudtner, F... 656 

Gherkin, Henry - 44^ 

Gibbs, Albert G - 159, 22S, 292 

Gibbs, Anna M -- 671 

Gibbs, George -. - 568 

(libbs, Mrs. George 3 IG 

Gibbs, George A 370, 374 

Gibbs, O. C. - - 670 

Gibson, George H 371, 655, 658, 663 

Gibson, John C. 39 2 

Gibson, John T. D 235, 293 

Gierlow, Rev. John. 4» 

Gilbert, Ashley... -- 86 

Gilbert, Charles J. .-353, 368, 370,629, 646 

Gilbert, Harry... 609 

Gilbert, N 106 

Gile, David II 295 

(liles, William.- 553, 556 

Gill, B. G 50, 766, 771 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Gill, S. H 508 

Gillespie, J. J 94, 95 

Gillespie, T _ 421 

Gillette, James F 371, 646 

Gilman, D 352 

Gilman, John 289 

Gilman, Mary 116 

Gilman, M. D --641, 644 

Gilman, Margaret M 671 

Gilmore, Ephraim M 263 

Gilmore, Hugh J 661 

Gilmore, Robert A 290, 389, 390 

Gilpin, Henry D._ 514 

Gindele, John G. _ 56 

Gladding, Charles 228, 292 

Glade, Herman O 50 

Glassner, George 222 

Gleason, Michael l6r, 164, 190, 191, 290 

Gleason, M. K. __ .. 535 

Glennow, P. F 400 

Glickauf, Samuel 65S 

Glover, Samuel J -. 513 

Goddard, Ira 655, 660 

Goddard, L. O _ _ 146 

Godman, William 661 

Goldschmidt, Tobias 657 

Goldwaite, William . 615 

Goll, Bruno Henry -709, 716 

Goodale, Ed.. 657 

Goodenow, Nathan C. -- 26S, 29S 

Gooding, William. 56, 554 

Goodman, Thomas _. ._. 646, 650 

Goodnow, William H. 370, 371, 632 

Goodrich, A. E. So 

Goodrich, Daniel A._ .... 360 

Goodrich, Grant 160, 167, 330, 456, 460, 

517, 522, 569, 626, 690. 

Goodrich, William S 504 

Goodsell, C. M 670 

Goodsell, James 497 

Goodsmith, William 317, 318, 320, 323 

Goodspeed, Rev. E. J.- __.•.. .435, 436 

Goodwin, Daniel __ 747 

Goodwin, E. O 642 

Goodwin, Edward P 428, 432. 763, 768 

Goodwin, Mrs. E. P 766 

Goodwin, Frederick C 235, 293 

Goodwin, John W. 656 

Goodwin, Jonathan 636 

Goodwin, Stephen A __ 159 

Goody, Peter A _ 658 

Goodyear, C. B. 360, 365, 366, 369, 370, 439 

Gookins, J. B 164 

Gookins, J. F 558, 561 

Goold, Nathaniel -.517, 519,656 

Gonzales, Charles Beach 612 

Gore, Joel R 295,536, 538 

Gorin, Jerome R 662 

Gotthel f , Joseph . 268, 297 

Gottig, Cord H 566 

Gould, F. N 424 

Gould, Tohn S 417, 657 

Gould, W. R 370 

Gow, Joseph. 449 

Graff, Peter 517 

Graham, Andrew J 82 

Graham, James D 392, 514 

Graham, J. N 53S 

Graham, R. M. 43S 

Graham, Susan F. __ 116 

Graham, W. M 666 

Granger, Alvin P __ 259 

Granger, Andrew H. _ 20S, 290 

Granger, Elihu '. _ _ 564 

Grannis, Amos ._ _ 161, 512 

Grannis, W. D. C 412, 449, 630 

Grant, Erastus C.._ ._ 506 

Grant, Misses E. and B 116 

Grant, Orville _ 723 

Grantham, Isabel __ 116 

Grants, M. 164 

Gratton, E. O _. __ 230 

Graver, A.J 598 

Graves, Amherst F. _ 297 

Graves, Dexter 327, 328 



Page 

Graves, Mrs. E. B 314 

Graves, Rev. F. W 421 

Graves, Miss Louisa _ 627 

Gray, Charles 74; 

Gray; Charles F 625 

Gray, Charles M 154, 512, 555, 684, 6S8 

Gray, F. D 370 

Gray, Mrs. F. D. 671 

Gray, George M. ... 154, 163, 683 

Gray, John 517 

Gray, John V — — 661 

Gray, Joseph Arend 656 

Gray, S. H 670 

Gray, William B. H 517, 555 

Grebenstein, Valentine 26S, 297 

Greeley, Samuel S.--439, 656, 670, 681, 731, 

753- 

Greeley, Mrs. S. S -- 753 

Green, David 723 

Green, Frank G -- 654, 657 

Green, F. M.. 657 

Green, Henry - 613 

Green, John H 657, 661 

Green, O. B --- 74 

Green, Russell 691 

Green, Sanford 661 

Green, S. S 661 

Greene, Edwin 65S 

Greene, Frank G 661 

Greene, J. S 159 

Greene, Rev. William 411 

Greenebaum, A. C -- 650 

Greenebaum, Elias 447, 578, 670 

Greenebaum, Henry 447, 537, 587, 625, 

632, 633, 657. 

Greenebaum, Michael 447, 657 

Gregg, Miss C. A. 116 

Greenfield, Horace K. --244, 249, 294 

Greenhut, Joseph B -- - 232,293 

Greensfelder, Isaac -- --447, 537, 697, 6gS 

Greenslelder, Mrs. Isaac. 311 

Greenwood, William H. - 213 

Greer, Robert 645 , 651 

Greer, S. S 661 

Gregg, Richard .- 631 

Gregory, Charles A - 656, 747 

Gregory, J. F. . 661 

Gregory, Michael A 656 

Greise, Frederick .. 116 

Grey, Charles F. 630 

Grey, John _ 159 

Griffin, A. L 677 

Griffin, E.W.. 374 

Griffin, Henry C. 238, 242, 293 

Griffin, Thomas D. 221 

Griffin, Trumbull D 27S, 2S1, 282, 299 

Griffiths, Harry 499 

Griggs, Samuel C 101,483,484,485, 4S6, 

647, 733. 

Grimm, Charles 263, 296 

Groesbeck, Abram 529, 537 

Grogan, John H. 399, 404 

Grossenheider, Julius 297 

Grosvenor, Edward P. 268, 298 

Grosvenor, Oliver . 264, 296 

Grosvenor, Thomas W. 263, 264, 296, 776, 

777. 778, 780. 

Grover, Zuinglius 116,417, 559 

Groves, William A \g, 639 

Guenther, George 196, 2Sg 

Guenther, George A.. 196, 199, 2S9 

Guerdon, H. 666 

Guerin, Rev. E. J. 404 

Guerin, John 528 

Gullich, Thomas F. W... 235, 236, 293 

Gulliver, Rev. John P - 429 

Guild, Frederick 84,86, 710 

Gunn, Moses 522, 525, 537, 539 

Gunn, Robert A... 548, 549 

Gunzenhauser, John 5S1 

Gurley, Jason 611 

Gurley, Joel 656 

Gurnee, Walter S.--352, 513, 517, 518, 555 

Gurney, Denton - 733 

Gurney, George .... 668 



Gurney, Theodore T 370, 371, 431, 655, 

^57. & 59. 6°°. 662, 664. 

Guthmann, Raphael --587, 634 

Guthrie, J. C .. . 367,370, 371 

Guthrie, James V...162, 1S0, 187, 190, 2SS 

Guthrie, Presley N 162, 180,187, 190 

Haase, Emil R 440. 

Haase, Ferd 449 

Hack, Hubert 116 

Hackett, " Beau" . 4gg 

Hadduck, Benjamin F 164, 632 

Hadduck, Mrs. Benjamin F _. 538 

Hadduck, Edward H...159, 163, 570, 627, 

641, 672, 678. 

Hadduck, Mrs. Edward H 672 

Iladley, Aaron S _ 292 

lladley, Miss Elizabeth --316, 320 

Iladley, E. W . 269, 545 

Hagen, Anthony 392 

Hager, Albert D. 701, 717 

Hagerman, F. C 555 

Haggard, Edmund D. 221 

Hague, Rev. William.. 436 

Hahn, Casper 649 

Hahn, Rev. Charles 405 

Halm, 11. S. 536, 556 

Hahn, James A 49, 50, 556, 667 

Hahn, Norman E 213, 218, 292 

Haines, Emma F 671 

Haines, George F 655 

Haines, John C. 49, 50, 121, 159, 513, 549, 

554. 5-5°. 628, 670, 681. 

Haines, Thomas C 538 

Hale, D. R 658 

Hale, Daniel W _ 502 

Hale, Edwin M 541, 544 

Hale, George W. 657 

Hale, Thomas — 642 

Haley, ]. Y. 657 

Halix, C 666 

Hall, Amos T -604, 629, 645 

Hall, Duncan J 244, 245, 247 

Hall. Elbridge G. 604, 62S, 644, 646, 6S2, 

683. 

Hail, Harry H. 1S9 

Hall, Henry W 213, 216, 2g2 

Hall, Joseph B 371 

Hall, L. C 63g, 640, 642, 645 

Hall, Philip A 13S 

Hall, Robert 666 

Hall, Samuel 102 

Hall, S. Chester 297 

Hall, T. D 642 

Hall, Wallace H 384 

Hall, William H 125 

Halle, E. G 642 

Haller, W. J. 632 

Halligan, Rev. Thomas 398 

Halsey, C. S. 485 

Halsey, Rev. L. J 419 

Ham, Charles H. 3S7, 633 

Hambleton, Chalkley J. 104 

Hamblin, L. A 663 

Hambright, George M __ 539 

Hamill. Charles D... 353 

Hamill, Ernest A 372 

Hamill, Miss Julia 312 

Hamill, R.C.... 536, 538 

Hamilton, David G 577 

Hamilton, Edward — 21S, 2g2 

Hamilton, George 26S, 297 

Hamilton, H. E - 65S 

Hamilton, J. G. - . 164 

Hamilton, "Mrs. J. G 313 

Hamilton, Polemus D 577 

Hamilton, Richard J 327, 506 

Hamilton, Thomas E 577 

Hamlin, Timothy 164 

Hammel, Jacob 658 

Hammer, D. Harry 480 

Hammerick, S. Peter 290 

Hammond, A. J _ 627 

Hammond. Charles G 144, 145, 163, 322, 

430, 432, 449, 554, 646. 
Hammond, David 367 



[8 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Hammond, H. L - 43 2 

Hammond, Mrs. H. L 766 

Hanchett, David -- 59 s 

Hanchett, Seth F 262 

Hancock, John L..-163, 227, 331, 336, 342, 

346, 347. 35°. 353. 36S, 369, 370, 554, 

646. 

Hand, Louis R 162, 1S9, 279, 299 

Hand, Peter. 196, 198, 290 

Handy, Henry H 5S7, 5SS, 5S9 

Hanemann, A. B. C 656 

Hanks. N. A --- 5°5 

Hannah, Richard C 675, 677, 75S 

Hannahs, James M 5 J 7 

Hannis, Alonzo 721, 723, 724, 757 

Hansen, George P.-- 159. 512, 555 

Hanson, Peter 232, 293 

Harding, A. C --- 647 

Harding, Charles 517, 657 

Harding, Frederick.- 159, 162, 163, 164, 165, 

1S0, 238. 

Harding, George F._ 646, 647 

Hardv, Agnes -- 116 

Hardy. Cyrus A. 642 

Harkness, Larned B . 568 

Harless, Thomas ...120, 352, 370, 631, 644 

Harman, William 80 

Harman, William, Jr 80 

Harmon, Charles L 34S, 513, 555 

Harmon, Elijah D. 327 

Harmon. Isaac - -- 327 

Harmon, John K — 694 

Harpel, Charles 668, 756 

Harper, George — 700 

Harper, John C --699, 700 

Harriman, Ira 65S 

Harrington, F -- 59S 

Harrington, John C. 250, 294 

Harrington, Scott W. 268, 298 

Harris, A. J 545 

Harris, B - -- .- 327 

Harris, Jacob 49, 392 

Harris, Robert 615 

Harris, Solomon - 657 

Harris, U. P 91, 94, IOO 

Harris, W. H - 612 

Harrison, Carter H 506, 652, 655 

Harrison, II. II 624 

Harrison, Rev. James 431, 432 

Hart, Abraham 657 

Hart. Levi W -271. 273, 298 

Hartley, Calvin S - -- 65S 

Hartmann, Rev 442, 443 

Hartmann, Theobald 265, 266, 297 

Hartmever, A. . 666 

Hartsell. Thomas - 327 

Hartwell, Rev. J 426 

Harvey, Alonzo 49 

Harvey, George M - 649 

Harvey, Horace Acmon -_ 657 

Harvey, Mrs. J. M - 313 

Harvey, John I' 263, 296 

Harvey, J. S 370 

Harvey, S. A 646 

Harvey. T. W 670 

Harvey, William 658 

Harvie, Andrew. 164,464, 669 

Harwood, Elvis 644 

Haskell, L. H 545 

Haskins. Allen C 292 

Hastie, Thomas 517 

Hatch, Albert li 162, 189 

Hatch, Heman 505 

Hatch, Ira. 538 

Hatch, Rufus 391 

Hatch, Thomas C 50, 661 

Hatfield, Isaac P 656, 657, 660 

Hatfield, Robert M. 426, 445, 670 

Hathaway, Amos \V 87, 66l, 662 

Hathaway, William G. 116 

Hatheway, Franklin 579 

nn, Edward 295 

Haven, Mrs. Aaron 538 

Haven, Carlos 461 

Haven, Rev. Joseph 431, 432, 433 447 



Haven, Luther. .103, 104, 112, 159, 385, 

535. 626, 721. 

Haven, Samuel R .- 

Hawes, F. M - 

Hawk, Samuel 503, 

Hay, Walter 538, 539, 540, 

I layden, Edward 

Hayden, Edwin 

Hayden, Francis Asbury 

Hayden, James R.--162, 163, 164, 165, 

187, 189, 190, 2S8. 

Hayden, M. M 

Hayden, Richard N 263, 

Hayes, Justin — 

Hayes, S. J 

Hayes, Samuel S. 103, 104, 105, 113, 159, 

670, 762, 763, 764, 765. 

Haynie, J. H._ 

Hay ward, John 

Hazeltine, Charles P - 

Ilazelton, George H 641, 

Hazlitt, George K 655, 

Heacock, Russel E 

Heafford, George H — 228, 

Heald, A. H 

Heald, A. J._ 549, 

Healey, Rev. J. W _ 

Healy, George P. A 199, 449, 556, 

55S, 559. 753- 

Healy, James T _ 

Healy, John J. 

Healv, Robert W 221, 222, 224, 

Heap, D. P 

Ilearroon, William 

Heartt, Abraham . . 

Heartt, D. B 

Heath, Monroe .. 50,601, 

Heath, Sarah A 

Hebard, Mrs. Alfred 

Hecker, F. K. F 165, 196, 231, 232, 

234, 289. 

Hedges, Samuel P ... 541, 544, 

Hedstrom, E. L 445, 

Hefferman, James J 

Hefter, Nathan 

Heideman, George F. 

Heidsmith, August 

Height, Mrs. A. B 

Heiland, E 

Heilig, Charles A .- 

Ileilman, Rev. A. S 

Helmer, C. D... 431, 

Helmuth, Charles A 393, 

Helshire, F. E . 

Ileminway, Francis D. _ 

Hempel, C. J 

Hempstead, Edward 348, 373, 374, 644, 

Hemstreet, William J 648, 

Heinriehs, Miss C. L 

Heinrichs, George 

Ileinzman, George 232, 234, 

Heissler, Jacob 

Henderson, A. W 105, 265, 

Henderson, Archibald .. 

Henderson, C. M 511, 641, 

Henderson, R. M 

Hendrick, August — 

Ilendrie, William A .656, 

Hengerland, E. . 

Hennersheets, James 657, 

Hennessy, I) 

Hennessy, M D 

Henoch, J II 

Henrotin, Charles --395. 

Henrotin, Fernand 522, 

Henrotin, Henry 273, 

Henrotin, Joseph F 394, 395, 

Henry, R. W 418, 

Henshaw, Henry - 

Hcnshaw, J. li 

Henshaw, Mrs. Sarah E 

Hepburn, Alexander 

Hepp, Eugene 232, 234, 

Herbert, George 164, 

Ilerfurth, Frederick 268, 



Page 

Herrick, Elijah W . 503 

Herrick, William B.-393, 449, 522, 524, 655 

llerting, John --50, 764, 766 

Hervey, Robert - 159, 467, 630, 669 

Ilerzog, Anton 657 

Herzog, Ignatz _. -657 

Hesing, Anthony C 159, 165, 499 

Hesing, Washington 499 

Heydock, M. O 531, 538 

Heyl, Rev. Michael 442 

Hibbard, Homer N 453, 49S, 657 

Hibbard, Spencer & Co .. 683 

Hibbard, Thomas M 37°. 559 

Hibbard, William G. 538, 646, 6S3 

Hickey, John. - 140, 766 

Hickey, P. J 50 

Hickling, William 518 

Hickox, S. V. R -. 499 

Hielscher, Theodore 116 

Higer, Lazarus 657 

Higgie, James L 78 

Higgins, Mrs. E 311, 313 

Higgins, I. Newton 497, 499 

Higgins, John 263 

Higgins, J. M 615 

Higgins, Levi 370, 371,625 

Higgins, Louis H 225 

Higgins, Milton H._. 301 

Higgins, Patrick 191, 289 

Higgins, Samuel B. H 667 

Higgins, Van Hollis 159, 164,-167, 449, 

456, 465, 495, 513, 644. 

Higgins, W. S 598 

Higginson, George M 101, 639, 642, 670, 

690, 691, 701, 750, 752, 753. 

Higginson, S. C 643, 644 

High, George M 417 

High, John, Jr 513, 626, 627 

Highwood, C. - 560 

Hildreth, James H -.50, 279, 725, 762 

Hildreth, J. M 661 

Hildreth, Joseph S ---531, 535, 536 

Hill, Charles H --- 292 

Hill, Edward f. 655, 659 

Hill, Francis H.. 450 

Hill, Joseph G 350 

Hill, Leopold 658 

Hill, Robert 504 

Hillard, Charles W 677 

Hillborg, John - --232, 293 

Hilliard, Hiram -.26S, 29S 

Hilliard, Lorin P.--159, 163, 369, 370, 517, 

641. 6S9. 

Ilillier, Edward G 277, 299 

Hills, Charles H 292 

Hills, D. Hobart 696, 697 

Hills, Newberry C 338 

Hilson A 657 

Hilton, John C -352, 632 

Himmel, Rev. Jacob 442 

Himrod, George -- 49, 65S 

Himrod, William, Jr 657 

Hinckley, Charles. .370, 371 

Hingeley, Thomas - 657 

Hinkel, Freidrich 395 

Hinman, B. P 647 

Hinsdale, H. W 346, 348, 644, 646 

Hinsdale. Mrs. H. W 211, 53S 

Ilintze, Rev. Henry 442 

Ilinz, Herman H - 196 

Hirsch, Adolph M 62, 164 

Hirsch, Meyer 447 

llirschberg, Herman. - 658 

Hitchcock, Alfred Wells 654, 657, 660 

Hitchcock, Charles 120, 462, 513 

Hitchcock, H 535, 55° 

Hitchcock, Rev. Luke 426 

Hitt, Mrs. Isaac R - .. 313 

Hitt, John 386 

1 llawin, Frank 650 

lloagland, Andrew J 350, 370, 624 

Hoagland, Martin 221 

Hoard, Louis de Villers 587, 588 

Hoard, Samuel. 103, 163, 389 390, 539, 553, 

554. 555. 55D, 642, 647. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



19 



Hobbs, James B 364, 370, 371 

Hodges, Rev. J. S. B 411 

Hoes, James A - - 159 

Hodman, Francis A. 1.69, 604, 623, 632 

643, 644, 645. 

Hoffman & Gelpcke 470, 620, 633 

Hoffman, John 268, 297 

Hoffmann, Michael __ . 519 

Hogan, John S. C. _ 326, 327, 32S 390 

Hoge, A. H - 320, 420 

Hoge, Mrs. A. H..-310, 314, 315. 316, 31S, 

319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324 

Hoge, George B ---252, 253, 254, 294 

Hoge, Jane C 671 

Holberg, Louis 657 

Holbrook, William B .-.228, 292 

Holcomb, Hiram F 655. 659, 661, 663, 

664, 666. 
Holden, Charles C. P. -49, 50, 554, 612, 647, 

701, 710, 711, 718, 719, 760, 761, 764, 

76S, 769, 772, 773. 

Holden, Mrs. C. C. P 766 

Holden, Charles N 49,94, 103, 104, 108, 

113, 439, 637, 638, 639, 641, 642, 643, 

644, 645, 691. 

Holden, Mrs. Charles N. 323 

Holden, Levi P 235, 242, 293 

Holden, Thomas K 657 

Holland, Benjamin 116 

Holland, C ... ..-. 646 

Hollingsworth, James 512 

Hollister, J. H." 431, 511, 522 

Holmes, Albert A. .. ._ 504 

Holmes, Charles B .. ... 650, 651 

Holmes, Edward L. .522, 535, 53S, 547 553 

Holmes, Ira ..616, 625, 629, 632, 647 

Holmes, William G - -419, 420 

Holt, D. R. -625, 626, 627, 691 

Holt, J. G. - 65S 

Holt, John T. 660 

Holzers, Rev. L 405 

llolyland, Charles 279 

Honore, Henry H. 506 

Honsinger, Emanuel. 546 

Hooke, E. G. 159 

Hooley, Richard M _ 609, 610 

Hopkins, John L . 127 

Hopkins, M. L 495 

Hopkins, Maria. 116 

Horner, Charles 69S 

Horner, Henry 69S 

Horner, Isaac N. 69S 

Horner, Maurice 6gS 

Horton, James M 6S2 

Horton, Myron II 332 

Horton, Oliver II 460, 469, 632, 670 

1 Iosmer, Charles 15 \6j, 644 

Hosmer, Charles H._ 162, 189 

Hosmer, E. D 467 

Hosmer, Harvey P 253, 254, 294 

Hosmer, Mrs. O. E. . 166, 167, 310, 312, 

3'3. 315, 320, 322,- 348. 

Hosmer, Rockwood 645 

Hosmer, R. W. 650 

Hosmer, S. .. 162 

Hoss, James H 52S 

Hoswell, William B ._ 628 

Hotaling, George W. - 65S 

Hotchkiss, Charles T 50, 244, 245, 248, 

249, 294, 359, 388, 761, 762, 763. 764, 

765, 766, 76S, 771. 

Hotchkiss, Mrs. C. T 766 

Hottenstein, John II 208, 210 

Hottinger, Anton _ _. ..lg, 50 

Hough, Albert J _ 338, 339 

Hough, Charles H 338, 339 

Hough, Mrs. Lottie 59S 

Hough, Oramel S 338, 339, 371, 641 

Hough, Rosell M ..163, 167, 227, 261, 292, 

29°. 338, 353. 354, 554, 631, 646. 

Hough, Walter C. . 338. 339 

Houghtaling, William D. 337, 338, 349, 352, 

37°, 371. 554. 625. 

Houghton, G. N 657, 658 

Houston, D. C — 3g2 

Houston , Robert 213 



Page 

Hovey, A. H 323 

How, George M 360, 36g, 370, 624, 661 

Howard, C. Bronson — 601 

Howard, Charles M. 4ig, 420 

Howard, Frank 5g4 

Howard, G. D. 646 

Howard, John A. 27S 

Howard, S. G. D... _ 62S 

Howard, Rev. W. G 434 

Howe, Allen 625 

Howe, James L 505 

Howe, Oscar 201 

Howe, R 511 

Howe, Samuel ...369, 370, 374, 626 

Howe, Mrs. Samuel 672 

Howe & Robbins 374, 625 

Howell, John C. 54 

Howell, Mrs. John C. 666 

Howell, Lewis" 624 

Howells, W. B ... - 733 

Howes, Allen --37°. 37 T 

llowison, George .- 658 

Howland, George 10S 

Howland, Henry 2TS, 292, 511 

Howland, L. A._ . . ..*.. 145 

Hoxie, John R. — -. — 632, 66: 

Hoyne, Philip A 452, 453, 459, 667, 737 

Hoyne, Temple S 541, 544, 545 

Hoyne, Thomas.. 164, 167, 452, 453, 463, 

5 T 3. 515. 517. 556, 557.630, 737- 

Hoyne, Thomas M. 469, 737 

Hoyt, Henry W. 578 

Iloyt, Henry W. B 252, 254, 294 

Hoyt, [esse - 374 

Iloyt, I. F 388 

Hoyt, J. Q 49, T 59. 6 44 

Hoyt, J. W 514 

Hoyt, W. H 348 

Hoyt, W. M 5S4, 699 

Hubbard, C. T -- 642 

Hubbard, Edward C. 633 

Hubbard, Elijah K 624, 635 

Hubbard, Gilbert ---227, 439, 645, 646, 670 
Hubbard, Gurdon S. 49, 163, 235, 293, 327, 

33°. 336, 338, 37°. 37i. 412, 5*7. 535, 

550. 559. 56S, 5S1, 635, 636, 637, 639, 

72S, 735- 
Hubbard & Hunt . .-624, 636, 639, 643, 645 

Hubbard, Louis I). 29s 

Hubbard, William G 56S 

Huber, Henry S 555 

Hubert, H 116 

Duck, John A 49, 759 

Hudson, A. S --- 522 

Hudson. Francis 655, 669 

Hudson, H. S. 639 

Huffman, Hoxie L * 2gS 

Hughes, John 358, 601 

Hughes, William H 614 

Hughes, W. S 503 

Hughitt, Marvin 135 

Hughson, Marshall B 295 

Hugunin, Hiram 555 

Hugunin, James R..163, 164, 170, 173, 28S, 

517- 

Hugunin, Leonard C. 56S 

Hulanski, Thaddeus C 277, 2gg 

Ilulburd, Charles H 335 

Hulbert, J. S 639 

Hume, James.. 2S9 

Hume, Wallace - 601 

Humeston, Luther F igg, 200, 290, 53S 

Humphrey, J. O 164 

Humphrey, Z. M. 416, 422, 670 

Humphrey, Mrs. Z. M - 323 

Humphreys, David 636, 637 

Humphreys, John W 505 

Huncke, Carl 642 

Hunt, Andrew L. — . 295 

Hunt, Charles H 49, 636 

Hunt, J. B. - - 5 T 7 

Hunt, William C 213, 218, 2g2, 655, 661 

Hunter, David 326,330, 569, 635, 689 

Hunter, Edward E 3 2 7 

Hunter, John.. - - 74<J 

Hunter, John A 460 



Page 

Hunter, J. Garnis 420 

Hunter, N. D. 419 

Huntington, A - 164 

Huntington, L. C. .- ''4 1 

Huntley, Nathan W... 49, 50, 655, 657 658, 

660, 662. 

Ilunton, K. A 661, 662 

Huntoon, Charles 717 

lluntsinger, John — 276 

Hurd, EbenC .. 655 

llurd, Harvey B 460,461, 470 

Ilurlbut, Edwin F , 681 

Hurlbut, Frederick J 218, 291, 689 

Ilurlbut, Horace A... 120, 348, .511, 644, 646 

Ilurlbut, Horatio Nelson 525, 656, 661 

Ilurlbut, John E 549 

Ilurlbut, Vincent Lombard 662, 664, 665 

Hutchings, William - 164 

Hutchins, C. S 362 

Hutchinson, Benjamin P 331, 360, 362, 

368, 369, 370, 371, 624, 628, 646. 

Hutchinson, C. L 646 

Hutchinson, C. N. A 747 

Hutchinson, William A 294 

Hyde, Charles E. ._ __ 657 

Hyde, Rev. James T 433 

Hyde, Mary 116 

Ilyer, Henry F. - 297 

Hyland, David M 94,711, 713, 718 

Hynes, Dennis J.... 259,260,268,296, 298 

Hynes, John A. 191, 268, 289, 298 

Ide, George B 439 

Iglehart, Nicholas P 576, 641 

Ingals, Ephraim 522, 538 

Ingals, Ephraim F 522 

Ingals, Mrs. E. F. 313 

Ingalls, George A -- 159 

Ingalls, William A 164 

Ingersoll, George M. 661 

Ingersoll, Lincoln 3S7 

Inness, A. G 66g 

Inness, William- 162, 164, 165, 189, 190, 288 

Irish, William R 505 

Irwin, David W. 368, 370, 371 

Irwin, L. I) 370 

Irwin, S. A 159, 3S7, 3S8 

Isham, Edward S — 469 

Isham, Ralph N...315, 317, 321, 393, 531, 

550. 

Isham, Mrs. Ralph N ... 315 

Isham, Warren S 76, 4g5, 496 

Isreal, M. - 657 

Iverson, Knud - -- 444 

Iverson, Thomas II - -- 77 

Ives, E. L. 657 

Ives, George A 632 

Jack, Albert 655 

Jackson, A. B 43S 

Jackson, Abraham R 525 

Jackson, Francis ... 268, 298 

Jackson, James A 244, 24g, 2g4 

Jackson, J. B 43° 

Jackson, Obadiah 746 

Jackson, Samuel 330, 555 

Jackson, S. A -- 535 

Jackson, W. C 421 

Jackson, William F. B - 414 

Jackson, W. W .- 654 

"jacobi, Andreas 196, 198, 289 

Jacobs, B. F 323, 324. 44S, 511, 57S 

Jacobs, Daniel D 282 

Jaeger, E 656 

Jaeger, Joseph - 634 

Jaehne, Julius 267, 268, 297 

Jahnson, C 774. 775 

James, Alfred 642, 644, 645, (5° 

James, Charles C -- 295 

James, Edward A -277, 299 

James, Frederick T 651 

James, John .. 647 

James, Josiah L. --- 57° 

James, Louis I -.162, 189 

"James Nelson _ 282 

"fames, William 91, 164, 669 

James. William, Jr. .. . 22S, 229. 230. 292 
Jameson, John A -- 4'3. 457 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Janes, John J 640, 641 

Jansen, Egbert L 245, 449, 4S4, 4S6, 733 

Jansen, Henry. 263,296, 297 

Jarrett, E. M'. 662 

J a v. I . Milton - 549 

Jefferson, Rev. Reuben 43S 

Jekelfalusy, Alexander 196 

Jenkins, Daniel .. 625 

Jenkins, Ebenezer . — 421 

Jenkins, J. I - 642 

Jenkins. Julius - 116 

Jenkins, W. A. 503, 50S 

Jenkins, W. H 661 

[enkinson, William. 65S 

Jenks, C. L 666 

Jenks, Howard - 667 

Jennings, J W -.- 607, 704 

Jennison, H. F. 651 

Jevne St Alraini- 35S, 55S, 559, 601 

Jewell, James Stewart 531, 533 

Jewett, S A. W._ - 424, 427 

Johns, Henry - 290 

Johnson, Alfred O.. - 211, 290 

Johnson. Augustus - 651 

Johnson, A. N... 593 

Johnson, B. F .. - -- 644 

Johnson, David - 65S 

Johnson, E. 362, 642 

Johnson, E, Jr. .. 550 

Johnson, Mrs. E. S - 314 

Johnson, Henry A 263, 656 

Johnson, Mrs. H. A 315 

Johnson, Hosmer A. 513, 514, 515, 522, 531, 
532. 535. 536. 539. 552. 55&. 576, 660. 
662, 664, 670, 769. 

Johnson, Insley D — 657 

Johnson, J 164 

Johnson, James H 663 

Johnson, Jesse 291 

Johnson, J. M 679 

Johnson, Mrs. Louis 323 

Johnson, Orrin S .. 213 

Johnson, Samuel M. .. --352, 369, 370 

Johnson, Sanford 512 

Johnson, \V. E 705 

Johnson, W. P .. 154 

Johnston, Anthony 666 

Johnston, James B. 170, 2SS 

Johnston, J. M 94 

Johnston, Shepherd 102 

Johnston, William M 475 

Jones, Benjamin 570 

Jones, Daniel A. .-.338, 345, 371, 630, 646 

Jones, Mrs. D. A 312 

Jones, E -- - 666 

Jones, Eliphaz W -656, 662 

Jones, Fernando 49, 588, 738 

Jones, H. R 598 

Jones, H. W 291, 536, 547, 553 

Jones, J. M. W 489, 591, 629 

Jones, J. Russell .- 121, 122 

Jones, Miss M W 546 

Jones, Nathaniels 372 

Jones &: Patrick 633 

Jones. Philander 693 

[ones & Raymond 338, 345 

Jones, R. R 677 

Jones, Samuel _ 116 

Jones. Samuel J 528, 531 

Jones ic Sellers 586, 588, 589 

Jones, Rev. S. Russell 408, 412 

Jones, Tarlton 641, 691 

Jones, William 535, 555, 573 

Tones, William E 536, 568 

Jordan, C. II - 450 

Jordan, R. II 645, 651, 666 

Joseph, Moses -- 657 

Joy, Hiram - .. 49 

Todd, Adaline R 671 

Judd, Charles M 276, 299 

Judd, Norman B...160, 385, 388, 449, 4'»2, 

Judd. S. Corning 472 

Judson, Edwin 517 

Judson, Philo P 298, 449 



Page 
Juergens, D. L 763 

Junge, Carl F. W. 312, 62S, 629, 647 

Jussen, Edmund --- 387,38s, 474 

jutkins, A. J.. . 425 

Kafka, Edward 232, 293 

Kalisch, Louis .. — 65S 

Kalvelage. Rev. Ferdinand. 407 

Kane, John O. ...-. 224, 292 

Kann, Constantine — 49, 50 

Karstens, Fritz . 649 

Kaufeld, Charles .. 116, 656 

Kaufman, K. D._ — 658 

Kauffman, Henry A 87,657, 65S 

Kaufmann, Moritz 290 

Kay, William V._ --37'. 6 44 

Kean, Samuel A 670 

Keating, Thomas L .._ 399 

Kedzie, A.S.. - 432, 433 

Kedzie, John H. _ 412, 642, 669 

Keeler, Leaveans J. ._ .- 180 

Keeky, Michael.. 50 

Keen, Joseph, Jr 702 

Keen, William B. 159. 483, 702 

Keep, Albert 135 

Keep, Henry 559. 566 

Keeton, William C 294 

Kehbe, Edward 50 

Keith, Abijah 357 

Keith, Cyrus E 1S7 

Keith, Dodge W _ 412 

Keith, Edson 695, 696 

Keith, Elbridge G. 454, 695, 696 

Keith, John S. -.214, 291 

Keith, Osborn R... --643, 695, 696 

Kelley, E. J 645 

Kelley, N. C -- 65S 

Kelley, Richard C 250, 294 

Kelley, Thomas F - --250, 294 

Kellogg, A. B 519 

Kellogg, A. W 697 

Kellogg, C. P 639 

Kellogg, Edgar H 643 

Kellogg, I. H 666 

Kellogg, j. L 541 

Kellogg, Joseph 163, 164, 170, 228 

Kellogg, Mrs. J. S .- 314 

Kellogg, S. N . -- 694 

Kelly, Charles V. ... 412, 415 

Kelly, Henry 162 

Kellv, James — - -- 625, 630 

Kelly, J. H 667 

Kelly, Patrick 161 

Kelly, Thomas F. 401 

Kelly, William S._ 268 

Kendall, Charles B 296 

Kendall, O 49, 159, 164, 643 

Kendig, John A. }. . . 4 So 

Kennedy, George 669 

Kennedy, James 506, 658 

Kennedy, J . M 49. 612 

Kennedy, S. M - 668 

Kennedy, W. W 84 

Kennicott, Amasa — 204 

Kennicott, Jonathan A. .512, 545, 657, 66S 

Kennicott, Mrs. Marie Antoinette 560 

Kennicott, Ransom 189, 199, 200, 202, 

203, 290. 

Kennicott, Robert .514. 5*5 

Kenson, James A. 615 

Kent, Albert E. 163, 331, 336, 337, 338, 

369, 370, 643. 

Kent, Mrs. Albert E. 3'3 

Kent, Sidney A 370, 371, 632 

Kenyon, D.B 218, 291, 712 

Kercheval, Gholson 327, 568 

Kerfoot, Samuel 1 1. .550, 556, 557, 569, 573, 
577. 589. 6 40. 

Kerfoot, William D 577 

Kern, Joseph 1 658 

Kerr, William 661,681 

Keymcr, Henry - 297 

Kidder, N. B 625, 628, 671 

Kidder. N. 1 263 

Kilmorc, Uavid II 655, 659 

Kimball, Abel 152 



Page 

Kimball, Mark. 631, 645, 655, 672 

Kimball, O. E 661 

Kimball, Spencer S 271, 298 

Kimball, Walter 164 

Kimball, William W. 595 

Kimbark, D. A 591 

Kimbark, George M. 513, 647 

Kimbark, Seneca D. 646, 683 

Kimberley, 1 ohn E 267 

Kimberly, E S. 555, 694 

King, Henry W...348, 349, 449, 644, 646, 
670. 

King, John B _. 5S9 

King, John Lyle 49, 159, 160 

King, R. S -. 641, 646 

King, Rufus .. 474 

King, Simeon W. 651 

King, Tuthill 324, 517, 733 

King, William H 104. 466 

King, William W 440 

King, Willis 690 

Kingman, H. M 628 

Kinney, Henry C 409 

Kinney, Joel A - 95, 96, 164 

Kinney, William H. 244, 249. 294 

Kinsella, Thomas J. 163, 190, 191, 385 

Kinsley, Herbert M 509 

Kinzie, Arthur M 262, 745 

Kinzie, George 746 

Kinzie, Hunter & Co. 330,568 

Kinzie, James 327, 51S, 568 

Kinzie, John H..-159, 164, 327,393, 449, 
5!3. 535. 56S, 626, 639, 642, 643, 670, 
689, 745. 

Kinzie, Mrs J. H. 484 

Kinzie, Robert A 327, 328, 745, 746 

Kirby, Abner _ _ 506 

Kirchner, Frank 232, 234, 293 

Kirk, James A. 699 

Kirk, James S . 699 

Kirk, John B 699 

Kirkman, Marshall M 135, 139 

Kittell, Charles .'. _ 222 

Kittredge, Abbott E 418, 419, 763, 765 

Klein, H 267 

Kleist, William 290 

Kletsch, Dominicus 232, 293 

Klokke, Ernst F. C 196, 289, 658 

Knapp, Christian 116 

Knapp, Cyrus F 290 

Knapp, J. H .. 419 

Knapp, M. I 522 

Knapp, (N. H.) & Co. 643 

Knapp, S. L. 609 

Knickerbocker, A. V 647 

Knickerbocker, Charles 558 

Knickerbocker, John J 50 

Knickerbocker, Joshua C 50 

Knight, C. A 370 

Knight, Frank 282 

Knight, John B 575 

Knight & Marshall 575 

Knight, William M 282 

Knight, W. T. . 624 

Knights, Darius. .94, 161, 271, 517 

Knisely, Abraham 662 

Knobelsdorf, Charles 165, 290, 632 

Knowles, Rev. J. H 408 

Knox, Edward B 187, 1S9, 190 

Knox, George G 288 

Knox, Joseph. 461 

Knox, Joseph H 261, 296 

Koch, Charles R. E 231 

Koehler, Rev. R. 443, 447 

Kohn, Abraham 49, 446, 645, 657 

Kohn, H. A 632 

Kohn, Morris 657 

Kolar, Anton 717 

Koneman, William A 678 

Koon, H. II. 651 

Kovats, Augustus -196, 197, 2S9 

Kozminski, Charles 633, 635, 657 

Kramer, Nathan 657 

Kranz, G -- 116 

Kreigh, C. W 370, 371 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Kreigh, David 352, 369, 370,641, 646 

Kreismann, H . 49 

Kretschmar, Ernest 658 

Kroger, J. H 658 

Krohn, Rev. J. J 444 

Krorschall, Julius 645 

Krueger, Carl W 297 

Krukenberg, Barthold 293 

Kuhl, Jacob 290 

Kuhn.'M 666 

Kuhnen, George 658 

Kulhn, Rev. John B 405 

Kune. Julian 196, 289, 340, 625 

Kunreuther, Rev. Ignatz 446 

Kurth, Frederick 222 

Kurth, Julius 222 

Kurz, Louis 489, 558 

Kurz, M 489 

Lackey, Robert M -.522, 553 

Ladd, Merrill 348, 408, 647 

Laflin, H. Dwight 189, 667 

Laflin, L 667 

Laflin, Matthew 159, 459, 517, 644 

LaFramboise, Claude 327 

Laimbeer, John W. _ 199, 200, 290 

Lake, Albert B 279 

Lake, David J --625, 630, 671 

Lamb, Mrs. C. A. -321, 324 

Lamberson, Cornelius B 187 

Lamberson, D. \V _ 159 

Lambrecht, Rev. Gotthelf 443 

Lambrite, J. C . 651 

Lamon & Cornish 705 

Landis, E. M ._ 537 

Lane, Albert G 108, 763, 767 

Lane, Charles H 235, 238, 293 

Lane, E 128 

Lane, Elisha B 517 

Lane, James 517 

Lane, James H 161, 191, 2S9 

Lanergan, T. W. 608 

Lanfer, Charles 116 

Lang, Thomas 196 

Lange, O. L. 517 

Langenfeld, Francis - 290 

Langholz, Andrew H. 263, 296 

Lanphere, George C. 662 

Lansing, William N 276 

Lantry, Michael 193 

Lanzendorfer, Charles 232 

Lapham, William 657, 666 

Larglands, John 656 

Larimore, Rev. J. W 422 

Larminie, Samuel H. 372 

Larned, Edwin C-159, 167, 463, 554, 638, 
645, 670, 768. 

Larrabee, Charles 591 

Larrabee. Charles R 682 

Larrabee, Lucius S 162, 189 

Larrabee, William M 439, 550, 641 

Larrabee, William R 513 

Larsen, Tobias ._ __ 116 

LaSalle, Jacob. 232, 293 

Latham, Andrew J __ 371 

Lathrop, Bryan _ __ 449 

Lathrop, Edward B 629 

Lathrop, Rev. S. G. 426, 427 

Latshaw, John T 505 

Lauer, Nicholas A 584 

Lauer, Peter 293 

Laughton, Bernardus H 327 

Laux, C, Jr 658 

Laverty, Thomas 218, 291 

Lavigne, James W 267 

Law, Robert _ 49, 159, 163, 630 

Law, William, Jr 661 

Lawler, Frank 609 

Lawlor, Rev. Michael J . .402, 403 

Lawrence, Edward F 370, 371, 644 

Lawrence. James 292 

Lawrence, J. F 489 

Lawrence, J. W. 657 

Lawrence, Lawman C 275, 299 

Lawrence, Luella __ 766 

Lawrence, M. A.. 370 



Lawrence, Theodore F 

Lawrence, William 2S3 

Lawrence, Mrs 

Laws, Calvin A 

Lawson, Iver ... 49, 50, 83, 

Laycock, Frederick 218, 

Leake, Joseph B 202, 

Leary, Michael 

Leavitt, M. W 

Lebrecht, Rev. Isidore 

Lechler, Rev. G. W 442, 

Leckie, A. C. .__ 

LeClair, Francis 26S, 

Lederer, Joseph _ 

LeDuc, Mrs. A 

Ledyard, Glen C _. 22S, 

Lee, George F 

Lee, George P 408, 

Lee, George S 

Lee, H. H 

Lee, John C... _ 

Lee, William ...714, 715, 

Lee, William K _ 

Lee, William L 

LeGendre, Prof 

Legg, Mathew . .. 

Lehrkamp, Frederick _ . 

Leighton, Tames . 208, 

Leiter, Levi Z 639, 694, 

Leland, Windsor 

LeMoyne, John V. 474, 591, 

Lenert, Peter _ 

Lengacher, Jacob - _. 

Leonard, C. E 657, 

Leonard, James .- 

Leonard, Rev. J. H 

Leonard, Matthew 250, 

Leopold, Henry . . _ 

Leopold, Samuel F Si, 

Lepelt, Albert T 

Leslie, J. _ 

Lester, John T 332, 342, 

Lester, Thomas T --213, 216, 

Lester, William 

LeSuer, Charles - 

Lettman, Julius ._ 208, 210, 

Letz, Frederick 56, 94, 163, 358, 679, 

Letz, George F 661, 662, 663, 

Letz, Jacob . . 

Letz, Robert 

Levy. N _._ 

Lewis, Edwin C. 

Lewis, Erastus 

Lewis, Henry F 

Lewis, W. C. _ 

Lewis, W. G. .. 

Lewitt, William _ 

Levdon, Rev. T 



.164, 203, 204 



bby & Harlow 

berman, A. 

ebenstein, Isaac 

ght, Austin 

ljencrantz, G. A. M 

ncoln, David H 333, 370, 371, 

ncoln, James M. __ 

ncoln, Robert T 

nd, Sylvester 164, 580, 690, 691, 

ndbergh, Moses O 

nder, Usher F 159, 

nk, John 

nn, M. G 

pe, Clark 762, 763, 764, 

pman, Philip 

ppert, Eugene W. ._ 

ppert, Henry E 

ppert, Lothar 265, 266, 290, 

ppert, Paul H._ 199, 

ster, Walter 

tchfield, H. G 

ttle, Charles F 

ttle, J. Z 600, 

ttle, William 

ttler, John J 

vermore, Mary A. 310, 314, 315, 316, 
320, 321, 322, 323, 441, 557. 



Page 
489 
293 
322 
295 
554 
291 
285 
370 
104 
446 
443 
5" 



538 
292 
702 
538 
661 
662 
282 
71S 
299 
5" 

76 
327 
65S 
211 
f'95 
369 
694 
116 

50 
664 
691 
-445 
294 
657 

82 
116 
421 
364 

2']I 
6S9 

279 
29O 

68l 
679 
679 

94 
657 
651 
641 
449 
657 
646 
522 
405 
508 
657 
657 
290 
656 
657 
661 
469 
692 
234 
463 
661 
371 
765 
658 
289 
420 
297 
289 
576 
643 
187 
609 
522 
225 
318, 



Page 

Livermore, D. P 441 

Livingston, N.J 657 

Livingston, Robert 422 

Livingston, Simon 658 

Lloyd, Henry D 493 

Loberg, N. P 661 

Lobstein, John 392 

Lochner, J 666 

Locke, B. B. W 661 

Locke, Christian n6 

Locke, Clinton 410, 414, 538, 670 

Locke, Mrs. Clinton 323, 538 

Locke, Sidney E 662 

Lockwood, S. T 651 

Loeb, Adolph 159, 5S1 

Loeb, William.. 234, 5S1 

Loeber, Rev. Christian A 428 

I.oewenthal, Joseph 633 

Loewenthal, Julius 633 

Logan, Hugh 661 

Logan, John A 168 

Logan, Joseph -263, 296 

Logan, Thomas _ -263, 296 

Lombard, Benjamin 625, 628, 629, 632, 

644, 672. 

Lombard, Isaac G 629, 644 

Lombard, Josiah --625, 629, 632, 644 

Lonergan, John C. 222 

Lonergan, Thomas 384 

Lonergan, Thomas --I59, 641 

Long, E. C 626 

Long, Mrs. E. C 321 

Long, D 658 

Long, James _ 49, 392 

Long, Mrs. James.. 312, 313 

Long, John... 159 

Long, John C -.162, 1S0, 1S9, 2SS, 295 

Longley, A. W 505 

Longley. Hiram 502, 505, 507 

Loomis, Clark E . 294 

Loomis, E. B 163 

Loomis. Horatio G 330, 513. 515, 518 

Loomis, John Mason 670 

Loomis, John M. ... --213, 290 

Loomis, Mrs. John M 312, 313 

Loomis & Ludington 693 

Loomis, Mason B 475 

Lord, Rev. Daniel 418, 421 

Lord, F. A. 541, 545 

Lord, James F 692 

Lord, John S 254, 294 

Lord, Moses S _ 218, 291 

Lord, Willis 418, 420 

Loring, S. E. _ 558 

Lossburg, Henry 264 

Lott, E R 658 

Lotz, Carl _ 234, 293 

Louis, Abraham 657 

Lounsbury, C. W 666 

Lounsbury. W. B 637, 639,642, 643 

Lovell, Ogden 208 

Low, Charles H _ _. .. 651 

Low, William H.. 369, 370, 371 

Lowe, Joseph Porter 660 

Lowe, Samuel A 295 

Lowell, Wallace A 647 

Lowenthal, Berthold --447. 632, 633 

Lowrie, William W _ 298 

Loy, John G. 299 

Loyd, Alexander 555, 692 

Loyd, A. T 487 

Lucas, R. G - 657 

Luce, Frank M 139 

Ludington, Nelson 369, 629,646, 692 

Ludlam, E. M. P 545 

Ludlam, James D 250,261, 296 

Ludlam, J. W 449 

Ludlam, Reuben 541, 542, 545, 765 

Ludlam, Mrs. Reuben 312 

Ludwig, John 487 

I.udwig, O. C. -._ 658 

Ludwig, Roscoe F. 546 

Luff, Edmund 297 

Luff, William M 263, 264, 296 

Lull, O. R. W..633, 634, 637, 641, 693, 705 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

■ Lumbard, Frank 106, 594, 611 

Lumbard, J. G 591, 612 

Lumbard, Jules _ 609 

Lunt John 2S2 

Lunt, Orrington 163, 373, 374, 449, 641, 

644. 

Lunt, Stephen P 374 

Lunt, W. H 370, 374 

Luse, A. P 4S7 

Lusk. Peter C - 655 

Luxton, Edward D .. 295 

Lyke, John W. __ 375 

Lyman, George W. 252 

Lyman, Henry M --522. 536, 53S, 553 

Lyman, William C. - 553 

Lynn, I. P 522, 555 

Lyon, George M 63S 

Lyon & Healy _ 596 

Lvon, John B..332, 353, 36S, 370, 371, 625, 
646. 

Lyon, Nicholas 536 

Lyons (Joseph M.) & Co 633 

Lvons, Rev. Michael 404 

Lytle, Robert T. 467 

Lytle, William H 237 

McAdams, James G 162 

McAfee, John 193 

McAllister, William K...i5g, 455, 45S, 459 

McAndrus, P.. 661 

McArthur, A. L. 531 

McArthur, James M 172, 28S 

McArthur. John-56, 162, 163, 169, 170, 172, 
173. *79. 2SS, DD 9. 7°3- 

McAssey, John.- 250, 252, 294 

McAvov, John H 50, 764, 766, 771 

MoBean, C 658 

McBean, G._ 65S 

McBerney, J. 661 

McCabe, R. ,. 704 

McCaffrey, John 50 

McCagg, Ezra B 314, 31S, 321, 322, 410, 

467.478. 5li> 513. 514, 515.517.535. 
550, 556, 557, 553. 559. 645, 670, 691, 
752. 

McCagg, George 298 

McCaila, Mrs. Thomas __ 312 

McCampbell, Amos G 334 

McCann, H. M _ 66S 

McCarthy, Benjamin F 91 

McCarthy, John 263, 264, 296 

McCarthy, J. J 632 

McCarthy, Lawrence S -250, 252, 294 

McCartney, Joseph A. .... 276 

McCauley, James. 56, 771 

McCauley, John 91 

McChesney, R _ 337, 370 

McChesney, Simon 426 

McChesney, Waters W __ 189, 25S, 295 

McCleavy, Smith 49, 250, 294 

McClellan. George B. _ ... 669 

McClellan, George R 655, 659, 666 

McClellan, James 292 

McClure, Andrew 450 

McClurg, Alexander C 235, 243, 294, 4S6 

McComas, E. W _ 405 

McConnell, Edward 581 

M<< onnell, George 581 

McConnell, John 581 

McConnell, Rev. William 422 

McCormick, Adams & Co 363 

McCormick Bros. & Kindlay 649 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall.. 363, 494, 495, 511, 
62'. 688, 689, 

McCormick, Cyrus II.. (r 688 

McCormick, [zander [. 685 

lick, William S 684, 689 

nuel 50, 762, 763, 766, 77 r 

William J 27r, 29.S 

, Samuel 1 1. -344, 362, 365, [I 
3°9. 37". 37'. 646. 

McCredie, William 145 

McCullough, [oseph I: 49S 

McDermott, Michael 708, 709 

McDermott. M. M 



399 

MclJcvitt, John 61- 



Page 

McDonald, Alexander. 225 

McDonald, George W __ 250, 294 

McDonald, Homer C. 236, 294 

McDonald, Malcolm 49, 190 

MacDonakl, P. S 538 

McDonald, Thomas 251 

McDonnell, Charles 4S7, 517, 669 

McDonough, J. E. _ 600 

McDougal, J. A 669 

McElroy, Daniel 190 

McElrov, Solon 632, 633 

McElroy, W. C 385 

McElwain, George 159, 655, 661 

McEnery, Thomas 669 

McEvan, P _ 421 

McEwen, John _ 512 

McFarland, Charles 663 

McFarland, J. S. 662 

McGennis, John W __ 50, 449, 512 

McGeoch, Everingham & Co 332 

McGirr, Thomas 195, 2S9 

McGivern, Rev. T. F 404 

McGrath, James _. 669 

McGrath, James J 50, 763, 771 

McGrath, Justice C. 271 

McGregor, John P. . _ 629 

McGregor, William __ 65S 

Mclienry, William E --35°. 366 

Mcllroy, Daniel 103, 461 

Mclntyre, J. S 657 

McKay, J. H. 661 

McKay, James R 374, 375, 692 

McKay, John .._ 693 

McKay, Samuel 164, 658 

McKee, David -. 327, 328 

McKeever, J. L _, 585 

McKenzie, William L. 193 

McKeon, Rev. F 39S 

McKindley, J. G. -._ 651 

McKindley, William 644 

McKubbin, Charles N 449 

McLaren, John - 655 

McLaren, Malcolm. 65S 

McLaren & Warren 340 

McLaughlin, Mrs. Catharine .. 709, 714, 718 

McLean, Duncan -- T 7°, 172, 173, 288 

McLean, James E 385, 721, 723 

McLean, John --45I, 522 

McLean, R. P._ 164 

McLeish, Rev. 422 

McLennan, Hugh.. 352, 353, 369, 379, 320, 

646. 

McMillan, John B 116 

McMorrine, J. _ 661 

McMullen, James C 141, 142, 615, 632 

McMullen, John 397, 398, 399, 404, 406 

McMurray, Francis 164, 190, 191, 289 

McMurtry, Alexander C235, 238, 242, 293 

McNally, A 487, 658 

McNally, James. 487 

McNally, John 612 

.McVickar, Brockholst. . .292, 310, 393, 394, 

535. 55o, 553. 555, 7 n S. 

McVickar, B. L 608 

McVicker, James II. .162, 314, 459, 597, 59S, 

600, 601, 610, 612, 664. 

McVicker, Mrs. J. H 597 

McWilllams, David 629 

McWilliams, James 657 

McWilliams, John G 213,291, 695 

McWilliams, Samuel A. -.531, 534, 664, 666 

Maas, Phillip _ 450 

Mabie, John S._ . .. _ . 292 

Macallister, Hugh 669 

Macalistcr, John 50, 104, 553, 669 

Macarthy, Harry 609 

Macauley, G 658 

Macbeth, Isaac N 657 

Mack, Alonzo W 41)7 

Mack, Mrs. !•'.. S 116 

Mack, R 116 

Mackay, F. I'' 600 

Macken, Rev. John 399 

Mackenzie, A 392 

Mackenzie, Rev. Robert 420 



Page 

Mackie, Rev. G. W 423 

Maddy, Thomas 313 

Maes, Rev. Ignatius 402 

Magan, Rev. John 400 

Magee, Guy 498 

Mager, Rev. J. B ._ 400 

Magie, Arthur 743 

Magie, Haines H. -.569, 626, 642, 644, 743 

Magie, Mrs. H. H 743 

Magill, Charles J 7S, 370 

Magill, Rev. G. J 408 

Magill, Jacob C. 585 

Magill, Julian 369, 370 

Magill, W. C 643 

Maher, Hugh 503, 555 

Mahia, F 531, 53S, 549, 554, 556 

Mahoney, C 661 

Mahoney, Jeremiah log, 113 

Mahoney, Timothy 294, 661 

Main, Edwin M... 296 

Maitland, John 369 

Maitland & Scanton 625 

Majerus, Rev. Theodore 405 

Major, Laban S 548 

Malley, William 658 

Mallony, William H 633 

Malmborg, Oscar 208, 291 

Maloney, David F. 292 

Maloney, Rev. P 400 

Mandel, Leon 657 

Mandeville, C. E. 427 

Manierre, George — 159, 160, 163, 167, 454, 
513, 514 

Mann, Mrs. Eliza 598 

Mann, John 327, 6S9 

Mann, Orrin L. 203, 204, 205, 206, 290, 

387, 388. 762, 763, 765, 766. 

Mannheimer, M 553 

Mansur, George B. 50 

Maple (J.) &Co 625 

Maple, Thomas.. 348, 357, 369, 370 

Marble, Andrew J 49, 328 

Marcus, A. 657 

Marcus, Louis 658 

Marcuse, Theo 657 

Marder, John 487 

Marguerat, E 538, 547 

Marks, Isaac 657 

Marks, James 645 

Marot, j. P 369 

Marquis, D. C 422, 447 

Marquis, Leopold.- 658 

Marschner. Berthold 164, 267 

Marsh, C. B. - _ 657 

Marsh, C, Carroll 289 

Marsh, Gustavus 264 

Marsh, Joshua L 667 

Marsh, Sutton -.. 555 

Marsh, Sylvester 164, 334, 338, 666 

Marsh, W. R. 553 

Marshall Frank B 204, 290 

Marshall, G. C 657 

Marshall, James A 517, 56S, 651, 654 

Marshall, James M (9, 330, 575 

Marshall, Samuel 77 

Marshall. Thomas A. 623 

Marten, R.I! .- 487 

Martin, Anna 59S 

Martin, Edward 218, 291 

Martin, J 598 

Martin, Lewis H 221 

Martin, William 533 

Marx, FelixC - 297 

Marx, John 1'' 267, 26S, 297 

Marx, Matthew .162, 232, 267, 293 

Mason, Andrew B - 655 

Mason, Carlile 179 

Mason, Edward G 4S5 

Mason & McArthur. 179 

Mason, George 2S8 

Mason, Harvey 1 257, 295 

Mason R. I!. 50, 51, 56, 119, 228. 292, 554, 
556, 582, 639.' f, 7o, 725, 740, 762, 764, 
766, 767, 769, 773, 775, 776, 77S, 779, 
780. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



2 3 



Page 

Mason, R. II 725 

Mason, Richard -- 689 

Mather, Hiram F 159, 163, 417 

Malher, Clary & Co 332 

Mather, W. T 369 

Matteson, Mrs. Cassie - 591 

Matteson, Andre 496, 497 

Matteson, Fred 165, 292 

Matson, Lewis E 430 

Matson, Newell 698 

Mattern, F. W 666 

Matthei, Phillip H 526 

Matthews & Ball _ 364 

Mattison, Henry C 187 

Mattocks, John 472 

Mattocks & Mason 472 

Matz, Otto H. ---565, 6n 

Mauff, August 196, 2S9 

Maulton, John H 50S 

Maurer, Allen D 297 

Maurer, Cass F 655 

Maurer, David T 295 

Maxwell, Philip 327,328, 555 

May, Charles R 291 

Mayer, Aloys 196 

Mayer, Frank .. 632 

Mayer, Leopold .. 159, 447, 625, 633, 634 

Mayer, Samuel 65S 

Maynard, E 632 

Maynard, P. C 632 

Mavnard, William J 394 

Maypole, J. J 65S 

Maxell, William 200 

Meacham, Florus D. 2S7, 299 

Meacham, Frank , 297 

Meacham, Silas 392 

Mead, Aaron B. ... 575 

Mead, William G. 228, 292 

Meadowcroft Brothers 633 

Mears, Charles _. 691, 692 

Mears, Charles H . 692 

Mears, Nathan_36g, 370, 439, 646, 691, 692 

Medill, Elinor 766 

Medill, Joseph 50, 51, 491, 492, 500, 557, 

765. 7&3. 771, 777. 

Medill, Mrs. Joseph 310, 313, 766, 771 

Medill, Kate 763, 766 

Medill, S. J 615 

Medill, William H 259, 260, 261, 296 

Meech, George A.. .. 49, 159, 481 

Meeker, A. B .. 631,673 

Meeker, Joseph (22, 423, 517 

Meeker, George W. __ 453, 454 

Meier, F ._ 395 

Meister, C 666 

Mellen, W. S 139 

Melville, William R 663 

Mendson, E 271 

Mengel, August . 290 

Mercereau, T. W. P 53S 

Meredith, F. A 668 

Merki, John ._ 649 

Merki, Louis. 649 

Merrell, B _ 657 

Merriam, Joseph W 472 

Merrick, Charles C 291 

Merrick, Richard T 461 

Merrill (C. R.) & Co 693 

Merrill, George W S55 

Merrill, W. E 392 

Merriman, Daniel 295 

Meserve, Curtis C 104, III, 658 

Meserve, W. F. P 50S, 509 

Messer, Erwin B 200, 203 

Messner, Rev. George 442 

Mest.iyer, L 610 

Metlar, William 295 

Metz, Seward C 295 

MetZijer, Jacob L. _ 506 

Metzger, William 658 

Metzke, F. 658 

Meyer, C. B 627 

Meyers, Leo. 713 

Michaelis, A 116 

Middleton, John 657 



Page 

Midgely, J. W 615 

Mihalotzy, Geza 162, 163, 164, 196, 199, 289 

Miles, James II 659, 660, 662, 664 

Miles, Nelson A 734 

Miles, Samuel 164 

Millar, J. Morton 370, 371 

Millard," A. C 664 

Millard, B. F 160 

Millard, Norman A 431 

Miller, MissAdaline 314 

Miller, A. M 392 

Miller, Anna 611 

Miller, Benjamin S. 536 

Miller, C. H 667 

Miller, Chauncey _i8o, 189, 288, 297 

Miller, De Laskie 522,535.538, 539 

Miller & Drew .647,651 

Miller, George 657 

Miller, George M ---653, 762 

Miller, Henry G. 103, 477, 725 

Miller & Hood .. 74 

Miller, James R. 647 

Miller, Rev. John 442, 443 

Miller, John C _ — 464 

Miller, Leonard ... 392 

Miller, Mathias 550 

Miller, Orson C 235,237, 294 

Miller, Samuel 327 

Miller, Thomas E 657, 661, 663 

Miller, T. L. _ 639,643, 644, 651 

Miller, Truman W 394, 553 

Miller, Warren. - _. 159 

Miller, William 713 

Miller, William M 657 

Miller & Wilmarth 624, 645 

Milligan, Henry J. 295 

Milliken, Isaac L 555 

Mills (J. R.) & Co ---159, 580 

Mills, J. W 661 

Mills, L. L _. . .. 763 

Mills, Royal A. B 159, 412, 580, 657 

Milne, Robert -617, 690 

Milne, William B ...660 

Milward, Henry 350, 352, 353, 370, 371 

Miner, A. B _ 631 

Minor, C. E 666 

Minot, Jesse — 661 

Mitchell, Arthur 417, 445 

Mitchell, C. E. 43S 

Mitchell, E. W. ._ 624 

Mitchell, Francis M _ 624 

Mitchell, J. S. 541 

Mitchell, Lewis B 299 

Mitchell, R. M __ 369 

Mitchell, Samuel 4S9 

Mitchell, Wiliiam L 475 

Mitchell, William M. 664 

Mitchell, W. W -.325, 369, 660, 662 

Mix, Tames 623 

Mix, S. C 661 

Mixer, A. H 515, 517 

Mixer, Charles H. S 370, 371 

Moeller, Carl C. 371 

Mohr, Samuel. - 655 

Mohrmann, William 22S, 292 

Monroe, Henry S. 469 

Montandon, James E. -213, 29T 

Montgomery, Joseph A .50, 662 

Montgomery, George W._ 643 

Montgomery, P. A 649 

Moody, D. L...182, 183, 323, 324, 445, 511, 

670. 

Moody, Otis 213, 291 

Moore, Avery 50, 104 

Moore, Charles E.. 161, 190, 191, 289 

Moore, Edmund 296 

Moore, Jabez II 271 

Moore, Mrs. J. H — 313 

Moore, J. M 640 

Moore, John A. 271 

Moore, Jonas 657 

Moore, Joseph H. 164, 640, 641 

Moore, Rev. J. W 442 

Moore, Orren'E. 761, 764, 765, 766, 768, 

769, 771- 



Page 

Moore, Mrs. Orren E 766 

Moore, R. E _ 558 

Moore, Silas M. 419, 420, 575, 640, 641, 

645, 658. 

Moore, Thomas 289, 290 

Moore, William T. 290 

Moores, D. B 641 

Moran, James _. 669 

Moran, Patrick 339, 340 

Moral, John 162 

Moref ord Bros 633 

Moretta, Peter 101 

Morey, Henry C 576 

Morrit, J. C 522 

Morford, Robert H 449 

Morgan, Adaline C 671 

Morgan, Elisha 22S 

Morgan, Francis M 270 

Morgan, George W 602 

Morgan, Jacob 517 

Morgan, John R 257 

Morgan, R.J 641 

Morgan, T. J 438 

Morgan, Thomas L 657 

Morgan, T. S. 636 

Morrell, Henry H 411 

Morris. B. B 164 

Morris, Benjamin P. . 633 

Morris, Buckner S. 309, 467, 555, 641 

Morris, J. F.. . 763 

Morris, Nelson _ 657 

Morris, M 657 

Morrison, Alexander 690 

Morrison, J. C 609 

Morrison, Martin. 289 

Morrison, Orsemus 570 

Morrow, W. T 657 

Morse, Albert 345, 370, 624 

Morse, F. E 615 

Morse, J. C 677 

Morse, J. E 645 

Morse, Charles T. 547 

Morse, D. A 522 

Morse, Robert B 218, 291 

Mortimore, Michael 704 

Morton, A. P 117 

Morton, George C. 6qi 

Morton, Quin ... . 191, 289 

Moseley, Flavel-103, 104, 107, 535, 555, 671 

Moses, Hiram P 679 

Moses, Rev. Marx 446 

Moulton, Byron P 629 

Moulton, Joseph T 657, 661 

Mourning, Samuel.. _ 297 

Mowry, A. L. 681 

Mowry, Henry C. . 22S, 229, 292 

Moynihan, Humphrey J. 297 

Mozart, T- M - 667 

Mueller, "A. H... 670 

Mueller, Charles L - 293 

Mueller, George H 657 

Mueller, Johh 658 

Mugridge, Daniel S ..-- 341, 624 

Muhlke, Tohn H --4S2, 550 

Muir, W.T 655,656,657, 660 

Muirhead, James 651 

Mul finger, George L. 428 

Mullen, John T. 612 

Muller, Rev. Joseph 405 

Muller, W. H 538 

Mulligan, James A.-163, 165, 190, 195, 289, 

3°i. 484- 

Mulvey, F. P 657 

Munchrodt, Simon 658 

Munger, AlbertA - 374 

M linger, Charles E. 662 

Munger, Wesley 321, 369, 373, 374, 375, 

554, 624, 630. 

Munn, Benjamin. M. 465 

Munn, Ira T. 319, 321, 338, 345, 347, 348, 

349, 354, 36?, 369, 370, 371, 375, 497, 

554, 604, 646, 647, 762. 

Munn & Scott 368, 373, 374, 375, 624 

Munro, William 625 

Munroe, F. A - 598 



24 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Munson, Parnell -- - 121 

Murphey. B. F 366, 370, 371 

Murphev. C. F _ 369 

Murphev. Robert P 371 

Murphy, J. K - 645, 651 

Murphy, lohn -.2so, 251, 252, 292, 294 

Murphy, P. J. R - 401 

Murray & Brand - 617 

Murray, Charles - 139 

Murray, Edward 191, 2S9 

M array, John \V _ 22S, 292 

Murray & Gold 35S 

Murray i Schwartz 342 

Murray, William H 342 

Murray & Winne 601 

Musham, William 91, 96, 100, 709, 711 

Musselmann, Elias .. 342 

Mussou, James W _ 667 

Myers, Eugene B. 485, 662, 664 

Myers, J _. 657 

Myers. Leo 95, 98 

Myers, Max .. 159 

Myers. R. R 125 

Myers, Samuel. 49, 599, 600 

Myers, Sidney.- __ 62S 

Myrick, W. F 613, 614 

Naghten, John 640 

Xaghten, M. J 640 

Nash, Ebenezer O 164 

Nash, Henry H. 388, 721, 724, 761 

Nash & Wright _ 339 

Nason, William 370 

Nathans, Samuel T 162, 189 

Nazro, Charles A _ 290 

Nealy, J. W. ... 670 

Neeley, Albert E 625 

Xeeley, John C 276, 630 

Nellegar, R. 159 

Nelson, Andrew 449 

Xelson, C. B _.. 6S2 

Xelson, Daniel T. 531, 533 

Xelson, John 84, 606 

Xelson, L. S. - 116 

Xelson, Murry -- 125, 348, 370, 375, 513, 

670, 771. 

Xelson (Murry) & Co 362, 365, 625 

Xelson, William B _ 658 

Xcuberger, Philip 446 

Xeumeister. C. 666 

Xew. J. E. 661 

Newbarger, Emil 265, 297 

Xewbern, J. W 666 

Newberry, Edwin O 657 

Newberry, I.. 374 

Newberry, Oliver 327, 328, 330, 6S9 

Newberry & Dole, 326. 327. 32S, 330, 673, 6S9 
Newberry, Walter L. .. 103, 104, 107, 513, 

5M.' 535. 550, 555. 556, 557, 568, 571, 

626. 627. 

Newby, A. J _ 651 

Newell, John 153 

Xewhouse, J. L 84, 91, 459 

Newman, Augustus 141, 143 

Newman, Benjamin ..505, 506 

Newman, Benjamin 1 505, 506 

Newman, Harvey R _ 505, 506 

Newman, John — --73 1 . 732 

Newton, M. 612 

('.. K 547 

Nichols, Erastus A .. 299 

Nichols, George W 295 

Nichols, John A 159, 641 

Nichols, Luther 164, 517 

Nichols, Melville S 370,625 

Nichols, Rev. Starr H. 429, 431 

Nichols, Thomas 661 

Nichols. Washington A 433 

Nickerson, Samuel M 353, 370, 624, 

704. 

Nicolai, James J .... 116 

Nicolai, John 1 116 

NiehofT, Conrad I 633, 634 

Nieman. Anton 164, 199, 200, . 

rlcorn, Dominic 402 

Nieuwenkamp. !.. J. J 395 



Page 

Nisbet, Archibald 421 

Nissen, Lawrence J. J 263, 264 

Niven, John 666 

Noble, John 327, 328, 568 

Xoble, Mark 327, 328, 568, 576 

Xoble, W. T 559 

Xoburg, Niles 65S 

Xolan, J. H 651 

Noonan, Patrick M 400 

Xorcum, F. B 535 

N orris, J. W 657 

Xorth. Curtis L 431, 641 

North, Levi J 49, 610 

North, Robert L 682 

Northwestern Manufacturing Co. . . 680, 759 

Xorthrup, Charles 208, 209 

Xorthrup, G. W._ 436 43S 

Norton, David W. 208, 290 

Norton, E. M 656 

Xorton, H. & Co 673, 690, 691 

Xorton, Jesse O 464 

Norton, Lemuel D 370, 371, 644, 646 

Norton, L. J 69S 

Norton, Nelson R 689 

Norton, W - 625 

Norton, A. & G. L 691 

Norton & Co ... .. 738 

Nourse, Francis 651 

Nowlin, L. 159 

Noyes, Edward H 364 

Noyes, John, Jr 170, 28S 

Nye, James W 683 

Nyman, John C 641, 642 

O'Brien, Martin - 559 

O'Brien, Thomas 101 

O'Brien, Rossell G 295 

O'Conner, Michael 289 

O'Connor, L. H 669 

O'Connor, Patrick 161 

O'Donoghue, Tohn J. W 669 

O'Donohue, M. D 669 

O'Hara, Edson L 535, 53S 

O'Heron, Owen - - 289 

Leary, Catherine Mrs 701, 70S, 709 

O'Leary, Patrick- -707, 709 

O'Meara, Timothy ... 249, 250 

O'Neill, Edward 295 

O'Neill, J 657 

O'Regan, Rev. Anthony -397, 401 

O'Rorke, Mrs. Mary 714 

O'Sullivan, Eugene 164, 517 

O'Sullivan, James J 49, 50 

O'Sullivan, Michael 50 

O'Sullivan, Rev. S '. 400 

Oakley, Maurice -402, 403 

Oberle, Francis 405 

Ockerby, Thomas 666 

Odell, James W 370, 375, 630, 646 

Odell, Mrs. James W 597 

Oertal, Albert C 633 

Oertel (T. D.)&Co 625 

Officer, Alexander 645, 691 

Ogden, Mahlon D...50, 513, 550, 557, 568. 

569, 626, 627, 645, 737, 745, 746, 747. 

752, 753, 754, 759- 

Ogden, Mrs. Mary Jane . .... 666 

Ogden, William B .121, 135, 163, 449. 488, 

489, 513, 514, 515, 519, 550, 555, 557, 

568, 569, 626 627, 633, 651, 672, 678, 

684, 704. 748. 

Ohlmeyer, W 666 

Olcott. H 657 

Olcott, J. B 43S 

Olcott, 'Mills 643, 645 

Olcott, Orville 74 

Olcott. William 651 

1 »li ott, William M ..162, 1S9, 279 

01cott& Boyd 640 

Oldershaw, Captain ■ 614 

Oliphant, William B 291 

Oliver, |ohn A _ 517 

I, A. 116 

Oliver, John, Jr 716 

Olmstead, Lucius D... 432, 574, 633, 639, 

640. 641, 643, 644, 645. 



Page 

Onahan, William J 53, 104, 397, 669 

Orcutt, W. F _ 506 

Oriental F'louring Mills 738 

Ortell, W 228 

Ortmayer, Andrew 656 

Osband, F^mbury D 271, 295 

Osborn, William 164 

Osborne, David 609 

Osborne, Rev. J. W 412 

Osborne, L. K 657 

Osborne, Thomas O 164, 203, 204, 206, 

290. 390. 

Osby, David 174 

Osgood, Rev. S. M 435 

Osterman, H. 775 

Otis, E. A __ _ 477 

Otis, James 421 

Otis, Joseph E 50, 52, 583 

Otis, Lucius B. 413, 414, 509, 538 

Ott, Rev. Christian 4.13 

Ott, J. ... 666 

Ouillmette, Antoine. . . 327 

Overocker, Charles G 264, 296 

Ovington, Wiliiam, H 121 

Owen, IraH 79 

Owen, L. D 658 

Owen, Thomas J. V 327 

Paddock, James H 661, 664 

Padelford, W 657 

Page, Benjamin V 513 629, 645 

Page, D. W.._ .408, 53S, 646 

Page, James P. 361 

Page, Orville 646 

Page, Peter 388, 644 

Page, William W 587 

Pagus, J 666 

Paine, J. D. 538 

Paine, Rev. Samuel-- 426 

Paine, Seth 517 

Palmer, A. B 555 

Palmer, C. D 646 

Palmer, Dennis 263 

Palmer, H. R 594 

Palmer, John M 773 

Palmer, Percy W 637 

Palmer, Potter. 352, 509, 513, 615, 632, 695 

Palmer, William D 116 

Paoli, Gerhard C 528, 538, 555, 556 

Paramore, LaFayette 228, 292 

Pardee, Frank 636 

Pardee, Harry T 636 

Pardee, Rev. Luther - . 636 

Pardee, Theron 56S 635, 636, 637- 

Park, George H ._ 692 

Park, George K 225 

Park, William A 632 

Parker, George G 372 

Parker, Henry 514, 535, 538 

Parker, Henry M 295 

Parker, Isaac 661 

Parker, J. Mason 587 

Parker, Mrs. N. H 312, 313 

Parker, O. 1 661 

Parker, Thomas 353, 369, 370 

Parker, T. L. 691 

Parkes, Charles T._ 522, 537 

Parkes, John C 676 

Parkhurst, Matthew M 425, 426 

Parkins, George B _ 666 

Parks, C. C... 625, 633 

Parmelee, Franklin 11S, 119, 459 

Parmelee, J. W 719 

Parsons, 11. C 666 

Parsons, J. B . 412 

Parsons, J. E 511 

Parsons, John 162 

Parsons, Justin 642 

Parsons, L. V. 369 

Parsons, Myron C 655 

Pasco, Henry L 636 

Pasdeloup, Francis 5S7 

Pashley, [ohnS. 291 

Passavant, W, A 539 

Patch, A. 658 

Patten, A. W 427 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



25 



Page 

Patterson, A. L 495 

Patterson, Mrs. J. L. 313 

Patterson, R. J 531 

Patterson, Robert \V 417, 418, 419, 422, 

513- 
Patterson, T, E 449 

Patterson, Theodore Henry --539. 661 

Patton, Rev. Francis L 41S, 423 

Patton, Robert W 763 

Patton, W. W..315, 317, 320, 321, 322, 428, 

445- 

Patton. Mrs. W. W. 323 

Patrick, Benjamin F 655, 662,664 

Paun, Julius 196, 2S9 

Payne, Eli 661 

Payne, Eugene B. 200, 201, 203 

Payson, George.. __ 541, 746 

Payson, J. R. __ 645, 652 

Peabody, Francis B 5S4, 644 

Peabody, James B 341, 345 

Peacock, Charles D 49 

Pearce, J. Irving 503, 504, 647, 777 

Pearce, Willard 65S 

Pearce, W. L 503, 504, 506 

Pearson, Hiram -327, 568 

Pearson, J. H 763 

Pearson, John M 662 

Pease, Benjamin Lovering 586 

Pease, Henry 194, 2S9 

Peaslee, W. A 203 

Pebbles, Frank M __. 560 

Peck, Azel A 512, 555 

Peck, Charles ._ 557, 558 

Peck, Charles E 488 

Peck, Ebenezer 449, 550, 557 

Peck, Ferd W. _ ._ 460 

Peck, James 374, 641, 690 

Peck, John H. 199, 200, 290, 295 

Peck & Noyes ... 364 

Peck, Philip F. \V. 327, 328, 56S, 733 

Peck, William W 667 

Peet, Rev. Stephen ._ 432 

Peironnet, James S. .- - 353 

Peironnet, William F 353 

Peltzer, Otto... 606 

Pendleton, C. H 625 

Penfield, H. D 511, 651 

Pentield, William P 295 

Perkins, David W 228, 292 

Perkins, George W 640 

Perkins, Gurdon 49 

Perkins, Jenks D. 140 

Perkins, J. R 662 

Perrett, Joseph C. 663 

Perrin, Mrs. Sarah G 610 

Perry, Charles S 549, 5^0 

Perry, Rev. H. M 666 

Perry, J. O 666 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 492 

Perry, Theodore.. 374 

Perry, Thomas W 661 

Peters, Henry M. 267, 297, 655, 658 

Peters, Joseph G 279 

Peters, William 716 

Peterson, Charles E. B 658 

Peterson, Peter 604 

Peterson, William 275 

Peterson, W. F 651 

Petitt, Charles _ 612 

Petrie, Charles S. - 91, 97, 713 

Pettee, Charles 655 

Pettee, George W. _ 662 

Pettibone, J. F. _ 666 

Pettitt, R. W .370, 371 

Pfeiffer, Charles 651 

Pfiaum, M 657, 658 

Pfund, John 657 

Phelps, George S 263, 296 

Phelps, Joseph B 370 

Phelps, S. D 765 

Phillio, Addison 661 

Phillips, Bezaleel _ 633 

Phillips, B. W...628, 642, 644, 645, 646, 647 

Phillips, Charles B _ ng 

Phillips, Charles C -189, 20S, 290, 257 



Phillips, D. L 644 

Phillips, F. B 414 

Phillips, F. L 666 

Phillips, George S 499 

Phillips, George W., Jr 353 

Phillips, John.. 561 

Phillips, John C. 164, 190, 191, 277, 278, 

289, 290. 

Phillips, N. A 140 

Phillips, T. F. .._ 639, 642. 645 

Phillips, William 646, 647 

Phillips, William B 646 

Pick, Albert 395 

Pickard, Josiah H 114 

Pickering, Aquilla H . 371 

Pierce, Asahel _. 517, 519 

Pierce, Celia _ . . 116 

Pierce. Rev. Edward A. --42I, 422 

Pierce, F. A 766 

Pierce, L. A 661 

Pierce, Reuben P 295 

Pine, Theodore _ 55S 

Pingree, William. 657 

Pinkerton, Allen _ S7 

Pinkham, H. B 657 

Plankington & Armour 331 

Plaum, Isaac . 295 

Plimpton. Homer A 206 

Pinta, S. E 632 

Pitkin, Alfred H 656 

Pitkin, S. G 567 

Plamondon , Ambrose 663 

Plate, C. J 625 

Piatt, John R. 601 

Plowman, J. H 662 

Poiner, Charles T 658 

Pollard, J. K 353, 517 

Pollig, Matthew 537 

Pomeroy, Richard 22S, 292 

Pomeroy, S. B _ 369 

Pomeroy, W. H 660 

Pool, J. W 517 

Pope, Charles .. 602 

Pope, Charles B 360, 370 

Portch, E. M 657 

Porter, Anthony B - __ 295 

Porter, Edward C 410 

Porter, Mrs. Eliza C 315, 318 

Porter, Mrs. Elizabeth__3l6, 317, 320, 322, 

323- 

Porter, E. Payson 108, 125 

Porter, H. A.'. .._ 487 

Porter, Henry H 137, 677 

Porter, Hi bbard 517 

Porter, H. T. __ 660, 692 

Poller, Jeremiah 327, 431, 559 

Porter, William 65S 

Porter, William A 103, 457, 763 

Potter, Alphonso W. 275, 299 

Potter, D."S 641 

Potter, E. C- 675 

Potter, Horace S 294 

Potter, Orrin W 670, 675, 676 

Potter, Thomas J. 145 

Potter, W. L. 675 

Potter, W. T 661, 691 

Pottle. J. W 370 

Poull, Jacob __ 196 

Poulsen, T. E 669 

Poulson, William E. . .... ._ 637 

Powell, Edwin -.208, 228, 230, 231, 290, 292, 

522, 535, 536, 547, 553, 655, 659. 

Powell, George 50 

Powell, M. W 95, 663 

Powell, William 661 

Powell, William S ---50, 661 

Powers, Heman G 554, 630, 646 

Powers, H. G... 698 

Powers, Rev. H. N 445 

Powers, J. P 116 

Powers, O. W 116 

Pratt, Rev. James 671 

Pratt, Leonard 541 

Pratt, Silas 370 

Pratt, Silas G 594 



Pratt, William M. _ 

Preble, E. C 

Prendergast, Rev. G 

Prentice, N. F. 541 

Prescott, H. S 

Prescott, Joel 94 

Preston, Isaac. 

Preston, josiah W... 341, 362, 367, 369, 

371, 374, 625, 633, 757, 762, 763 

Preston & McHenry 

Preus, Rev. A. C _ 

Price, Cornelius 

Price, Jeremiah 

Price, Samuel H 261 

Price, Thomas B 

Price, William 3S9 

Prickett, George W 

Priestly, Howard 360, 362, 364, 

370, 371- 

Prince, William H. - 

Prindiville, John 74, 77 

Prindiville, Redmond 49, 56, 104, 

365. 367. 37°, 37', 632, 651. 

Prior, Edwin C 22S, 

Proudfoot, John J. A 420, 

Proudfoot, L 

Trussing, Charles G. E. 

Prussing, Ernst 159, 

Prussing, George F. _. 

Pugh, Oliver M -..263, 

Pulling H. G 

Pullis, Washington B.' 224, 

Pullman, Charles M _ 

Pullman, George M 615, 670, 

Purdv, Warren G - .. 

Purdy, W. H. .. 

Purington, D. V . 

Purington. George E 417, 

Purinton, George L 

Putnam, Joseph R 

Putnam, S. P 

Puzner, Joseph 

Quales, Niles Theodore .. 536, 

Quarter, Rt. Rev. William 399, 

Queal, Robert F 

Quigg, David 

Quinby, Benjamin F 159, 

Quine, W. E 

Quinlan, Charles H. _ 

Quinlan, Mrs. J. D 

Quinlan, S 

Quinn, J. B 

Quinn, John S. - 

Quirk, Bartholomew 

Quirk, Daniel 164, 190, 191, 195 

Quirk. Daniel L. 369, 

Quirk, Daniel W 191, 289, 

Quirk, James 161, 164, 191, 193, 

Raber, John 

Rae, Noah W 

Rae, Robert _ 

Raefsnider, William T 

Raffen, Alexander W 162, 164, 165, 

1S7, 2S8 

Raffen, James W --1S7, 

Raffertv, Patrick --49. 50, 

Ragatz, J. H 

Ramage, William J 

Rand, William H 4S5, 487, 

Rand, McNally & Co 485, 

Randall, George B. 

Randall, G. P 661, 

Randall, Thomas D . 

Randolph, Charles. .337, 350 352, 357, 

360, 362, 367, 369, 370, 371, 624, 77 

Randolph, Mary A 

Randolph, William _. 279, 

R anker, Charles 

Rankin, A. A - 

Rankin, James C 

Rankin, John 

Rankin, R. C 

Rann, Charles H - — 

Rannev, Henrv Collings 370, 662, 

664, 665, '666. 



678 
400 
662 
651 
95 
666 
370, 
777 
350 
444 
512 
555 
296 
332 
390 
5i8 
369. 

271 
752 
163, 

292 

421 
50 
641 
643 
512 
296 
506 
292 
385 
681 
152 
657 
670 
670 
271 
581 
550 
716 
556 
407 
104 
474 
633 
538 
636 
313 
657 
392 
658 
289 
289 
370 
706 
2S9 
5° 
238 
475 
°55 
1 80, 



669 
647 
182 
657 
487 
292 
662 
661 

358, 

7- 
116 
282 
116 
625 
225 
669 
125 
392 

66v 



a6 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Rnnney, Mrs. O. D - 313 

Ranny, J. E.. 125 

Ranny, Robert 20S 

Ransom, Benjamin — 505 

Ransom. Porter A.. 22S, 292 

Raplev. Miss M 116 

Rapp,' T. H 666 

Raschd'au, M 395 

Ramussen Niels — 65S 

Raster, Herman. 3S7, 3SS 

Rattle, Thomas Stuart - -- 140 

Rauch, John H.--522, 53S, 539, 549, 550, 
552. 553, 556, 765, 76S. 

Rawson, E 369. 370, 545 

Rawson, S. \V. _. 627, 62S, 633 

Ray. A. J _ -- 649 

Rav, Charles H.--I23, 159, 3S7, 491, 492, 

493. 513- 

Ray. William A 763, 766 

Raymond, B. F 321 

Raymond, Benjamin W.. .159, 164,448,449, 
' 513. 555. 56S, 636, 637. 639, 641, 645, 

672, 67S. 

Raymond, Charles L 33S, 345 

Raymond, Lewis 213, 21S 

Raymond, Samuel B. 213, 215, 218, 291 

Raynolds, \V. F 392 

Rea, R L .522, 535 

Reading, G. X - 164 

Real, Peter ... 250, 294 

Reans, Henry L. 263 

Redheld, George S .. 630 

Redfield. Joseph B. .135, 139 

Redheld. William B 1S2 

Reece, Alonzo X. 294 

Reed, Alanson 595, 596 

Reed, Alanson H 595, 596 

Reed, Alanson L 596 

Reed, Asa D._ _ 631 

Reed, C. F. - 541 

Reed, Charles H 461, 513, 778 

Reed, George W... ---277, 278, 279 

Reed, Henry J. 196 

Reed, Horatio 352 

Reed, John 53S 

Reed, J. H. -.--637, 643 

Reed, Judson W 292 

Reed, J. Warner 596 

Reed, J. Warner, Jr _ 596 

Reed, S. K ... 66S 

Rees, James II 121, 164, 449, 550, 56S, 

573, 577. 536, 589. 641. 

Reeves, Isaac T 242, 2g3 

Rehm, Jacob.. S3, S4, 606 

Reid, Charles 32S 

Reid, James 65S 

Reid, John 22S, 292,487, 553, 766 

Reid, Robert 617,625,626, 645 

Reid, William H 656, 657 

Reid, Murdoch & Fischer 700 

Reillv, Frank W. 291, 553 

Reiners, E. D 658 

Reiser, Bernard _ 655 

Reissig, Charles 678, 679 

Reno, C. A. 49 

Requa. S. F 645 

Reynolds, A. B 553, 556 

Reynolds, Birdie 766 

Reynolds. Harman G .. 658 

Reynolds, J. 1 324, 670 

Reynolds, loseph S 104, 585, 586, 763, 

765. 766. 

Rhimes, James 293 

Rhines, Henry 6l6 

Rhodes, C. W 651 

Rhodes. J. C. 658 

Rhor, George W 291 

Rice, Byron 628 

Rice, C. II 50; 

Rice, Daniel B 235, 294 

Rice, Henry W 431 

Rice, John A 503 

Rice, John Blake 50, 164, 519, 551, 553, 

Rice, Mrs. John li 596, 597 



Rice, MaryE. S - -- 112 

Rice, N. L 535 

Rice, Oliver 22S, 292 

Rice, William H 49, 159, 244, 245, 247, 

249, 294, 597, 633. 

Rich, M. Byron 412, 414 

Richards, Jared W 208 

Richards, John J. 163, 360, 369, 370, 624 

Richards, T. M 343, 353, 365, 369, 615 

Richards. R. P 362 

Richardson, John H 657 

Richardson, William 626 

Richardson, W. D. - 646 

Richardson, W. F 370, 371 

Richberg, John C 104 

Richman, Jacob 661 

Richmond, C. T -- 370 

Richmond & Hancock — _. 625 

Richmond, Thomas 370, 506, 641, 642 

Riddell, George W _ 612 

Riddle, Hugh 151 

Riedel, Ernst F 267, 297 

Riegel, Rev. John 442 

Riegert, Joseph.. 232, 234, 293 

Rielzniger, Haver. - - 658 

Rietz, Charles 670 

Riggle, Urias R 658 

Rigney, James M 244, 249, 294 

Riley, Richard -.715, 718 

Ring, E. H 639 

Ring, PauIB 637 

Riordan, Patrick W 401 

Ripley, E. P. 146 

Ripley, Mrs. William 765, 766 

Riske, Emile 604 

Ritchie, Hugh . . 669 

Ritey, M. K - 615 

Rittig, A. -. 267 

Ritzmann, H 116 

Robb, James 141, 559 

Robb, Mrs 317 

Robb, T. P -.. - 318 

Robbins, B. F 660 

Robbins, E 657 

Robbins, Enos V 361, 369, 370, 374 

Roberts, E. P .637, 638 

Roberts, George R 691 

Roberts, George W... ..208, 209, 210, 212, 

290, 464. 

Roberts, Harrison 271, 29S 

Roberts, James H - 49 

Roberts, John W. 601 

Roberts, Porteus B - 503 

Roberts, R. Biddle 460 

Roberts, Theodore P 271, 29S 

Robertson, Hugh - 65S 

Robertson John P - 116 

Robertson, Robert 65S 

Robinson, Alexander 327 

Robinson, A. D. . 5° 

Robinson, A. II 661 

Robinson, Mrs. F. W 311, 313 

Robinson, George F 244, 249, 294 

Robinson, George 1 278, 2S1, 299, 346 

Robinson, R 369 

Rochester, John 642 

Rockwell, A. F 641 

Rockwell, C. B. - 641 

Rockwell, Charles F 633 

Rockwood, Frank B. - — 279 

Rockwell, F. M 670 

Rodemeyer, I 267 

Roden, Charles 263,264, 296 

Rodgers, Henry A. 276, 299 

Rodgers, J. Kearney -..639, 640, 642 

Rodgers, S. I - 661 

Roe, Charles T - 225 

Roe, Henry 286,287, 299 

Roehl, Nicholas. 658 

Roesch, Rev. George 4°5 

Rogan, Dennis 709 

Rogers, B. Frank - 189 

Rogers, Charles A 369, 625 

Rogers, E. C 538 

Rogers, Edward K 439, 626, 641, 673 



Page 

Rogers, Edward K, Jr 673 

Rogers, E. R 449 

Rogers, Frank 162 

Rogers, Henry W., Jr 350 

Rogers, James C -- 359 

Rogers, John C -. 159 

Rogers, J. F 637 

Rogers, John Gorin 455, 666, 667, 763 

Rogers, Patrick T. 658 

Rogers, Samuel S - 626 

Rogers, William B 633 

Rogers, W. H 374 

Rogerson, Joseph 450 

Roland, Charles H 180, 213, 274, 288 

Roler, E. O. F. 208, 290, 531, 553 

Roles, Joseph P.. _ 399, 404 

Rolli, John G 267, 297 

Rollin, Arthur -. 663 

Rollins, C. E 635, 650 

Rollins, C. E 652 

Rollo, William Egbert ... 640, 643, 644, 645, 

651. 
Rolshausen, Ferdinand H 196, 231, 232, 

234, 290, 293. 

Roman, Louis 658 

Roman, Morris - 658 

Ronavne, E 116, 659 

Roof Albert E 682 

Roos, B. L.._ 658 

Root, Daniel S 536 

Root & Cady -.159,484, 593, 594 

Root, Ebenezer Towner --593, 612 

Root, F. W. 594 

Root, George F 484, 592, 593, 612 

Root & Sons M usic Co 593 

Rose, Augustus - 116, 658 

Rose, Orrin J 56 

Rose, Rufus --.213, 291 

Rose, W. H -.-. 651 

Roseberry, Isaac S 657 

Rosenbauer, Rev. Charles 405 

Rosenthal, Isidor... 658 

Rosenthal, Julius.. 159, 460, 670 

Rosenthal, Rudolph 697 

Rosicky, John 651 

Ross, Daniel E 669 

Ross, George A 66 1 

Ross, Henry H 370 

Ross, J. L - 651 

Ross, John S — 669 

Ross, loseph P 522, 535, 536, 538, 550 

Ross, "Robert D 189 

Ross, William M - 352 

Rossiter, Newton - 689 

Roth, James 327 

Rothermel, S. A 646 

Rounds, Ruel G 292 

Rounds, Sterling P -- 4S7 

Rountree, John M. 480 

Rourke, John.. - 193 

Rowell, Henry L 244, 247, 249, 294 

Rowell, Lyman S. 26S, 298 

Rowland, E. S 334 

Roy, Rev. Joseph E. 429 

Rubowitz, Edward- 657 

Ruby, Jacob J 297 

Rucker, Edward A 586 

Rucker, Edward L 88 

Rucker, Henry L 464 

Rucker, Louis H 296 

Rue, J. C 517 

R uh, Valentine 49. 5° 

Rumsey Bros. & Co 326, 328, 624 

Rumsey, George Dole 330, 741 

Rumsey, George F.--32S, 330, 353, 369, 513, 

550, 6.;6. 
Rumsey, Israel P. -.271, 273, 274, 29S, 370, 

37i- 

Rumsey, John W 270, 271, 298 

Rumsev, lulian S. 49, 160, 163, 325, 328, 

330, 337. 347. 352, 354. 366, 369. 370, 

374, 377. 4io, 550, 554, 632, 725, 740, 

741, 765. 

Rundell, Lewis B 43$. 641 

Rundell, R. 1 5" 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



27 



Page 

Runnion, David _ 651 

Runyan, Eben F — 104, 762, 764, 765 

Runyan, W. C 677 

Rusch, Julius -.- 632 

Russ, Rupert 196 

Russell, B. F 50 

Russell, Elisha S - 276 

Russell, Frederick C. 385 

Russell , George D 370 

Russell, II. C. 370 

Russell, Jacob.. 385, 393, 502 

Russell, J. B. F 568, 573, 636, 637, 694 

Russell, John Rniffin 660 

Russell, John S 657 

Russell, Martin J. _ 2S9 

Russell, S. I. ... _ 50 

Rutger, Francis 170 

Rutherford, Robert 2S8 

Rutledge, A. M 661 

Rutter, David 531 

Rutter, Endicott & Co 625 

Rutter, Endicott & Whitehouse 631, 633 

Rutter, Joseph 62S, 631, 632 

Ryan, E. E ---645, 651 

Ryan, Frank J .- 666 

Rvan, Patrick J. 191, 194, 195, 289 

Rvas, William B 661 

Ryan, William M. D 426 

Ryder, C. E .__ 447 

Ryder, William H...104, 440, 441, 547, 599, 

670, 672. 

Ryerson, Joseph T 670, 753 

Ryerson, Mrs. J. T. 753 

Ryerson, Martin 554, 646, 680, 696 

Rylance, J. H. -.410, 670 

St. Cyr, John M. 1 567 

St. John, Everett 152 

St. John, T. E 442 

St. John, W. L 150 

Sabin, Albert Robbins. . in 

Sackett, G. A 412 

Safford, Truman Henry — 517 

Sales, Frances de 115 

Salisbury, Alvin _ 50 

Salisbury, J. C 65S 

Salisbury, Menzo H 279, 282, 299 

Salomon, A 625 

Salomon, Edward S 49, 159, 231, 232, 233, 

234, 235, 293, 663. 

Salter, Bradley D 218, 291 

Samberneau, Paul __ 327 

Sammons, C. B 517 

Sampson, Frederick A. 282 

Sampson, Guy C. _ 670 

Sampson, William A. 244, 249, 294 

Sampson, William H 56S, 576 

Samuels, J. P 668 

Sanderson, William 658 

Sanford. Charles .__ 624 

Sanford, Mrs. C. W 313 

Sanford, Myron S 27S 

Sanger, Mrs. A. V 117 

Sanger, William D.__ __ 291 

Sankey, Ira D 425, 512 

Sapieha, Louis ._ 633 

Sargent, E. H 53S, 539 

Sargent, Homer Earle 155, 163, 511, 629, 

646 

Sass, Henry 293 

Satterlee, M. L 641, 700 

Saunders, Catharine __ 116 

Saunders, Eliza J _ 117 

Sawin, George 221 

Sawyer, Alonzo J. 662 

Sawyer, Charles B 629, 646 

Sawyer, Mrs. Charles B... 313, 766 

Sawyer, E. W __ 545 

Sawyer, Sidney --33°, 449, 517 

Savior, John 661 

Sayrs, Mrs. Henry 310, 312, 313, 323, 

324- 

Sayrs, Miss M. L. - 313 

Sayrs, Mrs. S. C _ 313 

Scammon, Charles T 262, 296, 775 

Scammon, Franklin 513, 514, 538, 641 



Scammon, Jonathan Young-. 354, 439, 449, 
460, 467, 469, 47S, 497, 513, 514, 515, 
516, 517, 541, 547, 554, 556, 557, 558, 
559, 617, 623, 625, 626, 629, 630, 633, 
641, 645, 672, 696, 733. 

Scanlan, John F 292 358 

Scannell, M. F 640 

Scates, Walter B 385, 459, 467 

Schaefer, Mathias... 709, 711, 712, 718, 724 

Schaeffer, Rev. Albert 405 

Schaffner, Herman 633 

Schaffner, Louis .- 50, 65S, 663 

Schall, Andrew 49 

Scharenberg, Herman .- 268 

Schaumbeck, Frederick.. 162, 164, 267, 26S, 
297. 

Scheik, William J 360 

Schenck, Noah H __ ._ 412 

Schimmels, Christian 712, 718 

Schintz, Theodore- .50, 104, 394, 479, 716, 

771- 

Schippel, A. . 666 

Schlaeger, E _ 159, 162 

Schloesser, R 632 

Schloetzer, George.-232, 293, 535, 539, 553, 

556. 

Schlund, Fidel . --.162,292 

Schmerr, Rev. Leander __ 406 

Schmidt, August ._ 117 

Schmidt, C. A -_. _. 658 

Schmidt, Ernst 531, 538, 539, 540 

Schmidt, John 162 

Schmidt, K. G 50 

Schmidt, Michael 50, 655 

Schmidt, Michael 2S7 

Schmidt, \V. A. _ 116 

Schmitz, P. L _ 117 

Schneider, George. - 159, 167, 387, 3S8, 449, 

499, 554, 62S, 643, 67c. 

Schneider, Mrs. George _ 313 

Schniedewend, Paul 489 

Schnoekel, William.. 291 

Schnur, Peter 96 

Schoellkopf, C. E. 700 

Schoellkopf, Henry 700 

Schoeneman, B 447 

Schoenfeld. Wolf 117 

Schoenewald, Francis 655 

Schoeninger, Adolph 670 

Schrader, Frederick 584 

Schrader, William L 5S4 

Schriber, Charles 296 

Schroeder, Hugo 293 

Schroeder, J. M __ 666 

Schuler, Max 50 

Schultz, Anton 65S 

Schultz, Rev. John 402 

Schultz, L. 666 

Schultz, Otto A. ... . 65S 

Schumacher, Charles F., Jr 584, 64S, 649 

Schumacher & Lauer 5S4 

Schuttler, Peter 616 

Schuyler, W. H. 49S 

Schwank, L. 666 

Schwartz, Charles .. ..342,450 

Schweinfurth, Frank --I96, 2S9 

Schweisthal, M. 632 

Scobey, Madison C 332 

Scofield, David _. 487 

Scott, Charles, Jr. -- 1S9 

Scott, Douglas W. -.268, 29S 

Scott, George L 345, 374, 763 

Scott, Mrs. G. L 766 

Scott, G. Wentworth 369 

Scott, John W . 20S 

Scott, Joseph R. ...162, 165, 166, 180, 184, 

187, 189, igo, 270, 288. 

Scott, Seth _. 327 

Scott, Stephen 1 327 

Scott, W. D 617 

Scott, Willard.. 327 

Scovel, Harry M 495, 496 

Scoville, Charles Burton 627 

Scoville, George 4S1 

Scoville & Harvey 576 



Page 

Scoville, Hiram Henry, Jr. 656, 678 

Scoville, Hiram H., Sr 678 

Scoville, Ives 666 

Scoville, James W _. 627 

Scoville, William H _ 678 

Scranton, Abner R. 124, 511 

Scanton, Don Carlo 360,369, 370 

Scripps, John Locke.. 228, 3S9, 390, 491, 

492, 493, 627. 

Scuitti, Agostino 396 

Searing, George _. 290 

Sears, John . 645 

Sears, Joseph _ 295 

Seborn, Franklin.. -.274, 275, 298 

Secor, J. W. ... 666 

See, William 327 

Seeberger, Anthony F. 683 

Seeberger, Charles D. 6S3, 684 

Seeger, John E 608 

Seeley, J. P 65 1 

Seeley, Thaddeus Pomeroy 529, 553 

Seelye, H. E 315, 320 

Seiler, Fritz 649 

Sellers, Alfred H 5S8, 5S9 

Sells, Joseph . 612 

Semmes, Raphaels.- 309 

Setters, Rev. John 402 

Sewell, Alfred L -.323, 424, 759 

Sewell, Thomas.. : _ 257, 295 

Sexton, James A. 228, 230, 231, 292, 680 

Sexton, Sylvester ._ 416 

Sexton, Thomas S.. 295, 6S0 

Seymour, Rev. F 420 

Seymour, Mrs. John 117 

Seymour, Stephen 545 

Seymour, Thomas H 370, 371, 624, 644 

Shackford, Samuel .50, 104, 370 

Shackford, Mrs. Samuel _ 312, 313 

Shaller, John 534 

Shandrew & Dean 65 1 

Shank, John 658 

Shanley, Timothy L 191 

Shapley, Morgan L ._ 330 

Sharp, Daniel 644 

Sharp, William 292, 666 

Sharpe, George W 632 

Shattuck, Charles H 655 

Shaw, Caleb 164 

Shaw, Elijah . . .. 666 

Shaw, Orrin T _ 116 

Shaw, T. A. 631 

Shay, Maurice W 97, 711, 712 

Sheahan, James W. 103, 104, 159, 485, 492, 

494, 495, 497, 606, 669, 701, 724, 729, 

73S 

Shearer, George W -263, 264, 265, 296 

Shearer, W. T 699 

Shedd, Charles B 633 

Shedd, Joshua R 679 

Sheef, G. 267 

Sheldon, D. Henry -439, 582 

Sheldon, Edwin H.--410, 449, 514, 554, 569 

Sheldon, Nathaniel E. 258 

Shepard, B. S --369, 641 

Shepard, Daniel 670 

Shepard, Henrv M. 513 

Shepard, J. B __ _. 508 

Shepley, Charles H ..180, 189, 288 

Shepley, Mrs. J. C 312, 313 

Sheppard, Robert B 427 

Sherard, Thomas 421 

Sheridan, George A 235, 238, 293 

Sheridan, Mark 49, 50 84, 554, 7 10 

Sheridan, Phillip H. ---34, 35. 51, 3S3, 615, 

630, 734. 735. 737." 774. 775. 776, 777, 

778, 779. 780. 

Sheridan, Redmond 49, 250, 251 

Sheridan, W.N 666 

Sherlock, James 296 

Sherlock, Patrick T. 485 

Sherman, Alson S 512, 517, 51S 

Sherman, Andrew T,. 449, 606 

Sherman, E. B 666, 667 

Sherman, Francis C. ,49, 502, 503, 554, 555, 

628. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Sherman. Francis T. .. 235. 237, 239. 242, 

! j, 293, 3S9, 390, 503, 518, 775, 778. 

Sherman, Howard-.. 679 

Sherman, John B 6l6, 628 

Sherman, J. 1>. 696 

Sherman, Julian S. — 531 

Sherman, N.. Jr. - 666 

Sherman. Oren 5 12 , 5t7. 5'8, 5'9 

Sherman. Pennoyer L - 657 

Sherman. Silas W .. 570 

Sherman, Wells .. S4, 65S, 7(12 

Sherman. \V. G.- 5*8 

Sherry, John — 32S 

Sherwin, Joseph 49, 50 

Sherwood. George W 50 

Sherwood, Henry M 5S5 

Sherwood, M. W 545 

Sherwood, Thomas J 656 

Sherwood, S. I -- 555 

Shiel. P. B.._" 50 

66 1 
550 
633 
747 
f>57 
55- 
655 
656 
58S 
40S 
49 
651 
716 
491 
65S 
663 
282 



Shields, Moses 263, 264, 657, 65S, 

Shimp, Peter 49, ;o, 

Shipherd, Jacob R. . . 

Shipman. George E 541, 543, 545, 

Shire, Adolph _ 

Shirlaw, Walter 557, 

Shirley, Thomas l6l, 480, 

Shortall, lohn G. ..-5S6, 587, 5S8, 591, 

Shortall & Hoard .5S6, 5S7, 

Shufeldt, H. H. .. 

Shufeldt, William T._ 

Shugart, Joseph 

Shults, Frank 

Shuman, Andrew 322, 

Shumway, Charles 

Shurley, Edmund R. P. 

Sickles, Thomas N 

Sidway, L. B. 370, 371, 62S, 644 

Sigmund, C. H. _ 666 

Silsby, J. H 507 

Silva, Charles P 294 

Silverman, Lazarus 633, 69S 

Simmons, Charles E. 139 

Simons, Rev. George H. 428 

Simons, Samuel _ 490 

Simpson, George _ 599 

Sinclair, Catharine .- . . 763, 766 

Sinclair, Charles E 295 

Sinclair, Eva 763 

Sinclair, George G. 657 

Sinclair, Horatio G 657 

Sinclair, Ida 763 

Sinclair, James C 287, 299 

Singer & Ball 364 

Singleton, James W 624 

Sinks, Adolphus _ ___ 117 

Sister Frances Mulholland ._ 407 

Sister Mary Agatha O'Brien 407 

Mary Paula Ruth 407 

Sister Mary Schf.lastica Drum 407 

Sister Mary Vincent McGirr 407 

.s, L. 392 

Sitts, B. F .666 

orgc H .49, 263. 297, 377, 666 

. ,. W. 681 

Skeers, John D. .. 534 

Slcelly, D.C 161 

Skelton, John 426 

Skelton, lohn I i,\- 

Skelton, Rev. W. U 426 

Skidmore, Jamea 21S 

Skinner, Benjamin II 506, 507, 632 

Skinner, Mark. .1 12. 314, 315, 319, 321, 322, 

4< r '. 417. 5'3. 535. 557, 641. ' >4! 

671, - 

Skinner. Nathan A s 156 

Slade, Jonathan 261, 

Slaughter, A. < ) 633 

Slaughter, William li 164, 203, 204, 200 

Maymaker, Mis L. B 314 

., William I; 

Sleeper, F. II 666 

Sieightly, Miss Annette 314 

II. S 541 

Sloan, Thomas J 160, 204 



Slosson, Enos 

Smale, William 

Small, Alvan Edmund 541, 542, 

Small, Edwin 22S, 

Smarms, Cornelius F (02, 

Smith. Albert 164, 

Smith, Alfred 

Smith, Calvin S 

Smith, Miss Caroline 

Smith, Charles C 162, 189, 

Smith, Charles Gilman 533, 536, 538, 

Smith, C. H -. - 

Smith, CM 

Smith, Mrs. C. M 

Smith, Charles W. - 

Smith, Cvrus 26S, 

Smith, D". D 

Smith, David Sheppard 541, 555, 

Smith, Edward A 244, 245, 

Smith, Edward S 

Smith, Elijah 423, 

Smith, Frank B 

Smith, F. C 

Smith, Frederick A 

Smith, Frederick B 

Smith, Gean .. 

Smith, George.. 568, 616, 617, 626, 631, 

637, 671, 689, 690, 694, 702, 734. 
Smith, George C. .. 146, 211, 290, 625, 

632, 633, 657, 659. 

Smith, George T. __ 

Smith, George W 235, 236, 237, 238, 

242, 293, 470. 

Smith, Gilbert R 655, 656, 660, 

Smith, Henry __ _ 

Smith, Mrs. H. D 

Smith, Henry M 497, 498, 

Smith, Hiram B 

Smith, Tames 161, 163, 164, 269, 270, 

662. 

Smith, Rev. J. A 164. 416, 

Smith, J. C '..'."__ 

Smith, James A 

Smith, James M 22S, 

Smith, jedutlian 

Smith, Miss Jennie A. _ 

Smith, John- 

Smith, M. B. 

Smith, Orson 369, 555, 

Smith, Mrs. Orson. 

Smith. Owen E 

Smith, O. M 

Smith, Perry H ■_ 135, 136,646, 

Smith, Perry H. , Jr. 

Smith, R. J 

Smith, Robert _. 

Smith, Robert Jordan 

Smith, Robert W 268, 297, 

Smith, Russell .. 

Smith, Samuel C 

Smith, Solomon A. . 625,626, 627, 630, 

644, 646. 

Smith, S. H. 

Smith, Rev. S.S. 

Smith, Samuel S 271, 

Smith, Sidney 159, 458, 

Smith, Rev. Thomas 

Smith, Thomas J. _ 

Smith, Uzziel P 

Smith, William August 

Smith, W. B 

Smith, W. I) 640, 642, 657, 

Smith, \V. W.... _ 

Snell, William O, - 

Snider, Alonzo 651, 763, 

Snider, Mrs. Alonzo 

Snow, George W 327, 6S9, 

Snow, I 

no* , ' Irville II 

ii'-'., Porter H 

Snow, Sarah 

Snow, William li. II. 

Snowhook, Patrick W._ 

Snowhook, William li 

Snydacker, Alfred M 



403 
420 
624 
647 
671 
541 
547 
666 
753 
752 
1S9 
298 
657 
644 
294 
259 
517 
2 99 
146 
460 
4S6 
562 
636, 

626, 

356 
241, 

664 
449 
324 
509 
641 
271, 

438 
667 
517 
292 
327 
117 
658 
517 
632 
597 
28S 
615 
737, 
694 
651 
623 
646 
588 
656 
655 
632, 

661 
416 
273 
554 
411 
296 
299 
424 
162 
66i 
517 
519 
768 
766 
690 
125 
"7 
651 



Page 

Snydacker, Mrs. Bertha 634 

Snydacker, Godfrey 446, 447, 633, 634 

Snyder, Mrs. A 313 

Snyder, A. W 513 

Snyder, E. B 424 

Snyder, Henry N 165, 292 

Snyder & Lee 576 

Sollitt, John 512 

Somers, Richard 50, 459, 506, 507 

Sonders, Robert ..268, 298 

Soule, Charles B 647 

Spafford, H. G _. 531 

Spafford, J. I 666 

Spaids, Commodore C 296 

Spalding, F. S 689 

Spalding, Jesse 646, 649 

Spalding, W. P 661 

Sparling, Joseph W _ 426 

Sparrestrom, Frederick 299 

Spaulding, H. J 148 

Spaulding, Joel J 235, 294 

Spear, E. \V. 667 

Spears, H. S. 269 

Speer, Isaac .512, 517, 555 

Speer, James B. .. 164 

Speer, Thomas 517 

Spencer, Albert T 82, 625 

Spencer, Charles F. A 82 

Spencer, C. H 641 

Spencer, D. D._ _ 633 

Spencer, Franklin F. . 683 

Spencer, Thomas _. 522 

Spiegel, Joseph. ._ 657 

Spink, John W 244, 247, 249, 294 

Spofford. George W 716 

Sporre, Johann 232 

Sprague, A. A 670 

Sprague, H. 370 

Sprague, W 615 

Sprague, Warner & Co 639 

Spriggs. T. G 422 

Spring, Charles A., Jr.. 689 

Spring, Charles A., Sr 420, 569 

Springer, George A -159, 164, 576 

Springer & Morey _ 576 

Sprout, J. M 661 

Spruauce, Harmon 341, 374, 644 

Spruance, Preston & Co -341, 362, 373, 

374, 624. 

Spry, John _ 663 

Stager, Anson 125. 126, 774, 775, 778 

Stalbrand, Charles J 163, 299 

Stampoffski, Bernard F.. 261 

Standau, Julius 196, 289 

Stanelan, Julius 117 

Stanford, George W 473, 762, 763, 765 

Stanley, J. W 763 

Stanley, Sarah E 766 

Stanley, W. M 666 

Stanton, Miss Ellen 613 

Staples, John N -•.. 587 

Stark, James L 554, 651 

Stark & Isham 469 

Starkweather, Charles Robert -662, 664 

Starrett, D. A 661 

Starring, Frederick A 228, 230, 291, 292, 

299. 

Start, John 661 

Staunton, William B. ._. 408 

Stearns, Charles -. - 704 

Stearns, H. B 159 

Stearns, John K 575, 670 

Stearns, Marcus C.--345, 347, 349, 352, 369, 

370, 449, 630, 641, 735. 

Stebbins, S. N 636 

Steel, George. .345, 349, 369, 370, 374, 568, 

64 1. 

Steele, George 617, 636, 627 

Steele, Henry T 103, 104, 620 

Steele, James 164, 258 

Steele, Mrs. J. W 312 

Steele, Truman Warren 663 

Steele, Valentine 278, 345 

Steele, William J 263, 264. 296 

Steffens, August 196, 198 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



29 



Page 
Steiner, Henry - 634 

Sten, Anthony ._ 164, 165, 196, 2S9 

Stinson, William E. 682 

Stephens, A. W 545 

Stephens, Charles 661 

Stephens, Jonathan B 104 

Stevens, Edward 661 

Stevens, Elizabeth P. 117 

Stevens, Enoch B.--339, 348, 368, 369, 374, 
376. 655. 660, 661. 

Stevens, George 557, 559 

Stevens, James 616 

Stevens, Levi F - - 644 

Stevens, Mary - 117 

Stevens, Silas C. 278, 345 

Stevens, Sylvanus H...278, 279, 2S0, 282, 

299. 345- 

Stevens, Mrs. Sylvanus H. _ 282 

Stevens, Walter A. 657,659, 664 

Stevens & Willard - 504 

Stevens, William M 392 

Stevens & Brown 361 

Stevenson, Alexander F. 208, 290 

Stevenson, Louis G. - - 292 

Stevenson, W. C. G. L --277, 278, 299 

Stewart, Dugald --657, 669 

Stewart, George -37°, 371 

Stewart, Graeme .. 699 

Stewart, Hart L ...390, 508, 641 

Stewart, John _ 669 

Stewart, Royal 569 

Stewart, Shaw 658 

Stewart, William ... 657, 658, 669 

Stewart, Rev. William F 426 

Stewart, William S 225, 226, 292, 369 

Stickney, Clifford .228, 292 

Stickney, Edward S. -._ 632 

Sticknev, William H - 467 

Stiles, B. B 467 

Stiles, Israel N 50 

Stiles, Josiah 368, 371 

Stimpson, William 515 

Stock, Carl 196, 289 

Stockton, Joseph ..228, 229, 230, 292 

Stoddard, Albert M. 505 

Stoelks, J. C 117 

Stokes, James H 278, 279, 280, 299 

Stolbrand, Charles J. 657 

Stone, Andros B. 677 

Stone, Boomer & Co. 681 

Stone, Bradford 164 

Stone, Horatio O 574, 738 

Stone, James W 644 

Stone, Leander. 104 

Stone, Melville E -454, 762, 763, 772 

Stone, Rensselaer ._ 370, 371, 655 

Stone, R. B 50 

Stone, Samuel 164,513, 514, 535 

Stone, T 658 

Stone, W. G. M -. 438 

Storck, Charles 265,297, 530 

Storey, Wilbur -F 490, 495, 496, 58S, 606 

Storrs, Emery A 466 

Stoughton, Charles H 43 r 

Stoughton, Mrs. Charles H 313 

Stoughton, Rev. J. C. 425 

Stout, A. H... 568 

Stout, Thomas _ 50 

Stow, H. M 677 

Stow, William H.&Co 677 

Stow, William M 677 

Stowe, George R. 297 

Strachan, Patrick 616, 617 

Straining, John 100 

Straus, Samuel _ 578 

Street, Rev. G. C 408, 669 

Street, R. J. 628 

Streeter, J. W. 541 

Strobridge, Rev. T 426 

Strode, James M 588 

Strong, Albert Bliss _. 538 

Strong, Cephas 263, 264, 296 

Strong, Howard 556, 557 

Strong, James E. _ 310 

Strother, Bolton F 385, 464 



Strube, Joseph -.228, 292 

Stryker, J. M 651 

Stuart. Alexander 263, 296 

Stuart, David 208, 290, 291, 667 

Stuart, Owen 250, 251, 294 

Stuart, William 390 

Stuber, John 297 

Studwell, J. A 651 

Stueven, Charles E 232, 234, 293 

Stuff, G. L. S -.208 

Stupp, Henry 162 

Sturges, Albert & Co 374 

Sturges, B. -625, 629 

Sturges & Buckingham 374 

Sturges & Co. — 704 

Sturges, George 369, 374, 629 

Sturges, Solomon - 164, 374 

Sturges, Shelton — 629 

Sturges, Solomon & Son 171,625, 634 

Sturges (Solomon's) Sons 633 

Sturges, S. B. 629 

Sturges, William N . 345 

Sturtevant, Austin D. 103, 108, 199 

Suddard, Thomas J 658 

Sullivan, Dennis 708, 715 

Sullivan, J. E. — 719 

Sullivan, Louis H 566 

Sullivan, Michael 49 

Sumpp, Frederick _ 65S 

Sunter, Charles 657 

Super, Miss C S39 

Sutherland, D. W 661 

Sutherland, S. F 692, 693 

Sutor, W. A 63 1 

Sutterly, Clement 189 

Sutton, John 657 

Sutton, J. B 669 

Sutton, Thomas 629 

Svanoe, P. 395 

Swain, Benjamin J.. 310 

Swain, Edgar Denman 20S, 

Swain, Frederick 125, 253 

Swallow, W. K 505 

Swan, James H 2S2, 299 

Swan, Theodore F 388 

Swan, William G 655 

Swan, William S 218, 219, 291 

Swartout, Edward D 20S, 290 

Swazey, Arthur 418,419, 422 

Sweeney, Augustus B 213 

Sweet, Alanson 327, 555 

Sweet, Benjamin J 303, 310, 3SS 

Sweet, E. D. L 125, 126, 448. 511 

Sweet, Henry 50, 657, 716 

Sweet, R. F 413 

Swenie, Denis J 90, 92, 94, 98, 713 

Swett, Leonard 165,630, 647 

Swift, R. K 159, 161, 163, 270, 449, 514, 

592. 677. 

Swing, David 418, 423, 599, 670 

Switzer, Martin .. .. 714 

Sykes, James W 334, 370, 629 

Symond, Henry B 630 

Symonds, H. R. 62S 

Taber & Hawk 506 

Taft, Levi B. ..49, 103, 104, 159, 449, 620, 

625, 630. 

Talbot, Hall P 265, 297 

Talcott, E. B. _ ---56, 554 

Talcott, Mancel 49, 50, 54, 671 

Talcott, Mrs. Mary H. (Otis) 442, 672 

Tallmadge, Samuel H 2S2 

Tallman, Thomas P 631 

Tappan, JohnW 651 

Tappen, H. H 408 

Tapper, George 657 

Tarbell, Emmons & Co 625 

Tarrant, Mrs. Sarah 666 

Tart, Stephen 276 

Tayler, Reuben 164, 535, 660 

Taylor, Anson H. 327 

Taylor, Augustine D 327, 517, 6S9 

Taylor, Benjamin F 159, 485, 491, 492, 

598, 609. 
Taylor. Charles 327 



Page 

Taylor, E. D 581, 641 

Taylor, Edward G. 436 

Taylor, Ezra. .161, 164,269, 270, 271, 272, 
273, 298. 

Taylor, George 52, 764, 768 

Taylor, Isaac 374 

Taylor, J 59S 

Taylor, James B 162, 189, 190, 625 

Taylor, James P . 631 

Taylor, Mary C 690 

Taylor, Matthew 655, 656 

Taylor, M. K 531 

Taylor, Orville A. 658 

Taylor, R. J. 651 

Taylor, S. Staats 623 

Taylor, Thomas B 352 

Taylor, W. W. .. __ _ 555 

Teahon, Joseph 250 

Teall, Edward M 642, 643, 645, 651 

Teegarden, M. R 548 

Tegtmeyer, Christopher 442 

Teigler, Conrad — 442 

Teisbow, Mrs. Amelia M 117 

Temple, Charles H 297 

Temple, Morris D 274, 275, 299 

Temple, Peter... 568 

Tenney, Ralph A — 294 

Terney, John 613 

Terry, Rev. Patrick 400 

Tett, Walter .. 666 

Thayer, George H 139 

Thayer, Moses A 295, 658, 661 

Thayer, Nathaniel 676 

Thayer, Rev. Oscar B 409 

Thielemann, Christian 267, 268, 297 

Thielemann, Milo 267, 268, 297 

Thorn, J. H 507 

Thomas, Barnard 431 

Thomas, Benjamin Morris 464 

Thomas, Benjamin W 228, 292, 369, 517, 

581, 666, 692. 

Thomas, Calvin H _. 217 

Thomas, Charles B _ 439 

Thomas, Edward J 282 

Thomas, Rev H. W 426, 630 

Thomas, James 431 

Thomas, Rev. Jesse B 436 

Thomas, Joseph C. 242 

Thomas, Sidney -. 468 

Thomas, William 566 

Thompson, Albert 221 

Thompson, A. M 657, 659 

Thompson, Charles E -164, 228, 292 

Thompson, Daniel.. 375, 449, 515. 614, 630 

Thompson, George W. 413, 414, 459 

Thompson, Harvey M 50 

Thompson, Hugh Miller 410 

Thompson, James 658 

Thompson, J. B 625 

Thompson, J. F'illmore 546 

Thompson, J. K 666 

Thompson, John L _ 468 

Thompson, Mary Harris 546, 547 

Thompson, Somerville 419 

Thomson, Frank M 388 

Thrall, William Austin 138, 655 

Throop, A. G... 50, 159, 691 

Throop, Amos J 318, 320, 321 

Throop, C. B .. 661 

Throop, Charles R — -- 296 

Throop, George ..282, 286, 299 

Thurber, Philip 637 

Thurston, Ebenezer H 534 

Thurston, George L 291 

Thwing, William U 661 

Tibbitts, William 288 

Tidd, W. 1 666 

Tiedermann, P. T 666 

Tiernan, Michael .*. 103 

Tiffany, J, H. 369 

Tiffany, Lysander 225, 2Sg 

Tiffanv, O. H..-3I5, 316, 358, 424, 425, 
445, 672. 

Tiffany, Mrs. O. II 323 

Tillotson, Deidamia M 117 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Tillotson. M. D 632 

Tilton, Albert M 213, 215, 216, 217 

Tinkham, A. W. 56, 104, log 

Tinkham, Edward I 159, 163, 513, 514, 

535. 547. 55°. 59 1 . 62 5. 626, 62g, 632, 

634, 670. 745. 757. 

Tinkham, Mrs. Edward I ... 324 

Tinkham. Mrs. bmith--.l67, 311, 313, 323, 

34S. 

Tinsley, Thomas 2 7g 

Titsworth, A. D 49, S4 

Titsworth, Sylvester 235, 23S, 293 

Tobey, Charles 629 

Tobev, Edgar P. 270, 271, 339 

Tobey. Orville H 339 

Tobias, Herman ._ 509 

Tomboeken, Henry. 529, 539 

Tooker, Robert Newton 544 

Tope, J. W. 536 

Torkilson, Andrew 163 

Tourtellotte, Frederick W 257 

Tousey, Rev. A. W._ 43S 

Towle, Henry A 460 

Towne, Edward P 159, 464 

Towne, Joseph W._ . . 506, 507 

Towner, Henry A. -32S, 330, 334, 369, 370, 

3/1- 

Towner, Horatio X. ._ 271, 299 

Townsend, Charles D 3S4 

Townsend, William R 208 

Tracey, John F 646 

Tracey, William .. . 50 

Tracy, John F 150, 151, 352 

Tracy, S. P -276, 277, 299, 556, 557 

Trautman, Frank 741, 742 

Treat, Theodore X. 776, 777, 778, 780 

Tree, Arthur 743 

Tree, Lambert. 455, 470, 719, 724, 735, 740, 

742. 

Trego, Charles T. 342, 371 

Treyser, George A 612, 613 

Trimble, t>. B.. _ 553 

Trimble, John J. _ 657 

Tripp. Ezekiel 502 

Troost. Gustavus 634 

Trowbridge, Tames H. 421 

Truax. \V B."_ _. 422 

True, Ira G. 162, 1S9 

Truesdell, C. G 427 

Trussell, George 614 

Truyens, Rev. C. 402 

Tschieder, Peter - 402 

Tubbs, F. H. ..125, 126 

Tucker, D. Mills 538 

Tucker, E. X 660 

Tucker, Frank B 661 

Tucker, Henry 439 

Tucker, Hiram A. .. 449, 641 

Tucker, Horace 132 

Tucker, Joseph Francis - .. 147 

Tucker, Joseph H...161, 167, 227, 301, 369, 

625. 

Tucker, Lansing B. 227, 292 

Tucker, William F 507, 632 

Tuley, MurryF 466 

Tully, John . 190 

Tully, John D. 104 

Tunniclifl. Charles ._ 655, 660 

TunniclifT. W. II (,(,1 

Turchin, John li. ...166, 180, 181, 197, 2S,-i 

Turnald, Merrick G . 292 

Turner, Henry 657, 66l, 663 

Turner, James 669 

Turner, John 517 

Turner. John Bice. .121, 133, 136, 352, 488, 
630. 678, 741. 

Turner, John M 517, 693 

TurneT, Matthew 715, 718 

Turner, Thomas J 624 

Turner, Volentine C 121 

Turner, William 449, 649 

Turner, William II (40, 662 

Turpin, Virginius A 353, 365, 360, 307, 

370. 371, 646. 
Turtle, William 84 



Tuttle, E. B 412, 

Tuttle, Frederick S4, 159, 34S, 449, 

683. 

Tuttle, Herman B 244, 249, 

Tuttle, Tames II 141, 

Tuttle, 'Mrs J. M 312 

Tuttle, Nelson. 163,34s, 349, 644, 

Twyeffort, Louis P _223, 

Tyler, Charles M. 

Tyler, James D. _ 

Tyler, James E 

Tyler, Joseph K 

Tyrell, John. 349, 627, 644, 

Tyrrell, Charles T 

Tyrrell, JohnA... 

Tyrrell, Patrick D 

Uhl, J. B 

Ullbrich, Francis J _ 

Ullman, Joseph 50S, 

Ulrich, Julius 545, 

Underhill, L. J. W.._ 

Underbill, Samuel E 

Underwood, Benjamin W 22S, 

Underwood, John M 555, 645, 690, 

Underwood, Mrs. J. M 

Underwood, J. W 

Underwood, Phineas L...163, 324, 353, 

359. 369 37o. 646. 

Underwood, Xoyes & Co. . 

Updike & Sollitt _ 

Upton, George P. — ... 484, 491, 

Urlsen, Miss M. Louise 

Valentine John R._. 

Vallette, Henry Franklin 

Van Agt, Michael 

Van Annan, Hiram M 

Van Arman, John _ 159, 167, 257, 295, 

Van Arman, John, Jr. 257, 

Van Buren, Augustus 

Van Buren, A. A. --640, 

Van Buren, Evert 159, 295, 

Van Buren, Smith B 

Van Buren, T. G 642, 

Van Campen, Charles 

Vanderburg, Abraham 

Vandercook, C. R _. 

Van den Eycken, Mauritius 

Vandervoort, Freegif t 

Van Doozer, Benjamin Rel 

Van Emstede, P'rancis 

Van Etta, James 

Van Horn, Washington 170, 

Van Inwagen, James 

Van Noorden, E 

Van Xortwick, John 

Van Osdel, John M 164, 436, 502, 

517. 5"4- 

Van Osdel, Mrs. John M 

Van Wagenen, R. 1) 

Van Wagener, R. D 

Van Winkle, R. 

Van Zandt, George 

VanZant, Rev. B 

Varden, George 

Vargas, Joaquin A .. 

Varges, Charles 162, 292, 

Vasseur, Edward 263, 

Vaughan, P. W. T 

Vaughan, S. O. ... - 

Vaughan, David 164, 

Velter, Rev. George 

Venn, Clement 

Verdier, T. T 

Verdin, John S 

Vernard, Charles 

Vibert, John G 

\ i' tor, lingo 

\ in* rni, 11. B 

Vincent, Rev. John II 

Vincent, J. R 

Vincent, Nelson & Co 373, 375, 705, 

Vinton, Emma O, 

Vocke, William 198, 289, 478, 513,030, 

Vocgtlin, William 

Vogel, Charles II 292, 



443 
506, 

294 
-II- 
323 
6S3 
292 
430 
5° 
439 
657 
646 
575 
575 
3S4 
598 

49 
509 
655 
661 
655 
292 
691 

.323 
626 

354. 

364 
50: 
494 
320 
669 
4S1 
402 
221 
468 
295 
47') 
642 
457 
189 
643 
661 
221 
679 
404 
295 

534 

40^ 

6i.4 
288 
340 
447 
554 
5i2> 

312 
645 
538 
615 
627 
421 
208 
395 
295 
264 
661 
661 
203 
442 
406 
50 
402 

C,(.T 



Page 

Vogell, H. Eugene 641 

Vogler, H. 656 

Voice, John.. 657 

Volk, Leonard Wells. 514, 556, 557, 558, "559 

Volkmann, Lewis 221 

Von Freeden , Enoch _ 442 

Von Hallen, George _. 49, 556 

Von Horn, John 49, 104, 196, 199, 2S9 

Von Look, L 267 

Voorhees, Abraham 431 

Vorpahl, C 159 

Voss, Arno. 263,264, 265, 296 

Voss, Charles F 264, 296 

Voss, Edward 159 

Vowden, Thomas A 644 

Waddell, Rev. Benjamin _ 422 

Wade, G. G _ 657 

Wade, Henry S 162, 189 

Wade, John 379 

Wadsworth, Elisha S 164,420, 56S, 636, 

733- 

Wadsworth, Mrs. Elisha S 310, 323, 420 

Wadsworth, Francis L 522, 537 

Wadsworth, Mrs. Henry 310 

Wadsworth, James 657 

Wadsworth, Julius ... -.56S, 636 

Wadsworth, Philip.. 213, 370, 388, 513, 656 

Wadsworth, Samuel W 164. 288 

Wadsworth, T. W. . . 14S, 637, 639, 643 

Wager, Henry B 170, 2S8 

Waggener, Robert G - 673 

Wagner, John 290 

Wagner, Louis 288 

Wagner, William 196, 2S9, 536, 552, 556 

Wahl, Christian 49, 103, 104 

Wait, Fraderick H 587 

Wait, Horatio Loomis 462 

Wait, J. F ._ 555 

Waite, Charles C 502, 503 

Waite, D. D. _ 538 

Waite, George Washington 657 

Waite, Daniel Tyler . 657 

Waite, William E...163, 170, 173, 174, 288 

Waite, W. H 625, 626 

Walch, C. R. 164 

Waldron, John 399, 405 

Walker, Charles 554 

Walker, Charles H...159, 337, 345. 352, 369, 
374. 641. 

Walker, Edwin 358, 669 

Walker, E. H. 346 

Walker, Frederick 296 

Walker, George C 371, 374, 449, 515 

Walker, George E _. 518 

Walker, George H. 327 

Walker, Gilbert C._ isg 

Walker, H... 370 

Walker, Henry H 582 

Walker, James M. 144, 145 

Walker, MO 504 

Walker, Samuel B ...118, 5S2, 666 

Walker, Sidney P _ 189 

Walker, S. W 539 

Walker, W. F. 442, 655 

Walker, William S 719, 720, 727 

Wallace, I. P. 345 

Wallace, Martin 191, 194, 2S9 

Wallace, Martin R. M 25S, 295, 3S8, 670 

Waller, Henry 477 

Waller, J. B. 369 

Waller, Rev. Maurice 420 

Wallis, William H 161, 261, 296 

Wallwork, Tohn . 49, so, 661 

Walpole, W. R . 658 

Walsh, Charles 308, 309 

Walsh, David... 49, 50, 104, 771 

Walsh, James 50 

Walsh, John R. 498, 500, 501 

Walsh, M 392 

Walsh, William So 

Walter, George A. 296 

Walter, Joel C 164, 370, 517 

Walters, Horace 503 

Walworth, Nathan H.--208, 209, 210, 212, 
631. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



3' 



Wampold, Louis 657 

Wanzer, Hiram 53S 

Ward, Cyrus J 66S 

Ward, Dennis 663 

Ward, Ephraim 550 

Ward, George F 263 

Ward, George L. 696 

Ward, Henry A 22S, 292 

Ward, fames-. 102, 103, 104, 106, 315, 32I : 

517. 620. 

Ward, James H. 473 

Ward, James L - 345 

Ward, Jasper D. 49 

Ward, Samuel D 388, 513, 514 

Wardner, Horace 2SS, 531, 532 

Wardner, Philip J 294, 670 

Warkowski, Carl 443 

Warner, Abraham J 263, 264, 296 

Warner, Christopher 715 

Warner, Ezra J. _- 639 

Warner, E. R .- 657 

Warner, George F - 259, 296 

Warner, P. I... 512 

Warner, S. I 1 159 

Warner, William 232, 267 

Warner, W. H 642 

Warrack, James 395 

Warren, Charles C 376 

Warren, Cyrus T. 376 

Warren, Rev. G. W 43S 

Warren, John B. 78 

Warren, Nathan Henry 375, 376 

Warren, Robert --340, 371 

Warren, William 600, 639, 651, 658, 659, 

660. 

Warren, W. H _ 661 

Warren, William Henry B. 660 

Warschauer, Max. 65S 

Wasalik, Joseph 716 

Wasalik, "Wensl 716 

Wasy, George E 49 

Washburn, ]. H 63S 

Washburn, W. J 666 

Washburn, W. \V 661 

Washburne, Elihu B. 617 

Washburne, Elmer 384 

Waterhouse, Allen C. 298 

Waterman, Arba N _ 476, 763 

Waterman, George I. 213, 217, 291 

Waterman, R. C. 511 

Waters, Edwin S. _ 117 

Watkins, Elias T 646 

Watkins, G. D. 370 

Watkins, John 327 

Watrous, Christopher 699 

Watson, George. 336, 337, 369, 439 

Watson, Rev. George 402 

Watson, J. S _ 65S 

Watson, William _ 677 

Waughop, J. W 159, 549, 556 

Way, Hamilton M. 20S 

Wayman, Samuel 517 

Wayman, William S4, 218, 517, 669 

Waj'ne, Thomas D., Jr. . .. 339 

Weare, Port us B 350 

Webb, X. F. _ 641 

Webb, Patrick 794 

Webb, Thomas 573 

Webb, William A 208, 290, 301 

Webber, Ambrose C. 254, 294 

Webber, Edwin A 263, 265, 297 

Webster, Mrs. C. C. ._ 320 

Webster, George 340, 342, 369, 370 

Webster, Joseph D.-159, 298, 3S8, 391, 392, 

393. 493. 513. 514.670, 721, 722. 

Webster, J. P. 594 

Webster, L. D ._ 722 

Webster, Thomas H 641 

Webster, Timothy SS 

Weed, J. Warner 595 

Weeks, G. H 348 

VVehrli, Rudolph-- 159, 584 

Weid, Iver Alexander 232, 293 

Weigle, F 705 

Weiler, T 162 



Page 

Weinberg, Alexander 658 

Weir, John B _ -. 517 

Weisswange, Charles _. 656 

Welch, Rodney 541 

Weiler, F. Montrose 530 

Wells, Edwin S 511, 513, 611, 7110 

Wells, E. W 651 

Wells, V 658 

Wells, Isaac 645 

Wells, Joseph B 449 

Wells, Theodore B 431 

Wells, William H ...102, 112, 515, 517, 651 

Welmaker, John 327 

Wendell, Ann E. - 117 

Wendheim, Henry.. _ 442 

Wendt, Henry 49, 196, 289 

Wenigtfr, Benedict- 267, 268, 297 

Wentworth, C. E 264 

Wentworth, Charles P __ 657 

Wentworth, C. R. P --37o, 661 

Wentworth, C. W.-- 661 

Wentworth. Daniel S _ 104, 109 

Wentworth, Klijah _ _ 327 

Wentworth, John 49, S3, 84, 91, 104, 160, 

i"3. 393. 454. 4S5, 49i. 512, 517. 555. 

584, 594, 620, 626, 681, 694, 746, 755. 

Wentworth. X. C. 615 

Wentworth, William F .50, 507, 615 

Wenlz, George 11 _. 213, 291 

Werther, W 267 

Wescott, Henry F 213, 214, 291 

West, Byron D 649 

West Samuel.. ... 116 

Westergren, Andrew T. 444 

Westergren, Nels O 444 

Westfall, P. R - 62S, 631 

Western Xews Company 484, 500 

Westhrach, Joel _ 392 

Weston, Allyn 656 

Weston, John M 608 

Weston, U. W. .... 656 

Westover, Rev 445 

Wetherell, J. B __. 56S 

Wetherell, Robert W 180, 187, 189, 190, 

2S8. 

Whalen, Robert 401 

Whaling, Mrs Julia Cone - 54S 

Whaling William T.-- - -- 64S 

Wharton, Clifton T 1S0, 1S1, 1S7, 2SS 

Wharton, Rev. Robert K. .. 420 

Wheaton, Tames A 257, 295 

Wheeler, A. B. _ 517 

Wheeler, Bacon 554, 627 

Wheeler, Calvin T..-342, 350, 352, 369, 370, 

375. 630, 632, 641. 

Wheeler, Charles C 135, 13S 

Wheeler, Charles W 36S, 374, 375 

Wheeler, Fred A 664 

Wheeler, George. _ 568 

Wheeler, George Henry- 374, 375 

Wheeler, George M 647 

Wheeler, Gilbert 531 

Wheeler, Hiram ...352, 369, 370, 374, 449, 

637, 641, 642. 

Wheeler, J. B 392 

Wheeler, Toltnan . 746 

Wheeler, William 164 

Wheeler, Mrs. W 313 

Wheeler, W. E. 661, 664 

Wheelock, Joseph 610 

Wheelock, Joseph F __ 607 

Wheelock, Otis Leonard 565 

Whilt, J 657 

Whipple, Henry B 411,426, 443 

Whipple, Samuel L - 715 

Whistler, John 32S 

Whitaker, George S 50 

Whitaker, James A -. 699 

Whitaker, Mary A 117 

Whitaker, Oliver 644 

Whitall, James D. W 299 

Whitbeck, II 555 

Whitcomb, Lot 568 

White, Alexander [63 

White, G. Q 162 



Page 
White, Horace.. 159, 492, 493, 500, 536, 636, 

701, 732, 733, 734, 777. 

White, John S 662 

While, Julius.. 199, 200, 201, 203, 290, 385, 

636. 637. u 39. 642. 043. 644. 721. 

White, Lyman A. 274, 275, 298 

While, Michael 517 

White, Patrick H. 271, 273, 283, 286, 2S7, 

29S, 299. 

White, S. F 657 

White, W. G 49 

White, W. Hanford 541 

White, William P 657 

White, William R 661 

Whitehead, Edward J. 295, 661 

Whitehead, (Father) Henry. 427 

Whitehouse, Henry John.. 407, 408, 409, 

411, 412, 413, '414, 415, 444, 557, 559. 

Whitehouse, William F __ 472 

Whitfield, Thomas 271, 539 

Whitford, Henry K 548, 549 

Whiting, David V 395, 396 

Whiting, Fred G. ._ _. 83 

Whiting, J. T 636 

Whiting, Mary E 117 

Whiting, Webster A.. . 235, 293 

Whitley, John 661, 663 

Whitlock, James _ 641 

Whitman, M 651 

Whitney, A. M 657 

Whitney, E. H 422 

Whitney, George C 633 

Whitney, J. T 568 

Whitney, X. K 370 

Whitnev, R. P 624 

Whitney, S. F 117 

Whitney, Thomas -370, 371 

Whitney, W 658 

Whitney, Warren P 282 

Whitson, Charles B 213 

Whitson, John T 213 

Whittemore, E. E 106 

Whittier, Mrs. M 313 

Whittle, Daniel W 22S, 292, 431 

Whittle, James F 271 

Wiard, Xorman 641 

Wicker, Charles G 50, 163, 167, 348, 625 

Wicker, J. Collins. .. 104 

Wicker, Joel H 499,625, 630 

Wickersham, Swayne 538 

Wiedinger, B 117 

Wiedman, Anthony 117 

Wight, J. Ambrose 436, 531 

Wight, L. B. 671 

Wilber, Henry Lyon 660 

Wilbur, C. A -541, 545 

Wilce, Thomas 50, 52, 762, 769, 771 

Wilce, Mrs. Thomas . 766 

Wilcox, Albert B 692 

Wilcox, Edward P '-271, 273, 298, 692 

Wilcox, Erastus 990 

Wilcox, II. M 651, 655 

Wild, Theodore 289 

Wilcox, Theodore B 645 

Wild, Thomas _. 763 

Wilder, Charles J 290 

Wilder, E. C 641 

Wiley, Samuel 658 

Wilhelm, A. P 117 

Wilken, E 666 

Wilkie, Franc B 4S4, 496, 615, 701 

Wilkins, J. R 662, 666 

Wilkins, S. G 662 

Wilkinson, Rev. John 411 

Wilkinson. Lorenzo D __ 464 

Willard, Charles M 270, 27:, 298, 464 

Willard, Flisha 626 

Willard, E. W 167, 626, 67S 

Willard, II. F 505 

Willard, J 517 

Willard, O - B43 

Willard, O. A. 651 

Willard, P. H 647 

Willentzlci, Tranoff 225 

Williams, A 643, 651 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Williams, A. C 624 

Williams, Albert P 295 

Williams, Asa S7 

Williams, Charles D. C. 1S0, 274, 2SS 

Williams, C. K 4S7 

Williams, E. B 3S8, 6S9, 702 

Williams, E. F 431 

Williams, Edward H. 40S 

Williams, Erastus Smith . 415, 420, 45,4, 513. 

670. 

Williams, Frank Benton 113 

Williams, George F._ 625, 661 

Williams, Henry G -- 667 

Williams, Henry M 267, 294 

Williams, Isaac S7 

Williams, Isaiah H.. -227, 22S, 2SS, 292, 346, 

667. 

Williams, John C 319, 655 

Williams, J. F._ 658 

Williams,!. II 661,667 

Williams, J. M 624 

Williams, John S 257, 295 

Williams, Norman, Tt". ■ 159, 513, 645 

Williams, N. 631 

Williams, Robert A.. .91, 92, 94, 712,713, 

762. 

Williams, Sandford 641 

Williams, William,- 666 

Williams, William D 20S, 290 

Williamson, Samuel S 370, 644 

Williamson, Mrs. Samuel S. . .. 313 

Willige, August W. 292 

Willing, Henry J. _. 417 

Willis, Thomas _ 661 

Willmarth, H. B..-63S, 639, 642, 643, 644, 

651. 

Willmarth, H. M 50, 601 

Wills, Joseph P 657 

Willson, Solomon A. — 599 

Willson, Solomon M 160, 464, 641 

Wilmarth. T. W _. 666 

Wilson, Charles L 323, 491, 777 

Wilson D. F — --535, 660 

Wilson, Franklin 660 

Wilson, Frank C 2S2, 299 

Wilson, Henry 51S 

Wilson, John 666, 66S 

Wilson, J. C. ... 38S 

Wilson, J. D 661 

Wilson, James Grant 297 

Wilson, John A._ 295 

Wilson, John L 330,491, 59) 

Wilson, [ohn M. 163, 164, 167, 456,460, 

513- 

Wilson, Joseph - ... 79 

Wilson, T. J. S. -_ 125, 126, 763 

Wilson, 'Mrs. O. B 323 

Wilson, Richard L _ -39", 41)1 

Wilson, Robert 254, 2,(4 

Wilson, Roberts... 457 

Wilson, W. C 666 

Witt, Charles 101 

Windett, Arthur W. 463 

Windoes, W 159 

Windsor. J. H 662 

Winer, William D.--I9I, 289, 301, 310, 553 

Wing, Henry 531 

Wing, Malcolm II. 259 

Winne, Killian 505, 506 

Winship, James 658 

Winslow, Ferdinand S. 632, 633 

Winslow, William 632 

Winston, Frederick II -472, 646 

Winter, C. II. S 670 

Winter, W. W 657 

Wirt , ' >eorge - 66 1 

Wirt, W. 661 

Wisdom, William 419 

'. . - 632 

' . --org': C - 277, 299 

Wissel, F 40: 

loseph 405 

Wiswall, John C 431 

Witbeck, Henry 50 

Witnrow, Thomas F 152 



Wolcott, Alexander 

Wolcott, Edward A 

Wolcott, Mrs. Ellen.- 

Wolcott, E. G... .336, 337, 345, 369, 

Wolcott, George H . - 

Wolf, Bernhardt _ 

Wolf, Gabriel _ 

Wolf, Jacob 

Wolff, Arnold, .. 

Wolff, George 

Wolff, Ludwig _ 

Woolley, J. D 

Wonder, Henry 

Wood, A. M. 

Wood, A. W 

Wood, Eli 657, 65S, 

Wood, Eliphalet 163, 

Wood, E. L 

Wood, George S, . 

Wood, Rev. Glen _ _ _ 

Wood, George W. ... 657^ 

Wood, John 162, 

Wood, J. H. 608, 

Wood, M. L _ 

Wood, Orlando S 

Wood, Peter P. 94, 270, 271, 

Wood, Washington L .... 

Woodard, Willard 49, 106, 109, 762, 

771. 

Woodbridge, John 

Woodbridge, John, Jr 

Woodhouse C. — 

Woodland, George _ 

Woodman, Charles L. 49, 50, 

Woodman, John . -557, 

Woodruff, Tohn G 252, 254, 

Woodruff, W. N 370, 

Woodson, W. T - 

Woodward, A. W._ 

Woodward, Frank J. . 257, 

Woodward, George W _. 

Woodward, James L _ 

Woodworth, James H 164, 515, 516, 

626, 632, 644. 

Woodworth, Mrs. J. H 311, 

Woodworth, Tohn M -531, 53S, 

Woodyat, W. H. 

Woolworth, C. D 

Wooster, Julius _- 

Wooster, J. A 

Worcester, Edward _ 

Work, Henrv Clay -4S4, 

Worley, R. H. 

Worster, John.. _. 

Worth, Daniel 

Wren, Rev. George L 

Wright, Abner M 332, 

Wright, Alfred .- 

Wright, Andrew 

Wright, Andrew T — 

Wright, Charles." 

Wright, Frederick 

Wright, George P 

Wright, James — - 

Wright, John ... 

Wright, Rev. J. A . 493, 

Wright, John D 

Wright. John S 567,568, 

Wright, Joseph C.-.227, 228, 229, 292, 

346, 351- 

Wright, Levi P 

Wright, Lucy A 

Wright, Matilda 

Wright, Nathaniel T 

Wright, RobertC, Jr... 

Wright, Robert C, Sr. 575, 

Wright, Timothy (93, 

Wright, Truman G 

Wright, William B . 

Wright, William II 

Wright, W. M . 

he, < 'harles - 

\\ ler, Henry 

Wusrum, J. G - 

Wyman, J. H 



765 



339 
575 
576 
61) 1 
569 
430 
508 
662 
I'M 
116 
M,i 

IM I 



Page 

\arwood, M. S 370 

Yates, B. F. 162 

Yates, Frank E 189 

Yates, Horace H 164, 505, 614 

Yates, Lucius H. --252, 294 

Yawkey, Samuel W 660 

Yoe, Peter L. .-.94, 164, 167, 554, 644, 733 

Yondorf, Charles 635 

Yonker, Rev. Alexander 426. 427 

Young, Caryl ... 631, 633 

Young, Frederick W. 29S 

Young George H 661 

Young, G. M 442 

Young, H.G. 576 

Young, John .. 180, 187 

Young, J. H _ 666 

Young, N. H 549 

Young, W. B _ 656 

Younglove, Ira S --34I, 646, 655 

Zengler, Frederick _. 199 

Ziegfeld, Florence 592 

Ziegler, Isaac 446 

Zimmer, Rev. Peter 405, 536 

Zimmer, Miss Teresa. 314 

Zimmerman, H. W 641 

Autographs. 

Allen, J. Adams _ 522 

Bain, George 765 

Baldwin, Silas D 219 

Barrell, Joshua 503 

Barrett, John P _ 93 

Bateham, W. B 717 

Bell, Joseph Warren _ 265 

Benjamin, S. S 503 

Beveridge, John L 268 

Blackwelder, I. S - 652 

Blaney, Jas. V. Z 523 

Blow, Henry T 769 

Boardman, J. W 506 

Bolton, William H 277 

Boone, L. D 527 

Booth, Henry ._ 456 

Bouton, Edward 275 

Boyden, James W 765 

Bradley, Luther P 213 

Bridges, Lyman 274 

Bross, John A . 237 

Brown, Joseph.- 771 

Brown, Mrs. P. R . 770 

Brown, T. B. 764 

Buehler, John 763 

Burch, T.R 653 

Burns, R. F. 421 

Butterfield, Lewis 119 

Cameron, Daniel _ 225 

Carpenter, Philo 104 

Cherrie, (Miss) E. 765 

Church, William L 88 

Clarke, James C 12S 

Collyer, Robert 440 

Colvin, Harvey D. 127 

Colvin, John.H 276 

Comiskey, John 715 

Cooke, Nicho. Francis 543 

Cooley, Charles G 282 

Couzins, (Miss) Phrebe W 766 

Cregier, Dewitt Clinton .. 60 

Culver, Allen M 771 

Cumming, Gilbert W 213 

Davis, N. S . .. 524 

lie Wolf, Calvin 4S2 

Dore, John C 103 

Duggan, Rt. Rev. James 297 

Dunn, John 12S 

Dyhrenfurth, J - -- 592 

Egan, W. M. <•?? 

F.hlridge, Hamilton N 258 

Ellsworth, Elmer E 190 

F'ergus, Robert - 4S5 

Field, Marshall. 695 

F'ollansbee, A 517 

Forrest, Jos. K. C 497 

FYeer, I.. C. I'aine 474 

F'rink, John 118 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



33 



Autographs. 

Gamble, William 259 

Goll, Bruno Henry 716 

Haines, John C. 50 

Hammer, D. Harry 481 

Harmon, Isaac 327 

Harrison, Carter H 55 

Hayes, Justin 548 

Hayes, Samuel Snowden 105 

Heafford, George H 228 

Heath, Monroe 601 

Hecker, Frederick 196 

Hill, Horatio - 491 

Hoard, Samuel 103 

H olden, Charles C. P 764 

Holden, (Mrs.) Sarah J. .. 766 

Hotchkiss, Charles Truman 244, 761, 767 

Hough, Rosell M. 227 

Humphrey, Rev. Z. M 416 

Hunter, Edward E 327 

Jameson, John A 482 

Jeffery, E. T 130 

Johnson, H. A 532 

Judd, N. B 462 

Juergens, D. L 763 

Keck, Josiah Lawrence 767 

Kimbark, S. D 6S3 

King, Byram 517 

Kingston, Chas. H. 659 

Kinney, Joel A 90 

Livermore, Mary A 311 

Logan, John A 169 

Lord, M. N..__ . 517 

Ludlam, R 542 

Lynch, William F 222 

McArthur, John 170 

McCormick, C. H., Jr 688 

McCrea, Samuel Harkness 344 

McVickar, B 393 

Mann, Orrin L. - 206 

Mason, Roswell B 51 

Mason, R. B 764 

Medill, Joseph 52 

Medill, William H 259 

Mihalotzy, Geza -- 196 

Mitchell, Arthur - 416 

Moore, Orren E 761 

Morgan, Geo. H 770 

Morris, Wm. W 770 

Mulligan, James A _ 191 

Newell, John 153 

Nichols, Washington A 431 

O'Meara, Timothy - 250 

Orcutt, W. F._ 506 

Osborne, Thomas D 204 

Payton, Lucien 568 

Pearce, J. Irving 503 

Perkins, Samuel C 659 

Phillips, John C. - 277 

Pierce, Asahel 568 

Prescott, Eli S 508 

Ray, C H. 491 

Reynolds, (Miss) Birdie . 766 

Reynolds, Joseph S _ 766 

Rice, J. B 597 

Richmond, Thomas 506 

Robinson, George I - _ 278 

Rollo, Wm. E 643 

Runyan, E. F 762 

Salomon, Edward S 232 

Schaumbeck, Frederick 267 

Schintz, Theodore 771 

Scott, Joseph R 1S0 

Scripps, John 1 389 

Seeley, T. P 529 

Sherman, Francis T 235 

Shipman. Geo. E _ 543 

Shortall & Hoard 587 

Sinclair, Catherine J -- 763 

Smith, James.. 270 

Snider, Alonzo - 7°3 

Stanard, E. 765 

Stanford, G. W 763 

Stansbury, Chas. F 659 

Starring, Frederick A - 228 



Autographs. 

Stockton, Joseph 228 

Stokes, James H 27S 

Stone, Melville E 772 

Storey, W. F 495 

Swing, David 423 

Tayler, Reuben 660 

Taylor, Ezra 271 

Taylor, Geo 764 

Thieleman, Christian 269 

Tomlin, Mary . 491 

Tucker, Horace 130 

Tucker, Joseph H 227 

Turchin, John B 181 

Van Arman , John.- 257 

Voss, Arno 263 

Wadsworth, E. S 148 

Wadsworth, Julius 148 

Walker, M. O 118 

Wallace, Martin R. M 258 

Washburne, E. B 617 

Waterman, A. N 763 

Waters, J. Linton 130 

Waters, O. P 659 

Watkins, Thomas 105 

Webb, William A 208 

Wehrli, Rudolph 584 

Wentworth, G. W 521 

Wentworth, John 84 

Whaling, Wm. J 648 

Wilce, Thos 769 

Willard, S in 

Wilson, Charles L 491 

Wilson, John L 491 

Winne, Killian 503 

Wynkoop, H. A 517 

Biographical Mention. 

Abel, Jonathan 364 

Abbott, Abial R 476 

Abbott, Wade 476 

Ackerman, William K. 132 

Adams, B. & Co 333 

Adams, Cyrus H .- 363 

Adams, Francis 54 

Adams, George E 470 

Adler, Rev. Liebman 446 

Adler, Dankmar _ 566 

Adsit, J. M. 634 

Allen, Jonathan Adams 524 

Allerton, Samuel W. 341 

Anderson, John 489 

Andrews, Edmund 526 

Andrews, Joseph H. 582 

Anthony, Elliott 471 

Armour, Philip D _ 331 

Armstrong, Charles M.. 341 

Armstrong, George Buchanan 391 

Arrington, Alfred W. 462 

Artingstall, Samuel George 62 

Asay, Edward G 470 

Ashley, Augustus G 364 

Austin, Henry Seymour ... 473 

Austrian, Joseph 87 

Averill, Albert J. 575 

Ayer, Benjamin Franklin 132 

Ayres, Enos . 577 

Babcock, Charles Ferdinand 113 

Baird & Bradlev 574 

Baker, William' D 489 

Balatka, Hans 593 

Balding, Thomas E._ 350 

Baldwin, Silas D 221 

Ball, George C 364 

Ball, James M 363 

Ballantyne, James F. 497 

Bangs, Edward W 364 

Barker, Jabez - — 690 

Barker, John Clarke 4S1 

Barnard, Gilbert Wordsworth 655 

Barrell, James 375 

Barrett, John P 93 

Barrett, Oscar W 642 

Barron, William T 458 

Barry, Thomas .- 96 



Page 
Biographical Mention. 

Bassett, H. D 697 

Bauer, August 565 

Bauer, Julius 595 

Baumann, Edward - 566 

Baxter, Daniel F 340 

Beckers, Oscar E 272 

Beckwith, Corydon 465 

Beecher, A. D 562 

Beem, Martin 476 

Belden, J. S 652 

Bell, Alexander 350 

Bell, Charles A 266 

Bell, John H 529 

Bell, Joseph Warren 266 

Bell, William W 267 

Bennett, Robert J 699 

Bensley, John Russell 332 

Berdell, Charles. 519 

Beveridge, John L 269 

Beye, William -- 54 

Bickerdike, George 576 

Bigelow, Daniel F 561 

Bigelow, Edward A.. 372 

Bigelow, James L 372 

Black, William P 203 

Blackall, A. H 700 

Blackman, Carlos H 349 

Blackman, Chester S 350 

Blackman, Willis L. 349 

Blackstone, Timothy B 141 

Blackwelder, I.S 652 

Blackwell, Robert S 461 

Blair, Edward T 682 

Blair, William 682 

Blake, E. Nelson 371 

Blakely, David 498 

Blaney, James Van Zandt 523 

Bliss, Philip Paul 594 

Blodgett, Henry W 452 

Bluthardt, Theodore J. 533 

Boardman, J. W. ... 506 

Bogue, George Marquis 578 

Bolter, Andrew 679 

Bond, Lester Legrand 477 

Bonfield, John 86 

Bonney, Charles Carroll 471 

Boone, Levi D. _ 527 

Booth, Henry 455 

Booth, Mary McVicker 599 

Bouton, Nathaniels 681 

Boyer, Valentine A 526 

Boyington, W. W 564 

Bradley, Cyrus Parker 86 

Bradley, Luther P 21S 

Bradley, William Henry 453 

Bradwell, James B 458 

Bradwell, Mrs. Myra 313 

Bragg, F. A. 583 

Breakey, Benjamin A 683 

Brenan, Thomas .. 195 

Brine, George J 353 

Broadway, Morris D 612 

Brooks, John W 583 

Bross, John A 243 

Bross, William 492 

Brosseau, Zenophile P 345 

Brower, Daniel Roberts 525 

Brown, Henry H 644 

Bryan, Thomas B 477 

Bryant. James M 334 

Bucher, Charles Ambler 528 

Buck, Dudley 593 

Buckie, John, Jr 490 

Buckingham, Ebenezer 374 

Buckley, William 87 

Bulhvinkle, Benjamin B 94 

Burch, Thomas R 639 

Burgess, William - 489 

Burgie, Henry C 680 

Burling. Edward 564 

Burnam, Ambrose 556 

Burns, Rev. Robert Ferrier 421 

Buttolph. Albert C 699 

Bvford, William Heath 532 



34 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 
Biographical Mention. 

Cable, Ransom R 151 

Cameron, Daniel 226 

Campbell, Frank W 583 

Campbell, Tames L 583 

Carroll, Rev. John 407 

Cary, Eugene - 652 

Castle, Edward Herrick 5S0 

Chandler, Edward Bruce 93 

Chandler, George W 243 

Chandler, Peyton R 634 

Chard, Thomas Septimus 645 

Charlton, James - 143 

Chase, Charles Carroll - 589 

Chase, Samuel Blanchard 589 

Cheney, Rev. Charles Edward 415 

Chesbrough, Ellis S 65 

Childs. Shubael D 488 

Chisholm, James -. 492 

Church, Thomas 641 

Clark, John S 525 

Clarke, George C. 645 

Clarke, George R. 254 

Clarke, James C - 131 

Clarke, L. H 154 

Clarke, William Edwin 529 

Clarkson, Thaddeus S. . 267 

Clary, Stephen - - . 332 

Claussenius, Henry . 396 

Clement, Stephen 676 

Cobb, Silas B. 517 

Cochrane, John Crombie .- 566 

Coe, Albert L 575 

Colbert, Elias 494 

Collins, James L._ 680 

Collins, "William R 680 

Collyer, Rev. Robert 440 

Comstock, E. F 477 

Congdon, Charles B. 372 

Conway, E. S - 595 

Conway, M. W 95 

Cook, Burton C 137 

Cook, George Churchill _ 698 

Cook, John H 156 

Cooke, Alexander Hardy 531 

Cooke, David Brainard 486 

Cooke, Nicholas Francis _ 543 

Cornell, Paul 478 

Cornell, W. B 648 

Couch, Ira - 501 

Couch, James 502 

Counselman, Charles 371 

Courtwright, Henrv H. 142 

Cox, A.J 1 488 

Crane, R'ichard T _ 680 

Crawford. John A 79 

Cregier, Dewitt Clinton .. 59 

Cribben, Henry 680 

Cribben, William H 680 

Crighton, John 334 

Crosby, Uranus H. boi 

Culbertson, C. McCIay 335 

Culver, Charles E 334 

Culver, Washington Irving 478 

Cumming, Gilbert W 218 

Custer, Jacob R 478 

Cuyler, Edward J 140 

Daggy, Peter 132 

Dale, William M 539 

Damen, Rev. Arnold 402 

Dana, Charles Anderson 497 

Danforth, Keyes .. 267 

Davenport, Edward A 263 

Davis, Charles Gilbert 530 

Davis, Charles W 218 

Davis, David .. 451 

Davis, Hasbrouck ... 265 

Davis, Nathan Smith 523 

Davison, Benjamin F 78 

Davison, Benjamin F., Jr. 78 

Dent, Thomas 465 

Devillers, Charles A 190 

DeWolf, Calvin 482 

DeWolf, Henry 133 

D'Wolf, William 274 



Page 

Biographical Mention. 

DeWolf, William Frederick 479 

Dexter, Wirt 472 

Dickinson, Albert 356 

Dickinson, Albert F 356 

Dickinson, Charles 356 

Dickinson, Nathan - 356 

Doggett, William E 697 

Dole, James Henry 341 

Donne'lley, Richard Robert 486 

Donnersberger, Joseph 586 

Dore, John Clark 106 

Dougall, Margaret no 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. - 303 

Douglass, John M 131 

Dow, Asa 339 

Drummond, Thomas .. 452 

Drury, John F 560 

Ducat, ArthurCharles 179 

Duggan, Rev. James 398 

Duncan, ThomasCation 543 

Dunham, Ramson W. 345 

Dunlap, George L 138 

Dunne, Rev. Dennis 400 

Dupee, Charles A 47 1 

Dupee, John, Jr — 342 

Durand, Calvin 699 

Durand, H. C 699 

Dyhrenfurth, Julius 591 

Dyrenfurth, Robert C 267 

Eastman, Zebina -. 498 

Eckardt, Thomas 510 

Edbrooke, Willoughby J 566 

Edwards, Rev. Arthur 427 

Edwards, Edward W 534 

Egan, Wiley Michael 661 

Eldridge, Hamilton N 258 

Ellsworth, Elmer E 190 

Ennis, James 482 

Etheridge, James Henry 524 

Everingham, Lyman 356 

Everts, Rev. William Wallace 434 

Fallis, Sylvanus W 489 

Farr, M. A 677 

Farwell, Charles B 694 

Farwell, John V.- 694 

Farwell, William Washington 455 

Fargo, Charles H 697 

Faulkner, Samuel ._ 700 

Fergus, Robert. 485 

Ferns, John Porter .- 665 

Ferguson, Charles H 636 

Ferguson, W. G 645 

Fick, Lewis Wesley 16 

Field, Marshall 694 

Fisher, Lucius G 520 

Fisk, D. B 695 

Fisk, Rev. Franklin Woodburv 433 

Fitch, Calvin M '. 526 

Fitch, Thomas Davis 527 

Foley, Rev. Thomas 398 

Forbes, Albert M 277 

Forrest, Joseph K. C 498 

Foster, Addison Howard 533 

Foster, Charles H 142 

Foster, John H 104 

Frantzen, Fritz 83 

Freeman, Andrew W 546 

Freer, L. C. Paine 473 

Fuller, Alonzo M 699 

Fuller, Henry. 587 

Fuller, Melville W. 465 

Fuller, Samuel W. . 462 

Fullerton, Alexander N... 690 

Furber. Henry J 482 

Gage, A. S 696 

Gale, Stephen F 488 

Gary, Joseph E 456 

Cassette, Norman Theodore 662 

Gehr, Samuel 576 

Geiger, Henry 530 

Gherkin, Henry 448 

Goddard, L. 146 

Goll, Bruno Henry 716 

Goold, Nathaniel 519 



Page 
Biographical Mention. 

Gookins, T. F 561 

Gottig, Cord. H 566 

Graham, Andrew J 82 

Gray, Charles M 154 

Gray, George M. 154 

Greenebaum, Elias 578 

Greensfelder, Isaac 698 

Groesbeck, Abram 529 

Grosvenor, Thomas W. 777 

Guerin, John 528 

Gund, Frederick 86 

Gunn, Moses 525 

Gunzenhauser, John 581 

Gurney, Theodore Tuthill 664 

Hadduck, Mrs Edward H _ 672 

Haines, John C 50 

Hale, Edwin M 544 

Hall, Duncan J 249 

Hall, Phillip A 138 

Hall, Wallace H 384 

Hamill, Charles D 353 

Hamill, Ernest A 372 

Hamilton, David G. . 577 

Hamilton, Polemus D. 577 

Hammer, D. Harry 480 

Hammond, Charles Goodrich 145 

Hanchett, Selh F 262 

Hancock, John L 331 

Hannah, Richard C. 677 

Harman, William 80 

Harman, William, Jr. 80 

Harper, George 700 

Harper, John C -_ 699 

Harris, Tacob 392 

Harris, U. P. ... 91 

Hartmann, Theobald 266 

Harvey, George M 649 

Hathaway, Amos W 87 

Hatheway, Franklin 579 

Haven, Carlos 461 

Haven, Luther 104 

Haven, Samuel R .. 526 

Hayden, James R 190 

Hayes, Justin 549 

Hayes, Samuel Snowden 105 

Healy, George P. A 559 

Heartt, D. B 517 

Hecker, Friedrich Karl Franz 234 

Hedges, Samuel Parker - . 544 

Hemstreet, William J. 648 

Henderson, Abner Wells 105 

Henrotin, Charles _. 395 

Henrotin, Fernand 528 

Henrotin, Joseph Fortunat 395, 528 

Herrick, William B 524 

Hervey, Robert 467 

Hesing, Anthony C. 499 

Hibbard, Homer Nash 453 

Hibbard. William G. 684 

Hickey , John _ _ 140 

Hickling, William 518 

Higgie, James L 78 

Higgins, Van Hollis 456 

Higginbotham, H. N 695 

Highwood, C -- 560 

Hill, Francis H.. 450 

Hill, Robert 504 

Hillard, Charles W 677 

Hills, D. Hobart 697 

Hinkel, Friedrich 395 

Hitchcock, Charles 462 

Hoagland, Andrew J 350 

Hoard, Louis de Villers 588 

Hoffman, Francis A 469 

Hoffmann, Michael 519 

Hoge, George B. 252 

Holcomb, Hiram Francis 663 

Holden, Charles C. P 772 

Honsinger, Emanuel 546 

Hooley, R. M 610 

Horner, Henry 698 

Horton, James M 682 

Horton, Oliver Harvey 469 

Hosmcr, Charles B 467 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



35 



Page 

Biographical Mention. 

Hosmer, Edward D 467 

Hosmer, Rockwood W. 645 

Hotchkiss, Charles Truman 249 

Howland, George 108 

Howland, Henry 218 

Howland, L. A 145 

Hoyne, Philip Augustus. 453 

Hoyne, Temple Stoughton 544 

Hoyne, Thomas 463 

Hoyne, Thomas Maclay 469 

Hoyt, W. M 699 

Hoyt, William M 584 

Hughitt, Marvin -- 135 

Hurd, Harvey B 470 

Hurlbut, Horatio Nelson 525 

Hurlbut, Vincent Lombard 665 

Hutchinson, Benjamin P 331 

Hyland, David M._ 94 

Isham, Edward S. 469 

Jackson, Abraham Reeves. 525 

Jacobs, Benjamin Franklin 578 

Jameson, John Alexander 457 

Janes, John J 641 

Jansen, Egbert L 486 

Jewell, James Stewart. 533 

Johnson, Hosmer Allen 532 

Johnson, W. P 154 

Johnston, William M.. 475 

Jones, Fernando - e88 

Jones, J. M.W. 489 

Jones, J. Russell 122 

Jones, Nathaniel Strong 372 

Jones, R. R 677 

Jones, Samuel J - 528 

Jones, William 573 

Jordan, C H. 450 

Jordan, Norman B 462 

Jussen, Edmund 474 

Kalvelage, Rev. Ferdinand 407 

Keep, Albert. - 135 

Keith, Abijah 357 

Keith, Edson 696 

Kellogg, A. B 519 

Kendig, John A. J 480 

Kennicott, Jonathan A. 545 

Kennicott, Mrs. Marie Antoinette. 560 

Kennicott, Robert .. 514 

Kerfoot, William D. 577 

Kimball, Abel 152 

Kimball, William Wallace 595 

Kimbark, Seneca D 6S3 

Kimberley, John E - 267 

King, Ru'fus 474 

King, William H 466 

Kinney, Joel A 96 

Kinsley, Herbert M 509 

Kirk, James S 699 

Kirkman, Marshall M 139 

Kittredge, Rev. Abbott Eliot 419 

Knight, John B 575 

Knox, Joseph — 461 

Koch. Charles Rudolph Edward 231 

Kozminski (Charles) & Co. 635 

Kozminski, Charles - 635 

Kozminski, Maurice 635 

Kune, Julian - 34° 

Kurz, Louis . 489 

Lambrecht Rev. Gotthelf 443 

Lane, Albert G 108 

Larmine, Samuel H -- 37 2 

Larned, Edwin Channing 463 

Larrabee, Charles R 68 

Lawlor, Rev. Michael J 4°3 

Lauer, Nicholas A - 584 

Lawrence, J. F -. 489 

Le Moyne, John V 474 

Leopold, Samuel F 81 

Letz, Frederick - 679 

Lincoln, David H.. 333 

Lincoln, Robert T 4°9 

Lind, Sylvester - 580 

Linder, Usher F 4°3 

Lippert, Lothar 266 

Lister, Walter 576 



Page 

Biographical Mention. 

Loeb, Adolphe _ 581 

Loeber, Rev. Christian A 428 

Logan, John A 16S 

Longley, Hiram. 505 

Loomis, Mason B 475 

Lord, James F 692 

Lowell, Wallace A 647 

Lowenthal, Berthold 633 

Luce, Frank M 139 

Ludlam, James D 261 

Ludlam, Reuben 542 

Ludwig, Roscoe F 546 

Lumbard. Frank 594 

Lyke, John W. 373 

Lyon, George M 63S 

Lyon, John B. 332 

McAllister, William K 458 

McArthur, John 179 

McCagg, Ezra Butler 467 

McClurg, Alexander C 243 

McConnell, Brothers 581 

McConnell, Edward 581 

McConnell, George 581 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall 685 

McCormick, C H. Jr 688 

McCrea, Samuel Harkness 344 

McCredie, William 145 

McDonnell, Charles 4S7 

McHenry, William E 350 

Mcllroy, Daniel 461 

McKay, James R - 375 

McKeever, J. L 585 

McLean, John 451 

McMullen, Rt. Rev. John 399 

McMullin, James C. '.. 142 

McVickar, Brockholst 394 

McVicker, James Hubert 597 

McWilliams, John G. 695 

McWilliams, Samuel Anderson 534 

Mack, Alonzo W 497 

Magee, Guv 498 

Magill, Charles J .- 78 

Magill, Jacob C 585 

Maher, Hugh 503 

Manierre, George 454 

Mann, Orrin L. 206 

Marshall, James Augustus 654 

Marshall, James Monroe 575 

Martin, William 533 

Mason, Roswell B. 51 

Matson, Newell 698 

Matteson, Andre 496 

Matthei, Philip H 526 

Mattocks, John 47- 

Matz, Otto H. 565 

Maynard, William J - 394 

Mead, Aaron B 575 

Mears, Charles 692 

Mears, Nathan - 692 

Medill, Joseph 5 1 

Medill, Wiiliam H 261 

Meech, George A 481 

Meeker, Arthur Burr 673 

Mellen, W. S 139 

Merriam, Joseph W. 472 

Merrick, Richard T 461 

Mihalotzy, Geza 199 

Miller, Henry G-. 477 

Miller, Truman Washington 394 

Mills, Royal Alexander Blaine 580 

Mitchell, William L 475 

Monroe, Henry S 469 

Montgomery, George W 646 

Moody, Dwight Lyman .. .. 511 

Moore, James H 641 

Moore, Silas Milton - - 640 

Morey, Henry C... 57^ 

Moran, Patrick 339 

Morse, Albert 345 

Moseley, Flavel 104 

Mugridge, Daniel S 341 

Muhlke, John H 482 

Mulfinger, Rev. George I, .- 42S 

Mulligan, James A 195 



Page 

Biographical Mention. 

Munger, Albert A - 374 

Munn, Benjamin M 465 

Murphy, John 252 

Murray, Charles 139 

Musham, William 96 

Myers, Leo - 98 

Naghlen, John 640 

Nelson, Daniel T 533 

Newell, John 153 

Newman, Augustus 143 

Newman, Benjamin 506 

Newman, Benjamin L 506 

Newman, Harvey R 506 

Niehoff, Conrad L 634 

North, Robert L 682 

Norton, Jesse o 464 

Noyes, Edward H - 364 

Oakley, Maurice 403 

Ogden, Sheldon & Co 579 

Olmsted, L. D 640 

Onahan, William J 53 

Otis, E. A 477 

Owen, Ira H .- 79 

Otis, Joseph E. 383 

Paoli, Gerhard Christian 528 

Pardee. Theron 635 

Parker, George G 372 

Parkes, John C. - 676 

Parkhurst, Rev. Matthew M 425 

Parmelee, Franklin 118 

Patterson, Rev. Robert W ... 418 

Patterson, Theodore Henry 539 

Peabody, Francis B 584 

Pease, Benjamin Lovering 586 

Pebbles, Frank M 560 

Perkins, Jenks D -. 140 

Perry, Oliver Hazard 492 

Petrie, Charles S 97 

Phillips, George W., Jr 353 

Phillips, John 561 

Phillips, N. A -- 140 

Pinkerton, Allan 87 

Porter, Henry H 137 

Porter, William A _ 457 

Potter, Orrin W 676 

Potter, Thomas J 145 

Poulson, William E - 637 

Powell, Edwin 231 

Preston, Josiah W 34' 

Price, Samuel H - 261 

Prindiville. John 77 

Purdy, Warren G 152 

Quales, Niles Theodore -. - 536 

Quigg, David 474 

Quirk, Daniel 195 

Rae, Robert _ 475 

Rand, William H. -. 487 

Ranney, Henry Collings -- 665 

Rattle, Thomas Stuart 140 

Ray, Charles H 493 

Raymond, Charles L 345 

Raymond, Lewis 21S 

Raymond, Samuel B. 218 

Redlield. Joseph B 139 

Reed, Alanson 596 

Reed, Alanson H, 596 

Reed, Charles. 461 

Reed, J. Warner 596 

Reissig, Charles 678 

Reynolds, Joseph Smith 585 

Rice, John Blake 597 

Rice, Marv Eleanor Spencer 112 

Riddle, Hugh.. 151 

Riedel, Ernst F 2(17 

Riordan, Rev. Patrick W 401 

Riplev, E. P 146 

Roberts, E. P 638 

Roberts, George W 212 

Rogers, Edward K 673 

Rogers, Edward K., Jr 673 

Rogers, Henry W., Jr 350 

Rogers John Gorin 455 

Rogerson, Joseph 450 

Roles, Rev. Joseph P 404 



3<i 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Page 

Biographical Mention. 

Rollo, William E - 642 

Ross, Joseph P 53° 

Roof, Albert E 682 

Root, George F 593 

Rountree, Tohn M 48° 

Ryder, Rev. William Henry - 441 

Sabin, Albert Robbins. 11 1 

St. John, Everette 152 

St. John, W. L - 150 

Salomon, Edward S. ... 235 

Sargent, E. H 539 

Sargent, Homer Earle 155 

Schintz, Theodore -- 479 

Schneider, George — 499 

Schneidewend, Paul 489 

Schnur, Peter 90 

Schoellkopf, Henry 700 

Schraeder, Frederick 584 

Schraeder, William L 584 

Schumacher, Charles F 648 

Schumacher, Charles F., Jr. 584 

Schwartz, Charles 342 

Scott. Joseph R 187, 190 

Scovel, Harry M -- 496 

Scoville, George 4S1 

Scoville, Hiram H., Sr 678 

Scoville, Hiram H., Jr. 678 

Scripps. John Locke 493 

Scuitti, Agostino 396 

Seeberger, Anthony F. 083 

Seeberger, Charles D 684 

Seelev, Thaddeus Pomeroy 529 

Sellers, Alfred H. - 589 

Sexton, James A 231 

Shaller, John 534 

Shay, Maurice W. 97 

Sheahan, James Washington .. 494 

Sheldon, D. Henry 582 

Sheridan, Philip Henry. 383 

Sherman, Francis Cornwall - 503 

Sherman, Francis T._ 242 

Sherman, Oren . . .. 517 

Sherwood, Henry M 585 

Shipman, George E. 543 

Shirley, Thomas 480 

Shortall, John G 5S7 

Shuman, Andrew 491 

Simmons, Charles E. 139 

Simons Samuel .. 490 

Skeer, John D 534 

Skinner, Nathan A 156 

Slosson, Enos .. 581 

Small, Alvan Edmund 542 

Smarius, Rev. Cornelius F. 403 

Smith, Charles Gilman 533 

Smith, F.C 146 

Smith, Gean 562 

Smith, George C 146 

Smith, George T 356 

Smith, George W 470 

Smith, Henry Martyn 498 

Smith, Perry H 136 

Smith, Sidney 468 

Snowhook, Patrick W 478 

Snydacker, Godfrey 634 

Somers, Richard 507 

Spencer, Albert T. . 82 

Spencer, Charles !•'. A 82 

Spencer, Franklin F 683 

Spring, Charles A., Jr.. 689 

Stager, Anson 126 

Stanford, George W 473 

Starkweather, Charles Robert ... . 662 

Stevens, Enoch P. 339 

Stickney, William If 467 

Stockton, Joseph 230 

Stone, Horatio O. 574 

Storck, Charles 530 

Storey, Wilbur F 495 

Storrs, Emery A 466 

Strauss, Samuel 578 

Strong, Albert Bliss 538 

Strong, James I'. 310 

Sullivan, Louis If. 566 



Page 
Biographical Mention. 

Swain, Edgar Denman 545 

Swazey, Rev. Arthur 419 

Sweet, Benjamin J 310 

Swenie, Denis J 9S 

Swett, Leonard. 465 

Swing, Rev. David 423 

Sykes, James W 334 

Talcott, Mancel 54 

Talcott, Mary H 442 

Tallman, Thomas P 631 

Tayler, Reuben 660 

Taylor, Ezra 520 

Terry, Rev. Patrick. 400 

Thayer, George H. 139 

Thayer, Nathaniel -- 676 

Thomas, Benjamin W 561 

Thomas, B. W 692 

Thomas, Sidney 468 

Thomas, William .- 566 

Thompson, J. Fillmore 546 

Thompson, John L 468 

Thompson, Mary Harris 547 

Thrall, Edward M 642 

Thrall, William Austin 138 

Thurston, Ebenezer H. .- 534 

Tobey, Orville H 339 

Tomboeken, Henry 529 

Tooker, Robert Newton.. 544 

Towner, Henry Augustus 334 

Trego, Charles T. - 342 

Treyser, George A -- 613 

Tucker, Horace - 132 

Tucker, Toseph Francis 147 

Tuley, Murry F 466 

Turchin, John B 180 

Turner, John Bice . 136 

Turner, Voluntine C 121 

Tyrrell, John A. .- 575 

Upton, George Putman 494 

Vallette, Henry Franklin 481 

Van Arman, John 468 

Van Buren, Augustus 479 

Van Buren, Evert 457 

Van Doozer, Benjamin Rel 534 

Van Inwagen, James. - - 340 

Van Osdel, John M 564 

Vocke, William 478 

Volk, Leonard Wells - 559 

Voss, Arno 265 

Wade, John 379 

Wadsworth, Francis L 537 

Wadsworth, T. W. _ 148 

Waggener, Robert G 673 

Wait, Horatio Loomis 462 

Waldron, Rev. John 405 

Walker, Henry H 582 

Walker, James ?.T 145 

Walker, Samuel B 118 

Walker, Samuel J.. 582 

Wallace, I. P. .'. 345 

Wallace, Martin R. M 258 

Waller, Henry 477 

Walsh, John R 401 

Walsh, William So 

Walworth, Nathan H 212 

Ward, Eber B 675 

Ward, James 100 

Ward, James H 473 

Ward, James L 345 

Warren, John B 78 

Warren, Nathan Henry. 375 

Warren, Robert 340 

Waterman, Arba N 476 

Webb, William A 20S 

Webster, George 342 

Webster, Joseph D 21 

Wehrli, Rudolph 584 

Weller, F. Montrose . 530 

Werther, W 267 

West, Byron D f>49 

Westergren, Rev. Andrew T . 444 

Wcstcrgren, Rev. Nels 444 

Whaling, Mrs. Julia Cone 548 

Whaling. William J 648 



Page 

Biographical Mention. 

Wheeler, Charles C. 138 

Wheeler, Charles W 375 

Wheeler, George Henry 375 

Wheeler, Hiram 374 

Wheelock, Otis Leonard 565 

White, Horace 493 

White, Julius 203, 636 

Whitehead, Rev. Henry... . 427 

Whitehouse, Rev. Henry John 400 

Whitehouse, William Fitzhugh 472 

Whiting, David V 396 

Whiting, Fred. G. 83 

Wilcox, Erastus 690 

Wilcox, Theo. B 645 

Wilkie, Franc B 496 

Williams, Erastus Smith 454 

Williams, F'rank Benton 113 

Williams, Robert A 92 

Wilson, Charles L 491 

Wilson, John M. 456 

Wilson, Joseph 79 

Wilson, Robert S 457 

Windett, Arthur W. 463 

Winston, Frederick Hampden 472 

Withrow, Thomas F 152 

Woodard, Willard 106 

Woodward, A. W 545 

Work, Henry Clay 593 

Wright, Abner M 332 

Wright, George P 450 

Wright, James. 450 

Wright, Nathaniel T 339 

Wright, R. C 575 

Wright, Robert C, Jr... 576 

Wright, John Stephen 573 

Younglove, Ira S 341 

Ziegfeld, Florence 592 

First Things. 

Art exposition.. -. 556 

Art periodical 559 

Art Union exhibition.. 557 

Annual dinner at Tremont House 

1858 614 

Base -ball tournament, 1867 615 

Base-ball Club (" Union") 613 

Beef shipment - 328 

Billiard contest for championship. . 614, 
616. 

Billiard Hall, 1836 613 

Billiard-match, 1858 614 

Billiard tournament.. 614 

Board of Public Works 56 

Board of Underwriters (incorporated) 644 

Boiler-maker 678 

Blast furnace.. . — 673 

Bridge across main channel 689 

Chicago soldier killed 166 

" Clarissa" sloop 577 

Coal, receipt of -. 330 

Commission sales 328 

Elevator, floating 374 

European vessel, arrival of 347 

Fire insurance agent 535 

Grain dryer 334 

Grain elevator 564 

Grain shipment 330 

Grave-digger 44S 

Health officer 549 

Insurance company, foreign 635 

Insurance Co., local, chartered ... 635 

Insurance table of rates 639 

Iron foundry --- 677 

Lake tunnel 66 

Life policy - - 636 

Loss paid, great fire of 1871 653 

Lumber cargo 689 

Lumber raft 689 

Lumber merchant 6S9 

Marine underwriter . 636 

Music teacher in public schools 106 

Ocean steamship agency 82 

Orchestra 591 

Ordinance fixing street grade 50 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



37 



Page 
First Things. 

Paid Fire Department, organized.- 90 

Paved street 681 

Pig-iron merchant -. 673 

Pleasure-boat, 1845 613 

Pleasure-boat for hire, 1855 613 

Pork-packing in summer 379 

Pork shipment 328 

Race-course, 1S44 - 613 

Railroad time-table _ 15S 

Railroad train for seaboard 146 

Regatta, 1S57 -- 614 

Rolling-mill 674 

Rosehill Cemetery, first interment .. 449 

Rowing regatta 614 

Sailing regatta 614 

Salvage corps — . . 640 

Scotch iron, direct importer of 673 

Ship-building 330 

Ship-smith 80 

Steel rail rolled in America 674 

Stock sales on 'Change 325 

Stove foundry .. .. 679 

Street grade established 59, 6S1 

Street railway 119 

Superintendent of Public Schools .. 115 

Telegraph fire alarm 100 

The " Skjoldmoen " — smallest vessel 

that crossed the Atlantic 74 

Tunnel under River - 64 

Undertaker . 44S 

U nderwriters, Board of 636 

Viaduct - 57 

War company organized 162 

Wholesale hardware house . 682 

Military. 

Preliminary Measures. 

First War meeting, Jan. 5, iS6i... 159 

Second War meeting . 160 

Firing on Sumter 160 

Clergy preach patriotism 160 

" Six Regiment" call 160 

Metropolitan Hall rally 160 

Special Session of Legislature 160 

General Orders, Nos. I and 2 160 

Ante- War Organizations. 

Black Jaeger Rifles 162 

Chicago Hussars 269 

Chicago Light Artillery -_l6l, 269 

Chicago Light Dragoons 16 

Chicago Light Guard 16 

Emmett Guards 16 

Highland Guards 16 

Independent Zouaves 162 

Montgomery Guards 16 

Shields' Guards 16 

60th Regiment. I. S. M._ 16 

United States Zouave Cadets 16 

Washington Grenadiers .- 162 

Washington Independent Regiment 161 

Washington Light Cavalry 162 

Washington Rifles - 162 

War Companies. 

Anderson Rifles 213 

Barker's Dragoons, or " Sturges 

Sharpshooters " . 25S 

Board-of-Trade Battery 167, 278 

Bolton's Battery 276 

Bouton's Battery 275 

Bridges' Battery 167, 274 

Bryan Light Guard 213 

Chicago Citizen Corps 213 

Chicago Dragoons .. .164, 166, 265 

Chicago Guards __ 164 

Chicago Light Artillery, Battery A. 164, 

166, 269. 
Chicago Light Artillery, Battery B. 164, 
166, 271. 

Chicago Light Guard. -- 164, 213 

Chicago Light Infantry 164 

Chicago Mercantile Battery. .167, 282, 
348. 

Chicago Tigers -- 164 

Colvin's Battery 276 



Page 
Military. 

War Companies. 

Corcordia Guards 231 

Crosby Guards 235 

Doggett Guards 282 

Drummond Guards 208 

Ellsworth Zouaves . 213 

Emmet Guards 164 

Forsyth Guards 244 

Fremont Fencibles 213 

Galena & Chicago Union 244 

Garden City Guard __ 213 

Glengarry Guards- 225 

Hancock Guards 227 

Havelock Guards. 228 

Higgins's Light Guard 213 

Highland Guards 164 

Hoffman's Dragoons 267 

Holden Guards 235 

"Home Guard" muster-roll 164 

Hubbard Guards 235 

Illinois Rangers 164 

Invincible Guards 235 

Jackson Guards 164, 191 

Kimbark Guards 235 

Lincoln Rifles 164, 195 

McClellan Dragoons 265 

Manierre Rifles 199 

Mathew Light Guard 213 

Milwaukee Railroad 244 

Montgomery Guards 164, 191 

Mulligan Battery 193 

Mystic Rifles 208 

Nelson Guards - 235 

O'Mahony Rifles 164, 191 

Phillips's Battery 277 

Roberts' Guards - 20S 

Robbins' Rifles 208 

Rourke's Battery 167, 193 

Rumsey Guards 164 

Scammon Light Infantry 213, 244 

Scripps's Guards 228 

Shepherd Guards 22S 

Shields' Guards 164, 191 

Sturges Rifle Corps .. 164, 165, 213, 25S 

Thielmann's Dragoons.- 267 

Tourtellotte Guards.. - 257 

Tucker Light Guards — 213 

Turner Rifles .- -- 199 

Underwood Guards 228 

Union Cadets 164, 195 

Union Railroad Guard - 213 

Union Rifles . 164 

Washington Grenadiers 164 

Washington Light Cavalry, 164, 166, 267 

Wentworth Light Infantry 213 

W. R. Arthur Guards 235 

Woodworth Rifles 257 

Yates Light Guard 213 

Yates Phalanx 164, 165 

Zouaves, Cos. "A" to " H " 164 

War Regiments. 

Ellsworth's Chicago Zouaves 187 

United States Zouave Cadets. 1S7 

12th Illinois Infantry - 169 

19th Illinois Infantry, or "State-at- 

Large" 164, 166, 179 

23d Illinois Infantry, or " Irish Bri- 
gade" 165, 166, 190 

24th Illinois Infantry, or " Hecker 

J;eger" 165, 166, 195 

37th Illinois Infantrv, or " Fremont 

Rifles" -- ...166, 199 

39th Illinois Infantry, or "Yates 

Phalanx" --- 203 

42d Illinois Infantry, 1st Regiment 

Douglas Brigade 166, 20S 

51st Illinois Infantry, or "2d Regi- 
ment Douglas Brigade " 213 

57th Illinois Infantry, or" National 

Guards" -- 218 

58th Illinois Infantry, or " McClel- 
lan Brigade" _ 221 

65th Illinois Infantry, or the "Scotch 
Regiment " 225 



Page 
Military. 

ll'nr Regiments. 

67th Illinois Infantry (3 months) 227 

69th Illinois Infantry (3 months) 227 

72d Illinois Infantry, or " First 
Board-of-Trade " 227 

82d Illinois Infantry, or " Second 
Hecker" 231 

88th Illinois Infantry, or " Second 
Board-of-Trade " 235 

89th Illinois Infantry, or "Railroad," 
----. ■- 244 

90th Illinois Infantry, or " Irish Le- 
gion " 249 

113th Illinois Infantry, or "Third 

Board-of-Trade " - 252 

127th Illinois Infantry 257 

I32d Illinois Infantry (100-day regi- 
ment) - -. 258 

134th Illinois Infantry (100-day regi- 
ment) 258 

8th Illinois Cavalry 259 

gth Illinois Cavalry . 261 

1 2th Illinois Cavalry 263 

13th Illinois Cavalry 265 

16th Illinois Cavalry 267 

17th Illinois Cavalry 268 

1st Illinois Light Artillery 269 

Battles and Skirmishes. 

Adairsville 275 

Aldie Gap 264 

Alexandria 264 

Allatoona ...178,220, 268 

Alpine Station, Va 204 

Antietam 259 

Arkadelphia, Ark 266 

Arkansas Post..252, 257, 271, 273, 283 

Atlanta 177, 212, 225, 251, 257, 268, 

275, 281. 

Averysboro', N. C. 234 

Barbour's Cross Roads .. 260 

Bailey's Creek, Va 206 

Bald Knob 250 

Barnesville - -- 259 

Battery Gregg, S. C. 205 

Bayou Cache 265 

Bayou Metre 266 

Belmont, Mo 271 

Benton 277 

Bentonville, N. C 221, 234, 250, 257 

Berkeley Springs, Va. — — 204 

Bermuda Hundred, Va. 206 

Beverly, Va --- 265 

Beverly Ford 260, 264 

Big Black 283 

Black Water, Va 205 

Blountsville 278 

Blue Springs 278 

Boonsboro' 259, 260 

Brazos Santiago 202 

Brice's Cross Roads 254 

Brownsville 206 

Buckhannon 265 

Bunker Hill, Va - 263 

Burnt Hickory — . .- 268 

Buzzard's Roost 186, 199, 239 

Camden, Ark -- 266 

Campbellville, Terin 262 

Canton, Miss 277 

Carter's Station 278 

Cave Spring — 221 

Cedar Creek 194 

Cemetery Hill ... 232 

Chalk Bluffs 202 

Champion Hill 228, 257, 283 

Chapin's Farm, Va 206 

Chaplin Hills 197 

Chattanooga 182,315 

Cherokee 219 

Chester Gap 260 

Chickamauga --1S5, 187, 198, 215, 246, 

274- 

Chickasaw Bayou 252,257, 271, 273 

Clarkson, Mo 228 

Clinton. Miss 277 



38 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Military. 

Battles and Skirmishes. 

Coldwater, Miss. 250, 262 

Columbia 24s, 275 

Corinth 174, 219 

Crawfish Springs 280 

Dallas 176, 250, 257, 271, 273, 280 

Dalton, Ga. 199, 268 

Dandridge, Tenn .- 261 

Darbytown Road, Va 206 

Darkesville, Va 263, 277 

Davis's Cross Roads -1S5, 1S7 

Decatur - 280 

Deep Bottom Creek, Va. 206 

Drurv's Bluff, Va. 205 

Duck River _.-..226, 240, 26S 

Dug Gap 198, 274 

Dumfries' Station — 264 

Eastport, Miss — . 254 

Elkhorn Tavern - 201 

Elk River, Tenn 280 

Ezra Church 177, 226, 251 

Fairburn 281 

Fairmount 193 

Fair Oaks - - 259 

Falling Waters 260, 264 

Farmington, Miss 209, 213, 280 

Fayetteville, Ark 201 

Fayetteville, N. C 257 

Fisher's Hill 194 

Folly Island, S. C 205 

Fort Anderson, N. C - 226 

Fort Blakely, Ala.. 202, 225, 230 

Fort DeRussy.. 223 

Fort Donelson..l66, 172, 218, 222, 270, 

272. 

Fort Gregg, Va 194, 195, 206 

Fort McAllister, Ga 251 

Fort Wayne, S. C 205 

Franklin, Tenn 212, 217, 226, 229, 

241, 248, 262, 275. 

Franklin, Va. 205 

Fredericksburg, Va. 232 

Fredericktown 271 

Funktown 260 

Gadsden _. 251 

Gaines's Mill 259 

Gettysburg, Penn 232, 260, 264 

Gladesville, Va 278 

Gleasonville 277 

Gordon's Mills 237 

Grand Coteau 286 

Greenland Gap . - 193 

Grenada, Miss 262 

Guntown, Miss 262 

Harper's Ferry 225 

Harrison, Mo. 268 

Hatcher's Run 194 

Hoover's Gap 198 

Horn Lake Creek 228 

Hurricane Creek 262 

Island No. 10 ._. 208 

Jackson, Miss 277 

Jenkins's Ferry 266 

jonesboro. Ga...240, 251, 268, 278, 281 

Jonesville 268 

Kenesaw Mountain. .176, 199, 211, 216, 

239,248, 257, 268, 271,273,275, 

280. 

Kernstown _ 194 

Knoxville, Tenn. -225, 278 

LaFayette 274 

Lake Chicot 224 

Lawrenceburg 244 

Leetown, Ark 200 

Lexington, Mo 192 

Liberty, Miss 264 

Liberty Gap 245 

Little Missouri River 266 

Little Washington 260 

Lost Mountain 233 

Lovejoy's Station 240, 281 

Luray Valley, Va 204 

McMinnville 280 

Magno' in Church 283 

Malvern Hill. Va 205, 259 



Military. 

Battles ami Skirmishes. 

Mansfield --223, 2S6 

"March to the Sea" ---234, 257 

Marietta 268 

Martinsburg, Va 259 

Mayfield, Ky -. 223 

Mechanicsville 259 

Meridian, (Miss.) raid 223 

Mission Ridge -1S6, 199, 211, 215, 233, 

235, 247, 250, 257, 271, 273, 274, 276 

Monocacy Church 259 

Moorefieid. 194 

Moscow, Tenn 262 

Mount Ivy, Miss 262 

Murfreesboro'..i67, 184, 198, 209, 214, 

236, 279 

Nashville, Tenn. ---212, 224, 226, 230, 

248, 262, 275, 276, 279. 

Natchez, Miss. 229 

New Hope Church.. 211, 216, 233, 248, 

275. 

New Market 259 

Nickajack Creek 273 

Noses Creek _. 225, 233 

Ogeechee River, Ga - -- 251 

Okaloma, Miss 262, 266 

Old Town Creek 262 

Olley's Creek .. 226 

Opequan Creek 194 

Orchard Knob. .211, 233, 238, 247, 274 

Oxford raid 224, 262 

Pea Ridge 200 

Peach Tree Creek... 217, 233, 240, 248, 

268, 275. 

Pensacola, Fla -. 202 

Perryville, Ky. — 236, 279 

Petersburg 194 

Phillippi, Va 193, 265 

Philomonte 260 

Pilot Knob, Mo 

Pine Mountain 233,275, 280 

Pittsburg Landing. .166, 172, 218, 222, 

276. 

Poney Mountain .- 260 

Poolville- 259 

Port Republic, Va. 205 

Prairie du Anne 266 

Prairie Grove, Ark. 201 

Pumpkin Vine Creek 233 

Raccoon Ford 260 

Rapidan 264 

Rappahannock 260 

Resaca 175, 187, 199, 211, 216, 220, 

233, 239, 248, 250, 257, 268, 271, 273, 

280. 

Rich Mountain ... 265 

Rocky Face - ..211, 215, 239, 24S, 275 

Rome Cross Roads 175, 220 

Russell's Gap — 232 

Russel's House 273, 276 

Sabine Cross Roads 223, 2S6 

Sandy River - 225 

Salem, Miss 262 

Selma, Ala 281 

Seven Pines 259 

Shiloh 166, 218, 270, 272 

Shoal Creek 262 

South Mountain 259 

Spanish F'ort 224, 230 

Spring Hill, Tenn 212, 215, 275 

Stevensburg 264 

Stevens's Gap 210 

Stewart's Plantation.- 262 

Stone River 167, 184, 210, 245 

Strasburg, Va 194, 204 

Sugar Loaf Mountain 259 

Sunflower - 253 

Tiptonville 213 

Town Creek 219 

Tunnel Hill 250 

Tunstall Station 264 

Tupelo, Miss 224, 262 

Tuscumbja Bridge 209 

Union City, Tenn.. 223 

Uniontown - 260 



Page 
Military. 

Battles and Skirmishes. 

Upperville 260 

Utoy Creek 226 

Varnell's Station, Ga -- - 268 

Vicksburg, 202, 220, 253, 257, 271, 273, 
277. 283. 

Waddell's Plantation 262 

Wauhatchie 232 

Westminster 260 

West Point ._ 262 

Wier Bottom Church, Va. __ 205 

Williamsport .. 260,264 

Wooldridge's Hill, Va _ 205 

Wyatt, Miss-- _ 262 

Yazoo 202 

Yellow Bayou 224 

Zollicoffer 278 

Zurich, Va - 205 

Dead. 

Adams, Charles S 297 

Adams, Robert D 291 

Anderson, Matthew .. 186 

Arnold, D. E 210 

Babst, Frederick 293 

Bacon, Ebenezer __ 22S, 292 

Bacon, Matthew ._ 229 

Ballard, Joshua S 237, 293, 351 

Barr, Joseph W 286 

Beaufort, Francis 298 

Bechstein, Frederick 293 

Beckers, Oscar E. 166 

Beidelman, Alexander. 273 

Bellows, George L __ 215, 291 

Benson, O. M 210 

Berry, Joseph H 295 

Bingham, Henry W --23S, 294 

Bishop, William ...274, 288 

Blaisdell, Timothy M 273, 29S 

Blake, Charles B 277 

Blake, Herbert M. 246, 249, 294 

Blood, Henry S 291 

Bowen, T. C. 210 

Bradley, Luther P 217 

Brastem, Charles M 181 

Briedert, Charles 195 

Broesch, Joseph 198 

Brook, Henry J 238 

Bross, John A 243, 295 

Brown, Edward H 290 

Browne, George L. 229 

Brownell, Seely 294 

Buck, Henry A 215, 291 

Burt, C.T _ 210 

Calling, Charles H 181 

Carpenter, G.J - 210 

Carson, Eli 210 

Carter, Gale 260 

Carver, Augustus H 279 

Chalmers, John 273 

Chandler, George W 242, 244, 293 

Chapman, C. P 210 

Clark, Leroy 170 

Clenerwesck, Desire 186 

Cliff, Thomas 195, 289 

Coatsworth, George --237, 293 

Conlee, Edward 192 

Connant, Augustus H 288 

Conway, James J. 254, 294 

Cool, Benjamin S 236 

Correll, S. S 236 

Crane, George 282 

Cummings, F. ._ 192 

Curran, Frank 192 

Darr, John 236 

■ Davis, Nathan E 290 

Davis, William H 236 

DeCosta, Charles W 282 

Derby, Levi 230 

D'Wolf, William 274, 410 

Dielman, Jacob - 273 

Dill, James II 245, 294 

Dodd, Samuel 282 

Doggett, Theodore M 219, 291 

Drenlaney John 192 

Duplany.B 236 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



39 



Military. 
Dead. 

Earl, John 273 

Eisenhart, William 229 

Emory, William E 210 

Everett, Charles W. 272 

Fellows, Albert W 206 

Fields, Edward C. 2S2 

Figu, Michael -- 229 

Finnerty, James 229 

Finney, Andrew - 279 

Fitzgerald, Patrick 192 

French, Henry D 292 

Frome, Frank M 410 

Gallagher, John 192 

Garrett, C. G - - - 229 

Gibson, John P. D 293 

Gordon, James - 229 

Gould, George 186 

Grenahan, Michael 192 

Griffin, Daniel W 185 

Griswald, Joseph P 186 

Gullich, Thomas F. W 236, 293 

Haddock, Samuel .-. 273 

Hall, Duncan J 247, 249, 294 

Hall, Henry W 216, 291 

Hall, J - 210 

Hall, John A 211 

Handt, Peter 198 

Hanley, T 182 

Harding, Scepter T 229 

Harrington, Charles L. _ 273 

Harrison, C. N._ _ 210 

Hartman, Frederick .- 198 

Harvey, John P 296 

Helm, George 236 

Henrotin, Henry 273 

Hill, Andrew 192 

Holmes, Devillo L 185 

Holton, Fred. M 236 

Hopkins, Albert - 229 

Hosmer, Charles H 410 

Hoyt, Abraham - 229 

Hubbard, Louis DeKoven 410 

Humbert, M. W 229 

Hurlbut, Frederick J 291 

Jackson, John - - 236 

James Edward A 277, 299 

Jeffrey, A _. 210 

Johnson, Alfred O -2ii, 290 

Johnson, Frederick 273 

Johnson, John 236 

Jones, William, Jr 277 

Joubert, D 282 

Kane, Edwin A. 229 

Keith, John S 214, 291 

Kelley, James 186 

Kelley, Masten 181 

Kingsley, George A 273 

Kins. nan, Charles.- ... 273 

Kinzie, John Harris. 410 

Kirthner, Carl _ 198 

Kurrash, John ... 229 

Lane, Charles H 238, 293 

Larrabee, Lucius Sherman 410 

Leabock, Stephen C. 181 

Leighton, James . _ 211 

Lester, ThomasT.. 216, 291 

Lettman, Julius 210, 290 

Lippert, Lothar 266, 297 

Logan, Hugh T 236 

Lovell, Christopher 229 

Lyford. Eugene A 236 

Lytle, William H. 217 

McBride, Ora 273 

McCarthy, _ 192 

McCormick, Archibald L. 216 

McCracken, Robert- 185 

McDonald, James .- 186 

Mclntry, David 192 

McMurray, Francis 191, 2S9 

Maager, Charles 224 

Malloy, Thomas 225 

Mansfield, Matthew ._ 214 

Martin, George D — 214 

Mattocks, M 210 



Military. 
Dead. 

Mauss, Louis 290 

Medill, William H 260, 261, 296 

Metcalf, KrederickW 186 

Mick, Samuel H 236 

Mihalotzy, Geza 289 

Millering, Henry 236 

Minnick, John .. 210 

Montgomery, Ezra A 211 

Moody, Otis 291 

Moore, H . W. P 229 

Moore, Thomas A 185 

Mowry, Henry C. 229, 292 

Mulligan, James A. 194, 289 

Mulligan, William ... _- 192 

Mustard, John _ 273 

Naugle, William 229 

Nelson, P. J _ 229 

Newell, Douglas K. 273 

Noble, David 181 

Noel, Joseph 193 

Northrup, A. J 210 

Norton, David W 290 

Nugent, James 289 

O'Connor, James 236 

O'Dwyer, Edward 195 

O'Meara, Timothy - 250 

O'Sullivan, Timothy 186 

Odell -- 229 

Orchard, Thomas 410 

Owens, William F 236 

Patterson, William 186 

Pease, Ira A. 185 

Pemberton, Thomas 186 

Peters, John 236 

Pettit, Charles 229 

Pfeif, Louis W. 222 

Pomeroy, Richard- 292 

Price, Samuel H. 296 

Prior, Edwin C _. . 292 

Putnam, Israel 193 

Raffen, Alexander W... 288 

Ransom, Porter A 292 

Reynolds, W. _ 210 

Rice, William H -247, 249, 294 

Roberts, George W. 210, 212, 290 

Roman, John -- 236 

Roth, Adam 229 

Rowell, Henry L. 247, 249, 294 

Rudd. O. F 206 

Russell, Edward Hanson 410 

Russell, Thomas __ 229 

Rutishauser, Karl A 222 

Sauer, Hermann 236 

Schaumbeck, Frederick 268, 297 

Scott, Joseph R 1S4 

Seborn, Franklin 275, 298 

Shepley, Charles H 288 

Silex, William R 23S 

Simmons, Albert C 215 

Sinclair, George 246 

Skinner, Richard 410 

Slayton, John H 214 

Small, Edwin 292 

Smirnoff, Alexander 1S6 

Smith, A 210 

Smith, George C.i- 211, 290 

Snow, Martin V. B _. 2S2 

Spink, John W --247, 249, 294 

Stagg, John S 279 

Stark, Ferdinand .. 253 

Steffens, August 198 

Stephens, William 230 

Strang, Stephen 186 

Stranberg, John 273 

Sturtevant, 'George 214 

Swain, Frederick 253 

Taber, John .- 186 

Temple, Daniel 229 

Thersan, John 210 

Thomas. Calvin H 217 

Thompson, Frederick 273 

Throop, George _ 286 

Tiffany. T.vsander 289 

Tilton, Albert M 217 



Page 
Military. 
Dead. 

Titskey, Frederick 210 

Tole, tlrias 229 

Tracy, Simon P 277 

Tucker, Lansing B 292 

Wager, Henry B 170, 288 

Walker, A. A 229 

Walker, j. D. 205 

Wallace, James S 282 

Warner, Benjamin B. 273 

Warner, Charles J 186 

Waterman, George I. 217 

Watson, Thomas 229 

Weaver, Abram 236 

Webb, William A. 208, 290 

White, George T. 282 

Wightman, James 205 

Wilder, Charles J 290 

Wiley, William H 279 

Wittern, Benjamin 192 

Wood, Peter Preston 410 

Woodruff, Joseph 205 

Works, W. W 229 

Wright, Joseph C --229, 292, 351 

Wygant, Thomas 2S2 

Aid Associations, etc. 

Anti-scorbutics, shipments of . 319 

Board of Trade 166, 317, 336, 337, 

34°. 
Camp Douglas Hospital Aid Society, 324 

Christian Commission 166 

Christian Commission, Northwes- 
tern Branch. 322, 323 

Common Council 317 

Council of Women from Northwes- 
tern States .. 320 

Female Army Nurses 314 

Ladles' loyal League 324 

Ladies' Relief Society 324 

Ladies' Sewing hall 314 

Ladies' War Committee 167 

Ladies' War Fund Association 167 

Loyal Leagues 167 

Mercantile Association 166, 346, 348 

Protestant Female Nurse Associ- 
ation 315 

Relief Associations 165, 166 

Relief Work 314 

Sanitary Commission- . 166, 315, 321, 323 

Sanitary Fair, First 320, 323 

Sanitary Fair, Second -322, 323 

Sanitary Fair __ 557 

Soldiers' Home.. 166, 167, 310, 311, 322 

Soldiers' Rest 167, 312 

Soldiers' Monument 362 

Soup-houses 167, 324 

Steamer " City of Memphis" 316 

Steamer " Louisiana " 317 

Steamer " Patton " _ 317 

Steamer "Ruth" 319 

Steamer "Silver Wave" 319 

Steamer " Tigress" 317 

Union Defense Committee 167, 315 

War Fund Committee 167 

Woman's Central Association, Chi- 
cago Branch 314 

Woman's Council 318 

Young Men's Association 167 

Young Men's Christian Association 166, 
336, 34S. 
Various Items. 

Cairo garrisoned 163, 170 

Cook County's money contributions 168 

Cook County's soldiers 168 

Citizens arm and equip volunteers -.162 
Chicago companies, assignment of, 

under first three-year call 164 

Chicago companies join Missouri and 

Kansas reinforcements 165 

Draft of 1S64 167, 168 

Douglas Brigade 166 

President calls for 42.032 three-year 

Yolunteers 164 

" Ten-Regiment Bill" .. 164 

War Finance Committee 165 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

Chicago . .Frontispiece. 

Map of City Limits 49 

Dearborn and Madison streets 53 

John R. Walsh'sstore 53 

Clark and South Water streets 57 

Wolf Point in 1S70 - 59 

Rush-street bridge ... 61 

Clark-street bridge — 62 

Randolph and Lake-street bridges 63 

Washington-street tunnel 64 

State-street bridge 64 

Court House in 1S71 65 

Court House, interior, ruin 66 

Court House, exterior, ruin 67 

Crib, being built-- - 6S 

Waterworks Building-- 69 

Chicago Harbor, 1S70 72 

Light-house 81 

Sign-Board Raid ... 85 

Michigan Avenue and Lake Front 86 

Haven School 107 

Franklin School, ruins no 

Dearborn Park 117 

Chicago City Railway Co.'s ticket 120 

LaSalle Street, from Court House 122 

Barracks and Lake House 124 

Wigwam Building 126 

Illinois Central depot-grounds 128 

"Rocket" locomotive.. - 131 

Old Galena Depot. ._ 133 

Old Locomotive 13S 

Old Locomotive 142 

Old Locomotive J43 

Old Locomotive 147 

Lake Shore Depot 153 

Pullman's offices and ruins. 157 

Time-table, Galena R. R 158 

Newspapers, reproduction of Army 171 

Newspapers, reproduction of Army 183 

Newspapers, reproduction of Army 207 

Newspapers, reproduction of Army 255 

Newspapers, reproduction of Army 256 

Newspapers, reproduction of Army 285 

Newspapers, reproduction of Army 286 

Armory and Gas-Works - 2S7 

Camp Douglas 300 

Camp Douglas 301 

Soldiers' Home 311 

Philo Carpenter's residence 324 

First Shipment of Grain 329 

South Water Street 333 

Clark and Randolph streets 351 

Clark and Randolph streets, ruins 352 

Chamber of Commerce -- 358 

Chamber of Commerce, ruins 368 

Chamber of Commerce, ruins 369 

Post-office 385 

Post-office, exterior, ruins of 387 

Post-office, interior, ruins of 388 

Post-office after Fire 389 

Marine Hospital 393 

Holy Family. Church of. 401 

Holy Family, Parochial School of 40? 

Cathedral Holy Name 404 

Cathedral Holy Name, ruins of 404 

St. Michael's Cathedral 405 

St. Michael's Cathedral, ruins 405 

St. Joseph's Church, ruins 406 

St. James Episcopal Church 409 

St. James Episcopal Church, ruins 410 



Page 

Grace Episcopal Church 411 

First Presbyterian Church 416 

Second Presbyterian Church and ruins.. 417 

North Presbyterian Church, ruins 419 

Methodist Church Block 423 

Methodist Church Block, ruins 424 

Grace Methodist Church, ruins 425 

New England Church 429 

New England Church, ruins 429 

Plymouth Church, site of 430 

First Baptist Church 435 

Second Baptist Church .. 437 

Unity Church and ruins - 440 

St. Paul's Univ. Church and ruins 441 

Bookseller's Row and ruins 484 

Lakeside Building, ruins - 486 

Culver, Page & Hoyne's building 487 

Tribune Building and ruins 492 

Sherman House .- 502 

Adams House 504 

Adams House, ruins 504 

Bigelow Hotel, ruins 507 

Palmer's Hotel. 509 

Grand Pacific Hotel, ruins 509 

Historical Society, ruins 514 

The Great Telescope 516 

Observatory, Chic. Astronomical Soc 516 

Rush Medical College 521 

Rush Medical College, ruins 522 

Chicago Medical College 531 

Mercy Hospital- 537 

Hahnemann College - 541 

Lincoln Mask 557 

Academy of Design. 558 

Field, Leiter & Co 's Building 563 

Honore Building 564 

Honore Building, ruins 565 

Drake Block and ruins 574 

Young America Hotel and Rice's Thea- 
ter 596 

McVicker's Theater 598 

Crosby's Opera House . 603 

Crosby's Opera House, ruins 607 

Aiken's Museum and ruins 608 

Dearborn Theater 611 

Exchange Bank . 619 

Union National Bank Building 620 

First National Bank and ruins. 626 

" Bee Hive " Bank 628 

Second National Bank, ruins 629 

Fifth National Bank, ruins 630 

Marine Bank, ruins 632 

Republic Life Building 637 

Republic Life Building, ruins 638 

Republic Life Building, ruins 642 

Insurance Building, ruins 651 

Phenix Insurance Receipt 653 

Blaney Hall 656 

Trinity Episcopal Church 670 

Trinity Episcopal Church, ruins. .. 671 

Collins & Burgie, works, 1857. 680 

Collins & Burgie, works, 1885 681 

McCormick's First Reaper 685 

McCormick Improved Reaper 685 

McCormick's Works 687 

Map of Burned District 706 

O'I.eary's Barn 708 

Map of boundary of fire 714 

Lamp, found after fire 715 

Map of original site of fire. 717 



Page 

Clark and Washington streets, ruins 720 

Lake and State streets 722 

Lake and State streets, ruins 723 

View on Michigan Avenue 724 

Lake and Clark streets, ruins 726 

D. B. Fisk's ruins 727 

Terrace Row 738 

Tremont House, after fire 739 

Wright's Livery Stable. 740 

Rumsey's residence 740 

Rumsey's residence, ruins. 741 

Waterworks Tower 742 

Lill & Diversy's brewery, ruins 743 

State and Indiana streets, ruins 744 

M. D. Ogden's residence 745 

McCormick's residence, ruins . 747 

Clark-street bridge, looking north 749 

Map of City and Burned District 751 

E. B. McCagg's residence and ruins 752 

Lind Block 753 

Bronze statue, remains of 758 

Chicago after the great conflagration . . 

758-59 

Safes on Dearborn street 759 

Certificate 761 

First Congregational Church 762 

Police Badge _ 763 

Proclamation, fac simile of 764 

Railroad Pass, fac simile 767 

Magdalene Hospital, ruins 773 

Church of New Jerusalem, ruins 774 

PORTRAITS. 

J. V. Z. Blaney 523 

L. D. Boone 527 

William Bross 493 

William H. Byford 525 

Rev. A. Damen .-• 403 

N. S. Davis 524 

J. Dyhrenfurth 592 

G. W. Dole 327 

S. A. Douglas 304 

Bishop Duggan 398 

Rev. D. Dunne 340 

E. E. Ellsworth igo 

Robert Fergus.. 485 

Justin Hayes 548 

L. D. Hoard 588 

Thomas Hoyne 463 

Samuel T- Jones 552 

William "H. King 480 

John A. Logan 169 

Reuben Ludlam . 542 

George Manierre . . 454 

C. H. McCormick 687 

J. H. McVicker 597 

Colonel Mulligan and Staff 191 

Rev. William Quarter 399 

J. B. Rice 597 

J. P. Ross 536 

Julian S. Rumsey 328 

D. S. Smith-.. 541 

Geo. Smith 617 

Perry H. Smith 136 

F. F. Spencer - 683 

Rev. Luther Stone 434 

J. B. Turchin 1S1 

James H. Ward 473 

J. D.Webster 721 



History of Chicago 



CORPORATE HISTORY. 



THE CORPORATION. 

MUNICIPAL CHANGES.— From 1857 to 187 1, 
inclusive, occurred several important changes 
in the municipal government. In February, 1861, by an 
amendatory act of the charter, the office of City Mar- 
shal was abolished after March 4, 1862, and the Board 
of Public Works created. The latter body was to 
assume all the functions heretofore pertaining to the 
Water, Street and Sewerage Commissioners. At the 
same time was established the Board of Police, to con- 
sist of three commissioners chosen from the three 
divisions of the city. The first commissioner of the 
board was to be chosen at the general municipal elec- 
tion in 1863. 

The city was divided into sixteen wards by the 
revised charter of February, 1863, and its limits made 
to include Bridgeport and Holstein, the line being car- 
ried one mile further south. At the same time, all of 
that territory north of the Chicago River and east of 
the North Branch was constituted the North Division 
of the city; all south of the main river and south and 
east of the South Branch, and of the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, the South Division; while the district 
lying west of the North and South branches of the 
river, and of the canal was made the West Division. 
The South Division included six wards, the West Divi- 
sion, nine, and the North Division, five. By acts of 
February 27 and March 10, 1869, the present city limits 
were fixed, the territory added to that of 1863, being 
the district on the west, including the tract lying north 
of the canal, east of Crawford Avenue and south of 
North Avenue. . The city limits now embrace an area 
of thirty-five square miles. 

The map on opposite page will give a clear idea of 
the growth of the corporate territory. 

In March, 1869, trie time for holding the municipal 
election was changed from April to November. In 
April, 1875, the City of Chicago was newly incorpo- 
rated, under the general law, and molded into its 
present shape. - 

Roster from 185S TO 1872. — 1S5S — Mayor, John C. Haines; 
City Clerk, H. Kreismann; City Attorney, Elliott Anthony; City 
Treasurer, Charles N. Holden; Aldermen, by wards: (1) James 
Long, William Bross; (2) Charles H. Abbott, O. Kendall (Smith 
McClevey elected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Mr. Ken- 
dall); (3) Levi J. North, Hiram Joy; (4) Samuel Myers, J. M. 
Kennedy; (5) Jasper D. Ward, Artemus Carter; (6) John Von 
Horn, George Sitts; (7) Henry Wendt, John Dunlap; (S) Andrew- 
Wright, Christian Wahl; (9) Benjamin Carpenter, Philip Conley; 
(10) Andrew Enzenbacher, Dennis Coughlin. 

1859 — Mayor, John C. Haines; City Clerk, H. Kreismann; 

City Attorney, George F.Crocker; City Treasurer, Alonzo Harvey; 

Aldermen, by wards: (1) J, K. Botsford, James Lorig; (2) Jacob 

4 40 



Harris, Charles II. Abbott; (3) Fernando Jones, Levi J. North; 

(4) J. M. Kennedy, Samuel Myers; (5) L. B. Taft, Jasper D. 
Ward; (6) C. A. Reno, John Von Horn; 17) John Alston, Henry 
Wendt; (S) C. Wahl, Andrew Wright; (9) J. A. Huck, Benjamin 
Carpenter; (10) John Comiskey, Andrew Enzenbacher. 

i860 — Mayor, John Wentworth; City Clerk, Abraham Kohn; 
City Attorney, John Lyle King; City Treasurer, Alonzo Harvey 
(Charles H. Hunt appointed, December 24, to fill vacancy caused 
by Mr. Harvey's resignation); Aldermen, by wards: (1) William 
Colby, J. K. Botsford; (2) James M. Marshall, Jacob Harris; (3) 
Hiram Joy, Fernando Jones; (4) Samuel Myers, J. M. Kennedy; 

(5) Robert H. Foss, L. B. Taft; (6) James W. Cobb, C. A. Reno; 

(7) Gurdon S. Hubbard, John Alston; (8) Redmond Prindiville, C. 
Wahl; (9) Gurdon Perkins, J. A. Iluck; (10) Malcolm McDonald, 
John Comiskey. 

1861 — Mayor, Julian S. Rumsey; City Clerk, A. J. Marble; 
City Attorney, Ira W. Buel; City Treasurer, W. H. Rice; Alder- 
men, by wards: (1) J. K. Botsford, William Colby; (2) J. Q. Hoyt, 
James M. Marshall; (3) A. D. Titsworth, Hiram Joy; (4) William 
Baragwanath; Samuel Myers; (5) C. C. I'. Holden, Robert H. 
Foss; (6) Edward S. Salomon, James W. Cobb; (7) Alonzo Har- 
vey (Andrew Harvey was first declared elected, but the Council 
afterwards reconsidered their action and Alonzo Harvey was 
declared chosen June 17), Gurdon S. Hubbard; (S| W. G. White, 
Redmond Prindiville; (9) Robert Law, Gurdon Perkins; (10) John 
Comiskey, Malcolm McDonald. 

1862 — Mayor, F. C. Sherman; City Clerk, A. J. Marble: City 
Attorney, George A. Meech; City Treasurer, William H. Rice (F. 
II. Cutting elected, but failed to qualify, and new bond filed by 
Mr. Rice, in possession of the office); Aldermen, bv wards: (1) 
John T. Edwards, J. K. Botsford; (2) Peter Shimp, J. Q. Hoyt; 
(3) James A. Hahn, A. D. Titsworth; (4) Andrew Schall, William 
Baragwanath; (5) William A. Groves, C. C. P. Holden; (6) Francis 
C. Brown, Edward S.Salomon; (7) James Conlan, Alonzo Ilarvev; 

(8) Charles L. Woodman, W. G. White; (9) William T. Shufeldt, 
Robert Law; (10) Redmond Sheridan, John Comiskey. 

1863 — Mayor, F. C. Sherman ; City Clerk, H. W. Zimmer- 
man ; City Attorney, Francis Adams ; City Treasurer, David A. 
Gage ; Aldermen, by Wards: (1) James A. Hahn, Andrew Schall ; 
(2) A. D. Titsworth, Peter Shimp ; (3) James H. Roberts, Stephen 
Barrett ; (4) Benjamin E. Gallup, John T. Edwards ; (5) Constan- 
tine Kann, Mark Sheridan ; (6) David Walsh, Malcolm McDonald; 
(7) James E. Abbott, John Comiskey; (8) Richard Clark, Redmond 
Sheridan, (Francis J. Ullbrich elected to fill vacancy caused by Mr. 
Sheridan's resignation); (9) Mancel Talcott, Francis C. Brown ; 
(10) George Himrod, C. C. P. Holden ; (n) George Von Hollen, 
L. L. Bond; (12) William Gastfield, Christian Casselman ; (13) 
John M. Armstrong, David Aleckner ; 14) Valentine Ruh, Anton 
Hottinger : (15) Michael Sullivan, James Conlan ; (16) William T. 
Shufeldt, C. L. Woodman. 

1864 — Mayor, F. C. Sherman ; City Clerk, Henry W. Zim- 
merman ; City Attorney, Francis Adams ; City Treasurer, David 
A. Gage ; Aldermen, by Wards: (1) George W. Gage, Charles D. 
Peacock ; (2) Peter Shimp, A. D. Titsworth : (3) Stephen Barrett, 
James H. Roberts; 14) Samuel McRoy, Benjamin E. Gallup; (5) 
Mark Sheridan, Constantine Kann ; (6) John Wallwork, David 
Walsh ; (7) Joseph Sherwin, John Comiskev, (8) Patrick Rafferty, 
Richard Clark ; (9) Willard Woodard, Mancel Talcott ; (10) C. C. 
P. Holden, George Himrod; (11) Lester L. Bond, George Von 
Hollen; (12) Nathaniel W. Huntley, William Gastfield; (13) 
Mathias Franzen, John M. Armstrong ; (14I A. Hottinger, Valen- 
tine Ruh; (15) Iv'er Lawson, Michael Sullivan; (16) Charles L. 
Woodman, lames I. O'Sullivan. 



5° 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



1S65 — Mayor, John B. Rice ; City Clerk, Albert H. Rodman ; 
City Attorney, Daniel D, Driscoll ; City Treasurer, A. G. Throop ; 
Aldermen, by Wards : (1) Joshua C. Knickerbocker, George \V. 
Gage ; (2) William II. Carter, Peter Shimp ; (3) Charles G. Wicker; 
Stephen Barrett ; 14) H. M. Willmarth, Samuel McRoy ; (5) Con- 
stantine Kann, Mark Sheridan ; (6) Thomas C. Hatch, John Wall- 
work ; (7) Avery Moore, Joseph Sherwin ; (8) M. L. Frisbee, 
Patrick Raffertv ; (9) Mancel Talcott, Willard Woodard ; (10) 
Edward Bixbv.'C. C. P. Holden ; (11) S. I. Russell, Lester L. 
Bond ; (12) William Gastfield, Nathaniel W. Huntley ; (13) L. 
Proudfoot, Mathias Franzen ; (14) Valentine Ruh, A. Hottinger ; 
(151 Samuel Shackford, Iver Lawson ; (16) Robert Clark, Charles 
L. Woodman. 

1S66 — Mayor, John B. Rice ; City Clerk, A. H. Bodman ; 
City Attorney, D. D. Driscoll ; City Treasurer, A. G. Throop ; 
Aldermen, by Wards: (1) William Cox, J. C. Knickerbocker ; (2) 
Calvin DeWolf, William H. Carter ; (3) Stephen Barrett, Charles 
G. Wicker ; (4) Allen C. Calkins, H. M. Willmarth ; (5) M. Finu- 
can, Constantine Kann ; (6) John Wallwork, Thomas C. Hatch ; 
(7) Max Schuler, Avery Moore ; (S) Patrick Rafferty, M. L. Fris- 
bee ; (9) Willard Woodard, Mancel Talcott ; (10) C. C. P. Holden, 
Edward Bixby ; (11) Henry Ackhoff, S. I Russell; (12) N. W. 
Huntley, William Gastfield ; (13) M. Franzen, L. Proudfoot ; (14) 
Robert Engel, Valentine Ruh ; (15) Iver Lawson ; Samuel Shack- 
ford ; (16) J. J. O'Sullivan (Michael O'Sullivan elected to fill 
vacancy caused by the resignation of ]. J. O'Sullivan), Robert 
Clark. 

1S67 — Mayor, John B. Rice ; City Clerk, A. H. Bodman ; 
' City Attorney, Hasbrouck Davis ; City Treasurer. William F. 
Wentworth ; Aldermen, by Wards : (1) Joshua C. Knickerbocker, 
Wiiliam Cox ; (2) Arthur Dixon, Calvin DeWolf ; (3) Charles G. 
Wicker, Stephen Barrett ; (4) Samuel McRoy, Allen C. Calkins ; (5) 
John Raber. M. Finucan ; (6) David Walsh, John Wallwork ; (7) 
John MacAIlister, Max Schuler ; (S) John Comiskey, Patrick Raf- 
ferty ; (9) John II. Carpenter, Willard Woodard ; (to) Edmund 
Bixby (died December 5, 1867); C. C. P. Holden ; (11) S. I Rus- 
sell, Henry Ackhoff; (12) C. J. Casselman, N. W. Huntley (John 
Buehler elected to fill vacancy caused by Mr. Huntley's resigna- 
tion); (13) George T. Beebe, M. Franzen ; (14) Theodore Schintz, 
Robert Engel (resigned December 2); (15) Samuel Shackford, Iver 
Lawson ; (16) George B. Mansur, M. O'Sullivan. 

1S6S— Mayor, John B. Rice ; City Clerk, A. H. Bodman ; 
City Attorney, Hasbrouck Davis ; City Treasurer, W. F. Went- 
worth ; Aldermen, by Wards : (1) William Cox, Joshua C. Knick- 
erbocker ; (2) P. M. Donnellan, Arthur Dixon ; (3) Stephen 
Barrett (Mr. Barrett died May 21 and James A. Hahn elected to 
fill vacancy) ; Charles G. Wicker ; (4) A C. Calkins, Samuel 
McRoy; (5) Mark Sheridan, John Raber; (6) Michael Keeley, 
David Walsh ; (7) James H. Hildreth, John MacAIlister ; (8) 
Patrick Rafferty, John Comiskey ; (g) Willard Woodard. John H. 
Carpenter ; (10) C. C. P. Holden, Alvin Salisbury ; (11) B. F. 
Russell, S. I. Russell ; (12) John Buehler, C. J. Casselman ; (13) 
K. G. Schmidt, George T. Beebe ; (14) Louis A. Berger, Theodore 
Schintz ; (15) John Herting, Samuel Shackford ; (16) Edward 
Kehoe, George B. Mansur. 

1869— Mayor, John B. Rice ; City Clerk, A. H. Bodman ; 
City Attorney, Hasbrouck Davis; City Treasurer, W. F. Went- 
worth; Aldermen, by Wards: (1) William Cox, Joshua C. Knick- 
erbocker ; (2) Patrick M. Donnellan, Arthur Dixon ; (3) James A. 
Hahn, Charles G. Wicker ; (4) A. C. Calkins, Samuel McRoy ; (5) 
Mark Sheridan, John Raber; (6) Michael Keeley, David Walsh; 
(7) James II. Hildreth, John MacAIlister; (8) Patrick Rafferty, 
John Comiskey ; (9) Willard Woodard, John H. 
Carpenter ; (10) C. C. P. Holden, Alvin Salis- 
bury ; (11) l:. F. Russell, S. I. Russell; (12) 
John liuehler, C. J. Casselman ; (13) K. G. 
Schmidt, George T. Beebe ; (14) Louis A. Ber- 
ger, Theodore Schintz; (15) John Herting, 
Samuel Shackford ; (id) Edward Kehoe, George 
I). Mansur. (On March 10, 1869, the city was 
divided into twenty wards, and the time for the 
city election changed from April to November. 
The persons then in office were continued until the first Monday 
r:,ber of that year.) 

l86g 70— (Eld tion in November, [869) — Mayor, R. B. Mason; 
City Clerk, Charles T. Ilotchkiss ; City Attorney, Israel N. Stiles; 
City Treasurer, David A. Gage ; Aldermen, by Wards: (1) Richard 
Somen, William Cox; (i) Arthur Dixon, P. M. Donnellan; (3) 
Joseph A. Montgomery, James A. Hahn; (4) John II. McAvoy, 
A. C. Calkin- : (5) George s. Whitaker, Peter Daggy ; (6) William 
Tracey, Mark Sheridan (Daniel Heenan elected to fill vacancy 
caused by Mr. Sheridan's resignation) ; (7) William Batterman, P. 
J, Hickey ; (8) William S. Powell, James II. Hildreth ; (0) George 
Powell, John Comiskey; (10) Thomas Wilce, C. C. P. Holden; 
(ID James Walsh, li. I . Russell ; (12; Samuel McCotter, Willard 




Woodard ; (13) James L. Campbell, A. D. Robinson ; (14) P. B. 
Shiel, B. G. Gill; (15) James J. McGrath, John Buehler; (16) 
James D. Tyler, K. G. Schmidt ; (17) Theodore Schintz, Louis A. 
Berger; (18) Thomas Carney, A. Bengley ; (19) James McCauley, 
John Herting; (20) M. A. Devine, Edward Kehoe. 

1870-71 — Mayor, R. B. Mason ; City Clerk, Charles T. Hotch- 
kiss ; City Attorney, I. N. Stiles ; City Treasurer, David A. Gage ; 
Aldermen, by Wards : (1) John J. Knickerbocker, Richard Somers ; 
(2) Joseph E. Otis, Arthur Dixon ; (3) D. Coey, Joseph A. Mont- 
gomery ; (4) Harvey M. Thompson, John H. McAvoy ; (5) Peter 
Daggy, George S. Whitaker ; (6) Michael Schmitz, William Tra- 
cey ; (7) P. J. Mickey, William Batterman ; (8) Michael B. Bailey, 
William S. Powell ; (9) William B. Bateham, George Powell ; (10) 
C. C. P. Holden. Thomas Wilce; (n) Herman O. Glade. James 
Walsh ; (12) Henry Witbeck, Samuel McCotter ; (13) S. S. Gard- 
ner, James L. Campbell ; (14) B. G. Gill, P. B. Sheil ; (15) John 
Buehler, James J. McGrath ; (16) K. G. Schmidt. James D. Tyler ; 
(17) Louis Schaffner, Theodore Schintz ; (18) John McCaffrey, 
Thomas Carney; (19) William M. Clarke, James McCauley; (20' 
Gustavus A. Busse, M. A. Devine. 

1871-72 — Mayor Joseph Medill ; City Clerk, Charles T. 
Hotchkiss ; City Attorney, I. N. Stiles ; City Treasurer, David A. 
Gage ; Aldermen, by Wards: (1) Chauncey T. Bowen, John J.- 
Knickerbocker ; (2) Arthur Dixon, Joseph E. Otis ; (3) John W. 
McGenniss, David Coey; (4) John 11. McAvoy, Harvey M. 
Thompson ; (5) R. B^ Stone, Peter Daggy ; (6) William Tracey, 
Michael Schmitz ; (7) Edward F. Cullerton, P. J. Hickey ; (8) 
Jeremiah Clowry, M. B. Bailey ; (9) George Powell, William B. 
Bateham ; (10) Lester L. Bond, C. C. P. Holden ; (11) Henry 
Sweet, H. O. Glade (T. T. Verdier elected in place of Mr. Glade, 
resigned) ; (12) Monroe Heath, Henry Witbeck ; (13) George W. 
Sherwood, S. S. Gardner; (14) S. E. Cleveland. B. G. Gill; (15) 
James J. McGrath, John Buehler ; (16) Thomas Stout, K. G. 
Schmidt; (17) Jacob Lengacher, Louis Schaffner; (18) Thomas 
Carney, John McCaffrey; (19) Mahlon D. Ogden, William M. 
Clarke ; (20) Charles L. Woodman, G. A. Busse. 

John C. Haines served for two terms as mayor of Chicago, 
from March 2, 1858, to March 6, 1S60, having for many previous 
years been closely identified with the business and public interests 
of the city. His character is that of the man who makes sure that 
every forward step in his life is taken upon solid ground. Born in 
Deerfield, N. V., on May 26, 1818, he came to Chicago in 1835, 
worked energetically at various commercial pursuits for a period of 
eleven years, when he had so established himself in the confidence 
of the community and accumulated so comfortable a capital, that he 
decided to extend his scope of activity into a broader field. In 
1846, therefore, he entered into a partnership with Jared Gage, and 
the new firm purchased the Chicago Flour Mills. This was among 
the pioneer manufactories of the kind in the city, and success was 
an apparent fact from the first. Mr. Haines' ability was so mani- 
fest in the conduct of his own affairs, that he was called upon by 
his fellow-citizens to serve them, being, in 1S48, elected a member of 
the City Council. In this position he continued for six successive 
years, and when the city decided to discard the old hydraulic water 
works for the more metropolitan system, he was called upon to 
assist, officially, in carrying on the different enterprises. In 1853 he 
was elected one of the three water commissioners for a term of 
three years, his co-workers being J. H. Wondworth and George 
W. Dole. In February, 1S54, the supply of water for the city 
commenced, so that Air. Haines has the satisfaction of being 
one of the founders of Chicago's waterworks system, and of living 
to see the folly of those outcries against the broad views which he 



%riL^i :- yf^^v- 



and his brother commissioners entertained, regarding the nature of 
public works to be established. At the end of his term he was 
re-elected for the ensuing three years in the same capacity. In the 
meantime he had severed his connection with Mr. Gage and become 
interested in various financial institutions, among others, the Illi- 
nois Savings Institution, of which he was chosen president in 1S59. 
As previously stated, he had commenced his term of service as 
mayor during the preceding year, being the unanimous choice of 
the Republican Convention. For several years, after he had com- 
pleted his second term, he devoted himself to the care of his exten- 
sive interests, but took so leading a part in everything which 
concerned the public welfare thai in [86g he was chosen a member 
of the Constitutional Convention, He was among the most earnest 



THE CORPORATION. 



5' 



and effective workers, among the many able men who attended 
that convention, who placed the people of Illinois and her constitu- 
tion of 1870 as uncompromisingly opposed to special legislation 
and jobbery. In 1874 he was elected to the State Senate, repre- 
senting the first district, during the twenty-ninth and thirtieth 
general assemblies. For the past few years Mr. Haines has with- 
drawn from active political life — in fact, he never has been obtru- 
sive, but whatever of honor has come to him has been quite 
unsolicited. For many years he has been largely interested in 
several branches of the manufacturing interests of Chicago, and 
connected with the leading savings banks of the city. For some 
years past he has resided in Waukegan. 

Rosyvell B. Mason served as mayor of Chicago from No- 
vember 2, 1S69, to November 7, 1S71. He was, therefore, at the 
head of municipal affairs when that calamity occurred which, for 
years to come, will be the point from which to date the deeds and 
lives of the men and women of this city. It was well, truly, that 
a man of such rugged common sense and brave character had con- 
trol of the city government. Responses to his energetic calls for 
relief came from all over the civilized world, and before he went 
out of office he had the courage to intrust all moneys, and supplies 
received by him on behalf of the people of Chicago, to the Relief 
and Aid Society, instead of to the City Council. Being advised, 
furthermore, that criminals of all classes were pouring toward 
Chicago, thinking to be benefited by the confusion then reigning, 
he earned the approval of all good citizens by calling upon the 
government of the Uni'ed States for protection, and General P. II. 
Sheridan placed the city under martial law. During his entire 
administration, in short, he showed an independent and fearless 
spirit, seeming to remember that he had been called to the chair 
by the votes of the Republicans and Democrats alike. Previous 
to his election as mayor, Mr. Mason's life had been spent in the 
unceasing toil of his profession as a civil engineer, the greater por- 
tion of his career having been devoted to the surveying and con- 
struction of railroads. As the architect alone (if the word may be 
allowed) of the grand system known as the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, Mr. Mason is entitled to a high place among the benefactors 
not only of the city, but of the state ; and his previous training 
evidently fitted him for just such an undertaking. Born at New 
Hartford, Oneida Co., N. Y., September 19, 1805, he spent his 
early years as do most farmer's boys. In his seventeenth year, he 
assisted his father to fill a contract which he had taken, of furnish- 
ing stone for the locks of the Erie Canal, and thus the boy formed 
the acquaintance of Edward F. Gay, an assistant engineer in 
charge of construction. In the spring of 1S22, he became a rod- 
man under Mr. Gay, and afterward accompanied the surveying 
party to the Schuylkill Canal ; but in August, 1S24, he was obliged 
to return home on account of sickness. He next connected him- 
self with the survey of a canal from Lake Champlain to the St. 
Lawrence River, at Ogdensburgh, and in the spring of 1825 took 
a position with Major Beech and Mr. Gay on the Morris Canal, in 
New Jersey. Mr. Gay resigned his position as first assistant 
engineer, soon afterward, when Mr. Mason was given the place, 
and retained it until he was made chief engineer and superinten- 
dent, during the latter portion of his six years' connection with the 
work. For the succeeding two years he held an important position 
in the construction of the Pennsylvania Canal, and after that was 
superintendent of Morris Canal. In the spring of 1837, work was 
begun on the Housatonic Railroad, extending from Bridgeport, 
Conn., to the north line of the state. This was one of the pioneer 
railroads of the country, and Mr. Mason its chief engineer ; remain- 
ing with the road in that capacity for ten years, subsequently acting 
as its superintendent. As chief engineer and superintendent of 
the New York and New Haven Railroad, and engineer in charge 
of the construction of the Yermont Yalley line, Mr. Mason had 
further opportunities for extending his broad practical experience, 
previous to entering the western field. In the spring of 1851, he 
came to Illinois to take charge of the construction of the Illinois 
Central road, completing it in October, 1856. The details of the 
progress of this splendid feat of engineering skill will be found in 
the first volume of this history, the salient facts being given by 
Mr. Mason himself. After several unsuccessful ventures as a 
grading contractor, in 1S60 he became superintendent of the 
Chicago and Alton Railroad, was appointed comptroller of the 
land department of the Illinois Central Railroad company in 1S61, 
and retained the latter position until August, 1S67. In the mean- 
time (1S65) he had been appointed by the State Legislature one of 
the members of the Chicago Board of Public Works, to superin- 
tend the lowering of the summit of the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal. In 1S68, while acting in this capacity, he also constructed 
the Dunleith and Dubuque bridge In November. 1S69, he 
resigned as a member of the Board of Public Works to assume the 
responsible duties of mayor. After serving two years, he returned 
to the care of his large business interests. From 1873 to 1SS3, 
inclusive, Mr. Mason served as one of the trustees of the Illinois 



Industrial University. This is the only public position he has 
filled since being mayor ol the city; but as president "I thi Chi 
cago South Branch Dock Company, with many other bl 
duties and social and church demands upon his time, his days are 
still filled with works. Mr. Mason was one of the founders of the 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary of the Northwest, which was 
organized in 1857, and has held the office of director and trustee 
almost continuously up to the present time. He is a leading mem- 
ber of the Fourth Presbyterian Church, being one of its elders. 
Mr. Mason was married September 6, 1831, to Miss Harriet 1.. 
Hopkins, daughter of Royal Hopkins, of Parsippany, N. J. 
George Arnold Mason, one of their sons, was killed in a railroad 
accident, in the year 1855, The remaining family of four sons and 
three daughters are living, while Mr. Mason himself, at the ad- 
vanced age of nearly eighty years, appears never to have asked the 
question, " Is life worth living?" 



^u>^ tfMafr^ 



Joseph Medill, mayor of the city of Chicago during the 
two trying years succeeding the fire, and since November, 1874, 
editor-in-chief of the Tribune, is the son of Irish parents who 
immigrated to America in 1S19. He was born April 6, 1823, in 
New Brunswick, in the vicinity of St. John's. When he was 
eight years of age his parents removed to Stark County, Ohio, in 
which state he resided for twenty-three years, spending his boy- 
hood days on a farm near Massillon. After obtaining an academic 
education at this town, and teaching at times, he decided, when he 
had reached his majority, to engage in the study of law. Mr. 
Medill studied this profession in the offices of Hiram Griswold and 
Seymour Belden, was admitted to the Bar in November, 1S46, and 
commenced to practice in New Philadelphia, Ohio, in partnership 
with George W. Mcllvaine, since chief justice of the Supreme 
Court of Ohio. But the tastes and the ambitions of the young 
man tended toward a different career, than one within the limits of 
the legal profession, and therefore he dissolved the partnership 
with Mr. Mcllvaine in the fall of 1849, soon thereafter establish- 
ing the Coshocton Republican. This was published as a free-soil 
Whig paper until the winter of 1851-52, when he sold it and 
removing to Cleveland, established the Daily Forest City. He 
supported General Scott as a presidential candidate, but after his 
disastrous defeat, concluding that the Whig party had outlived its 
usefulness, advocated the formation of that grand organization of 
which, for over thirty years he has been a corner-stone. The new 
party was founded upon anti-slavery principles, composed of 
Seward Whigs, Chase Free-soilers and Wilmot-proviso Democrats 
and was christened, in 1S54, National Republican. In 1853 Mr. 
Medill merged his paper with the True Democrat, owned and 
edited by John C. Yaughan, and the Cleveland Leader was born 
into American journalism. In the winter of 1S53— 54, then but 
thirty years of age, he met his co-workers at Cleveland, as one of 
the chief organizers of the Republican party and during the 
succeeding winter sold his interest in the Leader, came to Chicago 
and, with Mr. Yaughan, and Dr. C. H. Ray, of Galena, purchased 
the Tribune. From April, 1855, until the great fire. Mr. Medill bent 
all his energies toward the development of the journal which he 
found an infant, and transformed into a giant in the formation of 
public opinion. During the war the Chicago Tribune was ah 
incalculable power in the work of steadfastly upholding National 
Union sentiment at home and abroad. It was this journal, more 
than any other in the country, which brought forward Abraham 
Lincoln from comparative obscurity and elected him President of 
the United States. It was more Mr. Medill's individual exertions 
which brought about the great reform which so much conduced to 
the firm establishment of Union principles in all the cities of the 
North, viz.: that by which all soldiers serving in the field were 
allowed to vote. Through his instrumentality Governors Ramsay. 
of Minnesota, and Solomon, of Wisconsin, called extra sessions 
of the state legislatures for the purpose of providing the necessary 
legislation, and other states whose constitutions permitted, followed 
their example. He not only agitated the subject in the Tribune, 
but corresponded with the leading public men of the country until 
the great importance of the propuscd measure was rn ugni t ■] and 
a strong public sentiment created, which swept all opposition before 
it. The soldier vote thus cast elected Lincoln in 1S64, and saved 
Congress to the Republicans. Mr. Medill was also instrumental 
in organizing the Union American League of America, which was 
a most useful auxiliary to the Northern cause. Luring the first 
ten years of his connection with this journal, he was not only 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



managing editor but the business head of the establishment ; he 
not only triumphantly directed its political but its financial policy, 
until he had built up the Tribune into one of the most prosperous, 
as well as powerful, journals in America. In 1S69 Mr. Medill was 
elected to the Constitutional Convention, and through his influence 
and efforts, among many useful and important provisions were 
those incorporated into the body politic giving representation to 
minorities in the legislature and chartered companies. He was 
appointed by President Grant a member of the civil service com- 
mission in 1S71, and in November of that year was elected mayor 
of the city, being carried to that office on one of the most irresisti 
ble waves of public enthusiasm which ever swept over the city. 
Mayor Medill assumed control of municipal affairs at a time when 
the finances of the city, in fact all of its departments, were in a 
state of great confusion caused, as is well known, by the disorgan- 
izing effects of the great fire. But he placed his shoulders under 
the load of difficulties and lifted the shattered city out of many of 
its troubles. In September, 1S73, a few weeks before the expira- 
tion of his term of office, with his health somewhat broken by the 
strain which so long had been placed upon his mind and body, he 
resigned the mayoralty and departed upon a European tour for rest 
and recreation. Upon his return to Chicago in November, 1874, 
he purchased a controlling interest in the Tribune and as editor-in- 
chief assumed the general management of its affairs. This posi- 
tion he still holds, guiding its policy with a steady hand and being 
still recognized as one of the great powers of the Republican 
party. 




Financial Statistics. — From 1838 to 1856, in- 
clusive, the city debt was compiled from the annual 
statements of the Finance Committee, as submitted to 
the Common Council; from 185710 1871, inclusive, 
from the annual statements of the City Comptroller. 
Following is a table showing the population of Chicago, 
when taken by a regular city, state or United States 
census, with the total valuation of real estate and per- 
sonal property, tax and bonded indebtedness : 



1857 
1858 
1859 
1 860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1-70 
1871 



Popula 



*93,ooo 
*go,ooo 
*95,ooo 
109,206 

*I20,000 

138,186 
*l6o,ooo 
160,353 
178,492 
200,418 

*220,0O0 

252,054 
273.043 

306,605 

334.27° 



Total Valuatu 



$36,335,281 

35,991.732 

36,553,380 

37,053.512 

3 5 .352,3 S ° 

37,139,845 

42,667,324 

48,732,782 

64,709,177 

85.953,250 

195.026,844 

230,247,000 

266,024,880 

275,986,550 

289,746,470 



$572,046 

430,190 

513,614 

373,315 

550,968 

564,038 

853,346 

974,655 

1,294,183 

1,719,064 

2,518,472 

3.223,457 

3.990.373 

4,139.798 

2,897,464 



$535,000 

i.SSs.ooo 
2,336,000 
2,362,000 
3,028,000 
3,422,500 
3,544,000 
3,701,000 
4,369.500 
4.757,500 
6,484,500 
7,882,500 
11,041,000 
14,103,000 



At a regular meeting of the Council, held October 
30, 187 1, the Committee on Finance made the follow- 
ing report : 

"To the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Chicago, in Common 

Council assembled : 

" Your Committee on Finance herewith submit the statement 
to the Tax Commissioners of the appraised value of all the real 
and personal property in the city of Chicago for the municipal 
year A. I;. 1-71. Your committee have carefully considered the 
necessities of the city for the remaining half of the fiscal year, and 
have come to the conclusion that a tax levy of ten mills on the dol- 
lar will be sufficient to pay the expenditures during the past six 
years already incurred, and produce also sufficient for an economi- 
cal running of the city government for the balance of the fiscal 



year ending April 1, 1872. In this tax levy your committee have 
not attempted to interfere with the annual appropriation bill, passed 
in June last, as they have no authority so to do ; but the same re- 
mains as passed. It is hoped that the Legislature will give the 
Council power to revise the annual appropriation bill, and it will 
then be for the Council to decide in what way it shall be revised. 
This levy of ten mills will be upon the whole city, the burnt as well 
as the unburnt district ; but it is hoped that- the Legislature, which 
will meet the 15th of November next, will confer the power upon 
the city authorities to rebate the taxes upon all property destroyed, 
in whole or in part, and that we thus will be able to afford the nec- 
essary relief to the property lying within the burnt portions of the 
city. Your committee, in view of the great calamity which has 
befallen our city, have deemed it advisable that every expenditure 
of money which .could be deferred should not now be made, and 
we have labored to cut the tax levies down to the lowest possible 
rate consistent with the duty of paying expenditures for the fiscal 
year already made, and of the carrying on of the city government 
until the close of the present fiscal year. Ten mills, with the 
reduction which will be made for the property destroyed, will, with 
great economy, we believe, be sufficient ; and not a dollar beyond 
what is absolutely necessary should be raised at the present time, 
for it will be with the greatest difficulty that persons owning prop- 
erty in the burnt district will be able to pay the reduced levy, 
having in many cases lost all their personal property, and are 
struggling to rebuild. Your committee will, therefore, respectfully 
ask the passage of the ordinance accompanying this report. 
(Signed) Thomas Wilce, 

J. E. Otis, 

J. BUEHLER, 

Committee on Finance" 

The valuation referred to was as follows : Real 
Estate — South Division, $110,665,190; West Division, 
$87,631,930 ; North Division, $38,591,280. Total, $236,- 
888,400. Personal Property — South Division, $38,017,- 
180; West Division, $8,850,420; North Division, 
$4,800,000. Total, $51,670,600. 

The ordinance referred to, which was passed, pro- 
vided for the levying of the following taxes : For the 
municipal year 1871 : Contingent expenses, 1 T 8 ¥ 2 ^ mills 
on the dollar ; interest on bonded debt, -gfo mills ; 
police expenses, -f^o m il' s ', permanent improvements, 
j'U'j- mills ; school purposes, -f^ mills ; sewerage pur- 
poses, 1 j 6 ¥ 8 ¥ mills ; for lighting the streets, 1 ^J^ mills ; 
cleaning and repairing the streets, 1 T yL mills ; water 
works, 1 mill. 

At a special meeting of the Common Council held 
November 9, 187 1, George Taylor, City Comptroller, 
presented a report covering the period from April 1 to 
September 1, of that year. During that period the 
receipts had been $5,336,308 and the expenditures 
$3,678,942, leaving a balance of $1,657,366 in the treas- 
ury, just subsequent to the fire. 

William J. Onahan, City Collector of Chicago, was born in 
Leighlin Bridge, County Carlow, Ireland. He first removed to 
Dublin, and, in 1845, he located in Liverpool and started for 
America in the year 1851. Landing at New York, March 17 of 
that year (St. Patrick's day), he commenced his life in the new 
country as an office boy, graduating to the position of assistant 
book-keeper in a large clothing house. Being induced to come 
West and try his fortunes in Chicago, he arrived here September 24, 
1854. Mr. Onahan early identified himself with religious, and 
charitable work in this city and has continued untiringly in labors 
of this kind. In 1857 he was chosen secretary of the Catholic 
Institute and subsequently became president of the Society of St. 
Vincent de Paul, with which charitable organization he has ever 
since been actively identified. At the beginning of the civil war, 
Mr. Onahan was active in the work of organizing the Twenty- 
third Illinois Volunteer Infantry, commanded by the lamented 
Colonel James A. Mulligan, and afterward celebrated as the " Irish 
Brigade." He was now approaching the public period in his 
career, filled so full with honors. His literary tastes and attain- 
ments early brought him to the notice of all educational patrons, 
being appointed a member of the Board of Education in 1863, and 
a director of the Public Library in 1873 for a term of eight years, 
serving in 1881 as president of that organization. Mr. Onahan 
founded the St. Patrick's Society in 1864 and acted as its first 
president, being elected to the same position in 1878, and each 
Subsequent year, hi 1869 Mr. Onahan was elected City Collector, 




OLD AND NEW SITE OF REYNOLDS* BLOCK ; SOUTHWEST CORNER OF DEARBORN AND MADISON STREETS. 



John R. Walsh's store stood on the corner of Madison Street and Custom House Place— so named by Mr. Walsh. The front of his 
store, on the Place, was thirty-six feet from the wall as shown in cut ; the front line of Reynolds' Block was fifty feet from the same 
wall. 



54 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



at which time the entire revenue of the city, derived from taxes, 
special assessment, and licenses, amounting to upwards of seven 
million of dollars annually, passed through his hands. He was the 
first to institute needed reforms, and to systematize and reduce to 
exact order the method of keeping the office and tax accounts. In 
consequence of changes in the city charter, the office of collector 
was made appointive ; and, in 1S79, Mr. Onahan was again called 
to his former position by Mayor Harrison, being unanimously con- 
firmed bv the Citv Council. He has since been twice re -appointed 
and confirmed in like manner, to the universal satisfaction of the 
tax-payers. He was one of the principal organizers of the Second 
Regiment of the National Guards in 1S75, it being incorporated as 
a portion of the State Militia. He remained president of the asso- 
ciation until 1S79, having assumed a debt of $15,000 in behalf of 
the regiment, and seen it liquidated. Upon his resignation he was 
justly and happily complimented by Governor Cullom upon the 
part which he had taken in the organization and maintenance of 
that body. The work with which Mr. Onahan has been more par- 
ticularly identified of late years, is the Irish Catholic Colonization 
Association of the United States ; whose object is to promote the 
settlement of Irish immigrants and citizens on lands in the West. 
He was also one of the founders of the Charity Organization Soci- 
ety and was elected its first vice-president ; being furthermore a 
director of St. Mary's Training School. Twice president of the 
Union Catholic Library Association, he has delivered before it 
many interesting lectures, chiefly on historical subjects. He has 
also lectured in other cities, and although his regular official duties 
would be sufficient for a man of ordinary energy, Mr. Onahan is a 
prolific and valued contributor to the literature of the day. In 
1S76 Notre Dame University conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Law, although he rarely, if ever, employs this honorable 
affix to his name. He is also a corresponding member of the Chicago 
Historical Society. Mr. Onahan was married July 8, i860, to 
Miss Margaret G. Duffy. They have had six children, only one of 
whom is living. It is but just to the invaluable service performed 
by this gentleman, in furnishing the compilers of this history with 
large quantities of comprehensive data, to here acknowledge such 
service ; and to additionally state that, were it not for the informa- 
tion furnished by Mr. Onahan, the history of Catholic organizations 
and procedures would be fatally defective. 

William Beye, for twelve years deputy county treasurer of 
Cook County and now engaged in the grain commission business, 
is a native of the dukedom of Brunswick, Prussia. He was born 
on May 12, 1841, and came to America in 1856. He had a brother 
in the western part of Cook County, 111., to whom he went, but 
remained with him only a week when he struck out for himself and 
engaged in agricultural pursuits in summer, attending school dur- 
ing the winter months, until the war, when he enlisted in the army. 
He joined Farnsworth's Sth Illinois Cavalry at St. Charles on 
September i3, 1S61, and followed its fortunes during the war. He 
fought in the battles of Williamsburg, Seven Pines, or Fair Oaks, 
Malvern Hill, Va., Antietam, Md., Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg, besides being in many other smaller engage- 
ments and skirmishes. In 1865 his regiment was sent to St. Louis, 
on the way to the plains for frontier service, but thinking their 
term of enlistment had expired, they asked to be discharged and 
were mustered out on July 17, 1865. Returning to Klk Grove, he 
entered the academy at Elgin the following fall, and after six 
months' attendance took a term in Bryant & Stratton's Business 
College in Chicago. He concluded his business course in the 
spring of 1867, when he obtained a situation as clerk in the office 
of the County Treasurer, J M. Allen. His faithfulness and 
ability secured him a position for four years as clerk and then his 
promotion as deputy for twelve years. During the first years of 
his occupancy of the position as deputy treasurer, the great Chi- 
cago fire of 1871 occurred and the ensuing Thursday the safe was 
dug out from the ruins while the debris was yet warm ; the books 
and accounts although charred were in a condition of perfect leg- 
ible preservation, and so accurate were the papers, so carefully had 
the entries been made by Mr. Beye, and so thoroughly in ordar 
were all the data, that the following Monday Mr. Beye and Mr. 
Heber S. Rexford, then county treasurer, went to Springfield and 
settled the accounts of the state, very much to the surprise of the 
state officials, who complimented Mr. Beye highly for the accuracy 
and care which had rendered such a settlement possible. In May, 
formed a co-partnership with James 11. Heald under the 
style and name of William Beye & Co., and in January, 1884, 
they too: i ' Ho ell into partnership, so that the firm is now 
!'. ;.' 8 ( ". On April 23, 187S, Mr. Beye was married to 
Miss Nellie C. Lombard, a Boston lady, daughter of C. S. Lom- 
bard, by whom he has four children : Hannah C, Marion, William 
and CudWOTth. He is a member of Unity Church of Chicago. 
He is a Royal Arch Mason, and member of Palatine lodge, No. 
314. He is also a member of the Union Club, Union Veteran 
League Club and the Charming Club. 



Mancei. Tai.cott, whose long and industrious life was spent 
in Chicago, was born in Rome, Oneida Co., N. V , October 
12, 1817, the son of Mancei and Betsy Talcott. He early 
attended the common schools of his native state, and, in 1834, 
came to Chicago, walking from Detroit to this city. On his 
arrival he naturally turned his attention to farming as the only 
avenue through whieh he could obtain immediate employment. 
He accordingly settled at Park Ridge where he remained from 
1S41 to 1850, when, attracted to the Pacific coast by the gold dis- 
coveries, he went there March 25, 1S50, and returned November 
25, 1851 ; at the end of that time, and having succeeded in accu- 
mulating a considerable fortune, he formed a partnership with 
Horace M. Singer in 1854. and the Singer & Talcott Stone Com- 
pany was established. Mr. Talcott was a member of the firm 
until shortly prior to his death, which occurred June 5, 1878. He 
was married October 25, 1841, to Miss Mary H. Otis, of Park 
Ridge. Mr. Talcott was elected alderman in 1863, serving one 
year. In 1S65 he was again elected to the City Council, serving a 
term of two years. In November, 1871, he was chosen a member 
of the Board of County Commissioners, and resigned his position 
upon being elected police commissioner, to fill the place of T. B. 
Brown, who had resigned. He was for many years a member of 
the Police Board, resigning the position of president of that body 
in December, 1872. He was one of the founders of the First 
National Bank of Chicago, of which he was a director until the 
time of his death. He was also for a number of years president 
of the Union Stock Yards National Bank, and president of the 
Excelsior Stone Company. His life is most distinguished, how- 
ever, by his benevolence to public charities and religious societies. 
His many gifts have not all found record, but exist in the memory 
of those who knew him best. 

Francis Adams, for so many years corporation counsel, and 
assistant to that official, was born in Enniskillen, North of Ireland, 
March 26, 1S29, being the eldest of a family of twelve children. 
He obtained his early education at the village and grammar schools 
of his native place, having previous to his thirteenth year laid a 
good foundation for future intellectual operations. When he was 
twelve years of age, his father, who had been a merchant, desiring 
to place within the reach of his children the manifold advantages 
of this country, decided to emigrate to the United States. In the 
spring of 1S41, he, therefore, started for New Orleans with his 
family, landing at that port and settling in Logan County, Ky., in 
the month of April. There he purchased a farm, upon which 
young Adams worked for two years, being next employed in a dry 
goods store at Clarksville, and subsequently with his father, at the 
same place and in the same business. But mercantile pursuits 
were not congenial to the active mind of the youth, and he there- 
fore proceeded to prepare for a collegiate course in a private school 
at Clarksville. Entering the sophomore class of the Masonic Col- 
lege, at that place, he graduated, in 1851, with the highest honors 
of his class. As his means were limited, he partially paid his ex- 
penses, while in college, by acting as a tutor. After graduating, 
he taught school for one year in Christian County, Ky., having 
also commenced the reading of law. This course he persistently 
continued, at the same time supporting himself as a record writer 
in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court at Clarksville. 
Finally Mr. Adams entered the law department of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian University, at Lebanon, Term., which was conducted 
by Judge Green, for many years Chancellor of the State, and A. B. 
Caruthers, distinguished as one of the best common-law judges in 
Tennessee. In the spring of 1854, he was admitted to the practice 
of law in that state, and was at once offered a partnership with 
Robert W. Humphreys, of Clarksville. This offer was declined, 
however, and Mr. Adams removed to Kaufmann, Kaufmann Co., 
Tex., where, between practicing his profession and teaching school, 
he more than supported himself. Not liking the country, however, 
and with a prospect of bettering himself, in the spring of 1855 he 
removed to Russellville, Ky. , where his mother resided, his father 
having died in 1S52. But the fame of Chicago reached him before 
he had long been there, and accordingly he started for the growing, 
ambitious young city, which he reached on the 5th of October, 
1855. He opened an office in the old frame building, opposite the 
Sherman House, occupied by the Chicago Tribune. Mr. Adams 
continued to practice alone until during the summer of 1856, when 
he formed a partnership with Patrick Ballingall, who had been city 
attorney, and was one of Chicago's most noted criminal lawyers. 
The partnership continued until 1858, when it w r as dissolved, Mr. 
Adams forming a connection with S. A. Irvin, formerly corpora- 
tion counsel. Having spent a short time in Memphis, Tenn. , and 
Peoria, 111., being absent about nine months, in the spring of 1861, 
Mr. Adams returned to Chicago, where, after successfully practic- 
ing his profession for two years, he was elected city attorney. 
After his term expired, he resumed private practice, and thus con- 
tinued until August, 1S74, when he was employed by Mayor Colvin 
and Comptroller Hayes to assist the corporation counsel in con- 



THE CORPORATION. 



55 



ducting litigation relating to taxes. The corporation having failed 
to collect the taxes for the years 1873 and 1S74, levied under the 
"City Tax Act," which the Supreme Court had declared uncon- 
stitutional, Mr. Adams prepared an act, which was passed by the 
Legislature of 1877, providing for the collection of the taxes of 
those and prior years. The application for judgment under this 
act was vigorously opposed on the ground of the alleged uncon- 
stitutionality of the act, but the city was successful in the County, 
Appellate and Supreme courts, and collected over $750,000 of back 
taxes under the act, subsequently. Application for judgment in the 
County Court was made in 1878, and he, having previously re- 
signed, was specially employed to conduct the litigation on the part 
of the city. In May, iS7g, he was appointed corporation counsel 
by Mayor Harrison, so that when the case reached the Supreme 
Court, Mr. Adams appeared again for the city. He resigned his 
position in December, 1883, and took a vacation of several months 
for rest and recreation. As an evidence of the estimation in which 
Mr. Adams is held by the public, and especially by those who have 
been officially intimate with him, the following extract is taken 
from a letter addressed to him by Mayor Harrison, alluding to Mr. 
Adams's resignation, which had been tendered him ; he says : " I 
regret the necessity more than any one else. When difficult legal 
questions have come up, I have always felt myself safe in being 
guided by your opinion. When important matters of municipal 
interest have been in court, I have felt, with your attending to such 
matters, the city was safe. There is no one else I can get to fill 
vour place in whom I can put this trust. There are many good 
lawyers, but those who have had long experience will not abandon 
private practice to go into a position subject to the vicissitudes 
attending municipal elections. Therefore, in losing you I feel your 
loss cannot be made good." 




In October, 1S84, Mr. Adams resumed private practice, and 
is now so engaged. 

In addition to the fine service which Mr. Adams has rendered 
the city in the matter of permanently settling its litigation in regard 
to taxes, he has been engaged in a number of the most important 
cases which, within the past few years, have come up for adjudi- 
cation. In April, 1875, it will be remembered that an election was 
held for the incorporation of the city under the act of 1S72 and 
that upon application of certain citizens the Circuit Court issued an 
injunction restraining the members of the Common Council from 
canvassing the returns. Being advised by T. Lyle Dickey, cor- 
poration counsel, and Mr. Adams, his assistant, that the Circuit 
Court had no jurisdiction over their action in the matter, the can- 
vass proceeded, and the result was declared ; whereupon the alder- 
men and their counsel were fined for contempt, but the case being 
appealed to the Supreme Court, the city was sustained in every 
point. Mr Adams's oral argument in the contempt case before 
Judge Williams, of the Circuit Court, attracted general attention, 
being set down as a masterly effort. 

The Chicago Times of May 27, 1S75, thus commented on it : 

" The conclusion of the argument of Mr. Francis Adams in 
the important contempt case was certainly one of the finest exam- 
ples of unpretentious forensic eloquence that has lately been heard 
in this city. It was the expression, moreover, of sentiments and 
doctrine that deserve from all seekers after truth the warmest 
praise. The consistency which some men profess to worship, and 
which consists in clinging blindly to error, if supported by the 
authority of tradition, rather than reject what they have once 
accepted for truth, is the consistency of the bigot, the Bourbon 
and the fool. No more eloquent rebuke of such medievalism, 
whether manifest in politics, in theology or in jurisprudence, has 
been uttered than will be found in the concluding passages of Mr. 
Adams' address to the court." 

That all may have an opportunity of judging whether this praise 
was deserved or not, that portion of Mr. Adams's address to which 
reference is made is here inserted. It should be stated, however, 
that the speech was in reply to a charge of inconsistency made by 
the opposing counsel, in that Mr. Adams had advised the Common 
Council just before the meeting of that body next after the injunc- 
tion was issued, not to canvass the returns: "At that time," he 
said, " I did not consider the question of jurisdiction or authority 



to issue the writ. The only question which I then had to consider 
was how, in view of all the circumstances, should the Common 
Council act that evening? 1 thought it prudent and cautious that 
they should proceed slowly, and that line should be given for an 
investigation of the questions, they being "i great importance. 

That is my explanation and that is the explanation which 1 have 
put on the record, lint, if your honor please, 1 am not disposed to 
shirk or avoid, in the least degree, the consequences of any act of 
mine. I acceptthe canon of interpretation that you must gather 
one's meaning from the language which he uses, and if that opin- 
ion, taken in its ordinary sense, means that the law requires obedi- 
ence to a writ unauthorized by law, then, if your honor please, 
following the illustrious example of the Supreme Court of this 
state and the Appellate Courts of all the states, I here and now 
overrule that opinion. It may be said that I am inconsistent. 
Perhaps, indeed, I am open to that charge, as some deem consist- 
ency. If consistency means adherence to an erroneous opinion 
after you shall have discovered your error, then perish consistency 
for me ; I will have none of it. If that is the consistency of which 
it is said it is a 'jewel,' I seek no such jewels for my personal 
adornment. But if a sincere, earnest effort to walk in the straight 
and narrow way of truth, and having, through ignorance, accident 
or weakness diverged from it to the right hand or the left, to delib- 
erately retrace your steps until you shall have found it, and, having 
found it, to walk in it humbly, yet firmly and fearlessly, if this be con- 
sistency then I desire not, indeed, to be esteemed consistent, but to 
be so ; in the words of the noble motto of the celebrated Danish as- 
tronomer, Tycho Brahe, — Essenon haberi. It may be said that I have 
changed my opinion. If I have, I have but illustrated in my indi- 
vidual life a constant phase in the history of human progress. Had 
not the opinions of mankind changed, the inductive system of phil- 
osophy, the key to all knowledge of the physical sciences, 
a system which an American author has happily denom- 
inated experimental interrogation of nature, and which 
modern scientists agree in recognizing as the only true 
system of philosophy, would have perished with Aristotle. 
" Had not the opinions of mankind changed, the 
'^-^7J absurd geocentric theory in Astronomy advanced by the 
^^ Ancients, advocated by the Fathers of the early Church, 
enforced even to torture and death by the mediaeval eccle- 
siastics, would still be adhered to ; we would yet believe 
the earth to stand still, and to be a wide extended plain 
with towering mountains on every hand supporting the 
dome of the skv, and the celestial orbs flaming in the blue 
vault above but to give light to this little planet. 

" We should still witness such scenes as the persecution of a 
Copernicus, the incarceration of a Galileo, the burning of a Bruno, 
or some modern Calvin gloating over the expiring agonies of a 
Serverus infinitely his superior in knowledge and power ; and, 
worse than all, we would witness all Christendom exalting ignor- 
ance as the mother of devotion. But the opinions of mankind have 
changed, and what are the results ? Volumes would fail to describe 
them all. We have a theology engaged in the constant effort to 
co-ordinate itself with reason ; a general advance along the whole 
line of human progress ; the majestic march of intellect, to use the 
eloquent language of Croly, the human mind ever approximating 
yet never attaining the exceeding excellence and glory of that ever 
living, eternal, unchangeable Majesty, by whom, and for whom all 
things were made. In view of this contrast shall we of the Nine- 
teenth Century proclaim our infallibility? Shall we venerate error 
because of its antiquity? Shall we ally ourselves with that Bour- 
bonic herd which never learns and never forgets ? or shall we rather 
join that advancing column whose banner borne full high in air, 
and glorious in the splendor of intellectual light, has emblazoned on 
its ample folds the word ' Excelsior.' For myself I equally abjure 
and deplore the darkness, the stagnation, and the senseless traditions 
of the past. I identify myself with the civilization of the century. 
Gladly, gratefully accepting the light there is, I devoutly desire 
more, and hope for changes in public opinion commensurate with 
such increasing light, the resultant of which will always be in the 
direction of absolute truth." 

The cases of the City of Chicago v. Rumsey, and the same V. 
Munger, involved the question whether the owners of property on 
La Salle Street between Randolph and Lake streets could recover 
damages on account of the obstruction of that thoroughfare by the 
approach to the tunnel. Through the efforts of Mr. Adams their 
claims lor damages were defeated in the Supreme Court, Mr. Rum- 
sey having recovered a judgment in the lower court. He is also to 
be credited with the success of the city in its case against lagan, 
which involved an assessment of over St .ooo.ooo, for the extension 
of Dearborn Street. This was in October, 1876. Mr. Ail. mis also 
appeared for the city in its suit against City Treasurer Gage, and 
the sureties on his bond, recovering $507,700, the largest amount 
ever obtained in such a suit in this state. Opposed to him were 
some of the most eminent counsel of the Commonwealth. These 



56 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



are but a few of the important cases in which he lias successfully 
prosecuted municipal claims. In fact, on legal questions involving 
the interests of the city his opinions are regarded by the citizens, 
the Bar and municipal officers as tjwisi judicial — as instance his 
opinion, delivered in the summer of 1SS3, in relation to the respect- 
ive rights of the city and the street railways. The facts in this lat- 
ter case are as follows : A number of the ordinances passed in 
1S5S, and subsequent thereto, granted to the railway companies the 
right to construct their lines in certain streets ahd maintain and 
operate them for twenty-five years. They also contained a pro- 
vision that, at the expiration of that period, the city, if it elected so 
to do, might purchase the tracks, rolling stock, etc., of the roads, 
the property to be appraised as provided in the ordinance. The 
time limited by the ordinance expired in 1SS3, and the question was 
presented whether the city could purchase the property. This 
question necessarilv involved an examination and construction of all 
the acts of the State Legislature and the ordinances of the city in rela- 
tion to the companies ; also the question of the control, respectively, 
of the State and the city over the public streets of the corporation. 
It was contended by many, and strenuously urged by the Citizens' 
Association, that the provision in the ordinance for the purchase of 
the roads by the city was valid ; that the right to purchase was part 
of the contracts between the city, and the companies, and that cer- 
tain legislation of the State, which had extended the privileges of 
the companies as to the streets mentioned in the ordinances was 
unconstitutional as impairing the obligations of the contracts. The 
questions involved were presented to Mr. Adams for his opinion, 
and upon that opinion was based an ordinance extending the privi- 
lege of the companies for a period of twenty years, but providing 
that the companies should pay the city, annually, in quarterly 
installments, a license fee of fifty dollars for each car used, thirteen 
round trips to be deemed one day's use. Mr. Adams is a Mason 
and formerly connected with Waubansia Lodge, and is at present 
an unaffiliated member of that body. He is a member of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church. His brother, the Right Rev. William 
F. Adams, formerly Bishop of New Mexico and Arizona, is now a 
rector of a leading parish at Vicksburg, Miss. Dr. William C. 
Adams, of Nashotah, Wis., his father's cousin, is one of the most 
erudite scholars in the Church, being considered almost infallible 
in all matters relating to ecclesiastical law. 

BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 

This department of the city government was estab- 
lished May 6, 1861, under the legislative act revising 
the charter of the city. The duties of the board com- 
prised all those performed by the Water Commissioners, 
Sewerage Commissioners, Street Commissioners, City 
Superintendent and Special Commissioners for making 
assessments, and controlled all public improvements 
then going on or to be undertaken. The names of the 
members from the date of organization in 1861 to 1871, 
are given below, the names of the mayors, who were 
ex-officio members, being omitted : 

Commissioners — 1861-63 — Benjamin Carpenter, president; 
Frederick Letz, treasurer ; John G. Gindele. 1863-67 — John G. 
Gindele, president ; Frederick Letz, treasurer ; Orrin J. Rose. 
1864-67 — William Gooding and Roswell B. Mason, " acting mem- 
bers on matters pertaining to the cleansing of the river." 1867- 
70 — A. H. Hurley, president; John McArthur, treasurer; W. II. 
Carter. 1867-69 — William Gooding and R. B. Mason members 
acting with the board in cleansing the river. 1869-71 — William 
Gooding and E. B. Talcott, members acting in the same capacity, 
term expiring May 1, 1871. 1S70-72 — John McArthur, president; 
W. II. Carter, treasurer; Redmond Prindiville. 

E. S. Chesbrough was City Engineer from 1861 to 1871. A. 
W. Kinkham acted as secretary until December, 1870, when he 
resigned and was succeeded by F, II . Bailey. 

Street Improvements. — Permanent improvement 
upon the streets of Chicago did not commence until 
1855. The Nicholson pavement had been gradually 
growing in favor, until, by the time the Board of Pub- 
lic Works was organized, the city had about decided 
that wooden pavement, if not Nicholson, was preferable 
to any other. It was found that although six or seven 
years of usage had the effect of wearing the blocks 
down, the pine, being soft, tough and elastic, retained a 
coating of fine gravel and made a hard surface, at the 
same time spreading so much as to close up the inter- 



stices and form the pavement into a solid body. Boul- 
der pavement, as on Lake Street, when not properly 
laid, or composed of soft and marly stone, did not last, 
on an average, longer than five years ; while, to care- 
fully select the stones would make this pavement almost 
expensive as Nicholson. South Water, Randolph and 
other business thoroughfares were the victims of the 
boulder-stone policy. From 1857 up to the time of the 
organization of the Board of Public Works, the city 
expended $234,000 in cleaning and repairing streets. 
But up to this time there does not seem to have been 
any concerted action looking to a well-defined system 
of improvement. In 1861, however, the resolve was 
formed of first improving the business streets of the 
city, and gradually extending the work to less traveled 
territory. This policy was closely adhered to for a 
number of years. By 1863 nearly four hundred miles 
of streets had been improved in various ways, about 
twenty-two miles having been macadamized or graveled. 
Before the enlargement of the city limits by the charter 
of 1863, the streets were 363^2 miles in length, divided 
by divisions as follows: South Division, 77^ miles; 
West Division, 207}^ miles ; North Division, 78^4 
miles. Under this charter a most important reform 
was accomplished, by which special assessments were 
made for the improvement of streets and alleys. 
Under the old charter, also, the board had no right to 
build sidewalks or repair them, but expenditures only 
were made when their condition threatened life and 
limb, and the city treasury. But, under the charter of 
1863, action by the city authorities was made summary, 
when sidewalks were in a dangerous condition. To 
the general disappointment of those who advocated the 
"special assessment " feature of the new charter, the 
Superior Court of Chicago decided that its provisions 
were unconstitutional, and in 1864 the city was left 
without any law by which improvements could be car- 
ried on. Accordingly it was necessary to let a large 
amount of work lie over until 1865. The decision was 
not sustained by the Supreme Court, and consequently 
the special assessments for 1865 were unusually heavy. 
The report of the Board of Public Works for the year 
ending ending April 1 of that year, contains the 
following : 

" The appropriations for street repairs and cleaning are alto- 
gether too limited. In 1857 and 1858. about as much money was 
spent for these purposes as now, and as prices then were only half 
what they are now, and the city was only about half as large, it 
follows that about three or four times as much in proportion was 
appropriated then as now. The Council has, for instance, appro- 
priated this year, for the South Division, $24,000. This sum of 
money is expected to keep clean all the improved streets and alleys 
of the South Division, and to do more or less repairing on them ; 
to build, and keep in repair, all the culverts, aprons and cross- 
walks of more than one hundred miles of its streets and alleys ; to 
keep the earthen streets thrown up in shape, and their ditches in 
order ; and, finally, to pay the expenses for inspecting the side- 
walks, and for enforcing the orders of the Board, requiring owners 
to build or repair their sidewalks. On one-third or one-fourth of 
a mile of a street paved by special assessment, property owners are 
required to pay more than the annual appropriation, made by the 
city, for the repairs and cleaning of the streets and alleys, and for 
the culverts, aprons, street-crossings and sidewalks of the whole 
South Division." 

During the year 1866, the scavenger system was 
adopted by the Police Board, which greatly assisted the 
Board of Public Works in cleaning the streets. A de- 
cision of great importance to the city was also made by 
the Superior Court, and affirmed by the Supreme Court, 
to the effect that railroad companies, in common with 
other parties whose property is benefited, are subject 
to assessment for their share of the benefits resulting 



BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 



57 



from the paving, or otherwise improving, of such streets. 
Nicholson pavement was advancing in public favor, so 
much so that it was the evident conviction of Mr. 
Nicholson himself, that the city felt it was too expen- 
sive a proceeding to continue paying him a royalty on 
his patent. A species of pavement was laid by the 
city, differing from his only in that the strip, or picket, 
between the rows of blocks was omitted. In April, 
1867, a writ of injunction was served on the city by the 
United States District Court, at the instance of parties 
representing Samuel Nicholson, restraining the laying 
of any wooden pavement in which his patent was used. 
The difficulty was subsequently compromised. 

In September, 1867, the Board of Public Works first 
adopted the policy of cleaning the streets by contract. 
After trying the experiment for a year with Messrs. 
McDonald & Hamlen, one was entered into with John 
T. Salter for a period of three years. 

By March, 1868, the sidewalks laid in the different 
divisions of the city were as follows : North Division, 
ninety-one miles ; South Division, one hundred and 
twenty-two miles ; West Division, two hundred and 
twenty miles ; making a total of four hundred and 
thirty-three miles laid throughout the city. 

By 1S69 all the pavements being laid were of wood, 
as had been the practice for several previous years, the 
Boyington patent coming particularly into use. The 
peculiarity of this patent was that one-half the rows of 
three-inch blocks were seven inches deep (instead of 
six), resting on ordinary flooring of inch boards, while 
the alternate rows of the usual depth of six inches 
rested on the center of strips of inch boards, five 
inches wide, placed crosswise of the flooring. These 



strips touched against the seven-inch rows, and were 
nailed to the flooring. There were thus formed be- 
tween the six and seven-inch rows, cells six inches deep 
and one inch wide, extending across the street. Re- 
specting the gravel in the cells and on the surface, and 
the use of tar in the pavement, there was no difference 
from the ordinary mode. 

There were, then, in 1869, four kinds of wooden 
pavements, the "Converse " patent being the one which 
came into use latest. In the Converse pavement the 
spaces between the blocks were filled with strips of the 
same height as the blocks. In 1870, various processes 
were patented and applied, for the preservation of 
wooden pavements. The North American Wood Pre- 
serving Company impregnated some blocks with cop- 
peras and lime (their process^ and a section of pavement 
was laid on South Park Avenue, between Twenty-second 
and Twenty-ninth streets. 

Noticeable among the street improvements of 1870- 
71, was the construction of the viaducts at Halsted, 
West Indiana and West Adams streets. The one at 
Halsted and Sixteenth streets was the first built. 

During the year nineteen and a half miles of wooden 
pavement were laid, making over fifty-six miles, mostly 
in good condition, excepting Clark Street from the 
river to Polk Street, and Lake Street from the river to 
Clark Street, where the pavement had been laid about 
nine years. About eighty-seven of the five hundred 
and thirty-three miles of street were improved, and 
over this section three-fourths of the travel of the city 
passed. 

For the year ending March 31, 187 1, there were 
also laid about five hundred and sixty-one miles of 




CLARK. AND SOUTH WATER STREETS. 



5S 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



sidewalk, nearly all of pine — over forty-one miles 
having been built during that period. 

Paging of Streets. — The following is a complete 
record of street improvements from 1857 to 1871, the 
arrangement being made, alphabetically, by streets : 

Aberdeen Street from Madison to Harrison, wooden block 
pavement, 1S70. 

Adams Street from Michigan Avenue to State Street, wooden 
block, 1S6S ; State to Market, the same, 1S69; Adams-street 
bridge to Halsted, the same, 1S69 ; Halsted to Ashland Avenue, 
the "same, 1S69 ; Ashland Avenue to Robey Street, the same, 
1S71. 

Archer Avenue — State Street to Canal Slip, wooden block 
pavement. 1S69-70 ; Canal Slip to Halsted Street, the same, 1S70; 
Reuben Street to Western Avenue, cindering, 1S67. 

Blue Island Avenue — Twelfth to Twenty-second Street, mac- 
adamizing, 1S6S ; Harrison Street to Twelfth, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1S6S. 

Calhoun Place — Clark Street to Block 56 (original town), 
wooden block pavement, 1S66 ; Clark Street to Dearborn, the 
same, 1S6S. 

Calumet Avenue — Twenty-fourth Street to Cottage Grove 
Avenue, wooden block pavement. 1S70 ; Twenty-first Street to 
Twentv-fourth, the same, 1870 ; Cottage Grove Avenue to Twen- 
tv-ninth Street, the same, 1S71. 

Canal Street — Lake Street to Madison, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1S67 ; Madison Street to Twelfth, the same, 1S69 ; Twelfth 
Street to Sixteenth, the same, 1S69; Sixteenth Street to Eighteenth, 
the same, 1S70 : Lake Street to Fulton, macadamizing, 1S63. 

Canalport Avenue— Canal Street to Halsted, wooden block 
pavement, 1S70: Halsted Street to Morgan, the same, 1S71. 

Central Avenue — From seventy-two feet south of Lake Street 
to Randolph, wooden block pavement, 1S70; South Water Street 
to four hundred and fifty-eight feet south of South Water Street, 
the same, 1S70. 

Chicago Avenue — Chicago River to North Clark Street, mac- 
adamizing. 1S67 ; North Clark Street to east line of Pine Street, 
wooden block pavement, 1S70 ; Milwaukee Avenue to Chicago 
River, the same, 1S71. 

Clark Street — Chicago River to Randolph Street, boulder 
stones, 1S58 ; Randolph Street to Polk, wooden block pavement, 
1859 ; Polk Street to Twelfth, the same, 1867 ; Chicago River to 
Chicago Avenue, the same, 1S67 ; Chicago Avenue to Division 
Street, the same, 1868 ; Division Street to North Avenue, the 
same, 1S69. 

Clinton Street — West Madison Street to West Lake, wooden 
block pavement, 1867 ; West Madison Street to West VanBuren, 
the same, 1869; West Lake Street to West Kinzie, the same, 
1869. 

Clybourn Avenue — Division Street to North Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S70 : North Avenue to Clybourn Place, cinder- 
ing, 1S70 ; Clybourn Place to Fullerton Avenue, the same, 1S70. 

Clybourn Place — Clybourn Avenue to Elston Avenue, cinder- 
ing, 1870. 

Custom House Place — Monroe Street to Dearborn, wooden 
block pavement, 1865. 

Dearborn Street — Lake Street to Randolph, wooden block 
pavement, 1871 ; Madison Street to Monroe, the same. 1865 ; 
Monroe Street to Jackson, the same, 1870 ; North Water Street to 
Chicago Avenue, the same, 1S69 ; Chicago Avenue to Division 
Street, the same, l86g ; Division Street to North Avenue, the 
same. 1869. 

Dearborn Place — Randolph Street to Washington, wooden 
block pavement, 1869. 

DePuyster Street — Desplaines Street to Halsted wooden block 
pavement, 1871. 

Desplaines Street — VanBuren Street to Fourth, wooden block 
pavement, 1869 ; VanBuren Street to Harrison, the same, 1870. 

Division Street — Clark Street to Clybourn Avenue, wooden 
block pavement. 1869 ; Clybourn Avenue to Halsted Street, the 
same. 1S71; North Branch Canal to North Branch Chicago River, 
cindering, 1871. 

,'!as Place — South I'ark Avenue to Illinois Central Rail- 
road, wooden block pavement, 1871. 

F.lston Avenue — West Clybourn Place to West Fullerton 
Avenue, cindering, 1871. 

Eighteenth Street — Wabash Avenue to South liranch Chieago 
River, wooden block pavement. 1869. 

Erie Street — Chicago River to I'ine Street, wooden block 
pavement. 1-70, 

Fourteenth Street — Michigan Avenue to State Street, wooden 
block pavement, 1870. 

Franklin Street — South Water Street to Lake, wooden block 



pavement, 180S ; Randolph Street to Lake, boulder stones, 1857 ; 
Randolph Street to Madison, wooden block pavement, 1868. 

Green Street — West Madison Street to Fulton, wooden block 
pavement, 1871 ; West Madison Street to Harrison, the same, 
1S71. 

Griswold Street — Van Buren Street to Taylor, wooden block 
pavement, 1866 ; Jackson Street to Van Buren, the same, 1870. 

Haddock Place — State Street to Wabash Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S66. 

Halsted Street — Thirty-first Street to Egan Avenue, macadam- 
ized, 1S67 ; Archer Avenue to Thirty-first Street, the same, 1867 ; 
Lake Street to Harrison, wooden block pavement, 1S67 ; Harrison 
Street to Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad crossing, the 
same, 1S68 ; Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad crossing to 
Archer Avenue, the same. 1869 ; Lake Street to Indiana, the same, 
1870; Milwaukee Avenue to North Branch Chicago River, the 
same, 1S71. 

Harmon Court — State Street to Michigan Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S68. 

Harrison Street — State Street to Wells, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1870; Canal Street to Halsted, the same, 1870; Halsted 
Street to Centre Avenue, the same, 1871. 

Hawthorn Avenue — Larrabee Street to Halsted, macadamiz- 
ing, 1S71. 

Huron Street — Clark Street to State, wooden block pavement, 
1S69. 

Illinois Street — Wells Street to State, wooden block pavement, 
1870 ; State Street to St. Clair, the same, 1S71. 

Indiana Street — St. Clair Street to Clark, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1870 ; Clark Street to Indiana-street bridge, the same. 1S71; 
Indiana-street bridge to Rucker Street, the same, 1871 ; Rucker 
Street to Noble, the same, 1871. 

Indiana Avenue — Sixteenth Street to Twenty-second, wooden 
block pavement, 1867. 

Jackson Street — State Street to Market, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1S70; Canal Street to Halsted. the same, 1S71. 

Jefferson Street — Fulton Street to north line alley, Block 10 
(original town), macadamizing, 1S67-6S ; Randolph Street to Van 
Buren, the same, 1869 ; Randolph Street to Fulton, the same, 1S68. 

Kinzie Street — Clark Street to Rush, boulder stones, 1862 ; 
Clark Street to Kinzie-street bridge, wooden block pavement, 1S67; 
Kinzie-street bridge to Halsted Street, the same, 1869. 

Lake Street — Clark Street to Wabash Avenue, wooden block 
pavement, 1S70; Clark Street to Chicago River, the same, 1871 ; 
Wabash Avenue to Central Avenue, the same, 1S62; Chicago River 
to Halsted Street, the same, 1S64 ; Halsted Street to Reuben, the 
same, 1S69 ; Reuben Street to Western Avenue, the same, 1870. 

Larrabee Street — Chicago Avenue to Clybourn, wooden block 
pavement, 1S71 ; Clybourn Avenue to North, the same, 1S71. 

LaSalle Street — South Water to Lake, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1S71; Randolph Street to Washington, block stone, 1S57 ; 
Washington Street to Madison, wooden block pavement, 1S67 ; 
Madison Street to Jackson, the same. 1S67 ; Jackson Street to Van 
Buren, the same, 1S6S ; Randolph Street to Lake, the same, 1S71; 
Chicago Avenue to Division Street, the same, 1S70 ; Division 
Street to North Clark, the same, 1S71. 

Loomis Street — West Madison Street to West Van Buren, 
wooden block pavement, 1S71. 

Madison Street — Chicago River to Halsted Street, wooden 
block pavement, 1S66 ; Halsted Street to Centre Avenue, the same, 
1S69 ; Centre Avenue to Robey Street, the same, 1870 ; Robey 
Street to Western Avenue, the same, 1S71 ; State Street to Chicago 
River, the same, 1869. 

Market Street — Kinzie Street to Chicago Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S70; Chicago Avenue to Division Street, the 
same, 1S71 ; Randolph Street to Lake, the same, 1871 ; Randolph 
Street to Madison, graveling, 1871 ; Madison Street to Van Buren, 
macadamizing, 1867. 

Michigan Street — North Clark Street to Cass, wooden block 
pavement, 1865 ; North Clark Street to Kingsbury, the same, 186S; 
Cass Street to St. Clair, the same, 1S71. 

Michigan Avenue — Randolph Street to Park Place, graveling, 
1S66 ; Park Place to Twelfth Street, the same, 1S67-6S ; Twenty- 
second to Twenty-ninth, the same, 1870; Twenty-ninth Street to 
Egan Avenue, the same, 1S71 ; Randolph Street to South Water, 
wooden block pavement, 1S6S ; South Water Street to River, the 
same, 1 87 1. 

Milwaukee Avenue — Division Street to North Avenue, mac- 
adamizing, 1S64 ; Desplaines Street to Elston Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1867; Elston Avenue to Division Street, the same, 
1S71. 

Monroe Street — State Street to Michigan Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S67; Clark Street to Market, the same, 1S69 ; 
State Street to Clark, the same, 1870; Canal Street to Halsted, the 
same, 1871 ; Halsted Street to Aberdeen, the same, 1871. 



BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 



59 



Noble Street — North Avenue to Milwaukee Avenue, cinder- 
ing, 1S67. 

North Avenue — Chicago River to North Wells Street, wooden 
block pavement, 1870; North Wells Street to North Dearborn, 
the same, 1S71. 

Ohio Street— St. Clair Street to North Clark, wooden block 
pavement, 1S69 ; North Clark Street to Kingsbury, the same, 
1870. 

Ontario Street— North Clark Street to North Dearborn, 
wooden block pavement, 1 S7 r. 

Park Avenue— Reuben Street to Leavitt, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1S70. 

Pearson Street — Rush Street to east line Sub Lot 7, Lot 10, 
Block 20, Section 3, wooden block pavement, 1871. 

Pine Street — Michigan Street to Chicago Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S69; Chicago Avenue to Whitney Street, the 
same, 1871. 



1869; Halsted street to Twelfth-street bridge, the same, 1870; 
Halsted Street toCentre Avenue, the same, 1^71 ; Ashland Avenue 
to Southwestern Avenue, macadamizing, 1-7". 

Twentieth Street— stale Street to Illinois Central railroad, 

graveling, 1S71. 

Twenty-first Street— Slate Street to Calumel Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, [87I. 

Twenty-second Street — State Street to South Park Avenue, 
wooden block pavement, 1868; Wentworth Avenue to Chicago 
River, the same, 1871. 

Twenty-fourth Street— Wabash Avenue to Calumet, wooden 
block pavement, 1S71. 

Twenty-sixth Street — Wabash Avenue to South Park Avenue, 
wooden block pavement, 1871. 

Twenty-seventh Street — Johnson Avenue to South Park Ave- 
nue, wooden block pavement, 1S71. 

Twenty-eighth Street— Wabash Avenue to Michigan, wooden 




WOLF POINT IN 1S70. 



Polk Street — State Street to Chicago River, wooden block 
pavement, 1S69; Polk-street bridge to Halsted Street, the same, 
1870. 

Prairie Avenue — Sixteenth Street to Twenty-second, graveling, 
186*) ; Twenty-second Street to Cottage Grove Avenue, the same. 
1868; Cottage Grove Avenue to Thirtieth Street, wooden block 
pavement, 1871. 

Quincy Street — State Street to Clark, wooden block pavement, 
1870 ; LaSalle Street to Fifth Avenue, the same, 1871. 

Randolph Street — Michigan Avenue to Chicago River, wooden 
block pavement, 1S69; Randolph-street bridge to Halsted Street, 
the same, 1S66 ; Halsted Street to Union Park, the same, 1871. 

Rush Street — Kinzie Street to Chicago Avenue, graveling, 
1S67. 

Sangamon Street — Van Buren Street to Fulton, wooden block 
pavement, 1869 ; Fulton Street to Milwaukee Avenue, the same, 
1870. 

Sedgwick Street — Chicago Avenue to Division Street, wooden 
block pavement, 1871 ; Division Street to North Avenue, the same, 
1871. 

Sheldon Street— West Madison Street to West Randolph, 
wooden block pavement, 1871. 

Sherman Street — Van Buren Street to Harrison, wooden block 
pavement, 1S66 ; Harrison Street to Taylor, the same, 1869-70; 
Jackson Street to Van Buren, the same, 1870. 

Sixteenth Street — Michigan Avenue to Prairie, graveling, 
•1866; Michigan Avenue to State Street, wooden block pavement, 
1S71. 

South Park Avenue — Twenty-second Street to Twenty-ninth, 
wooden block pavement, 1S69 ; Twenty-ninth Street to Douglas 
Place, the same, 1S71. 

Southwestern Avenue — West Twelfth Street to western city 
limits, graveling, 1871. 

State Street — Chicago River to Twelfth Street, boulder stones, 
1858 ; Kinzie Street to Michigan Street, wooden block pavement, 
1S65 ; Michigan Street to Chicago Avenue, the same. [867. 

Superior Street — Pine Street to St. Clair, wooden block pave- 
ment, 1871. 

Taylor Street — Clark Street to Wells, wooden block pavement, 
1871. 

Twelfth Street — Michigan Avenue to State Street, wooden 
block pavement, 1S69 ; State Street to Chicago River, the same, 



block pavement, 1S71 ; Wabash Avenue to State Street, the same, 
1871. 

Union Street — Madison Street to Milwaukee avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1870. 

Vanliuren Street — State Street to Michigan Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S66 ; State Street to Chicago River, the same, 
1866; Canal Street to South Branch Chicago River, the same, 
1S70 ; Canal Street to Halsted, the same, 186S ; Halsted Street to 
Loomis, the same, 1870. 

Wabash Avenue — Randolph Street to Twenty-second, wooden 
block pavement, i860 ; South Water Street to Randolph, the 
same, 1S67 ; Twenty-second Street to Twenty-ninth, the same, 
1S69. 

South Water Street — Michigan Avenue to Wabash, wooden 
block pavement, 1865 ; Clark Street to Franklin, the same, 1S65- 
06; Michigan Avenue to Central Avenue, wooden block pavement, 
1870. 

Washington Street — State Street to Michigan Avenue, wooden 
block pavement, 1S66 ; State Street to Market, the same. 1S70; 
West Water Street to Elizabeth, the same, 1S69 ; Elizabeth Street 
to Union Park, the same, 1S69 ; Ashland Avenue to Leavitt Street, 
the same, 1S71. 

Warren Avenue — Ashland Avenue to Leavitt Street, wooden 
block pavement, 1S71. 

Wells Street — VanBuren Street to Madison, wooden block 
pavement, 1S65 ; Vanliuren Street lo Taylor, the same. [866; 
Lake Street to South Water, the same. 1866 ; Pake Street to Ran- 
dolph, the same, 1S67 ; Wells-street bridge to Chicago Avenue, 
wooden block pavement 1869 ; Chicago Avenue to Division 
Street, the same, 1S69 ; Division Street to North Clark, the same, 
1870. 

Western Avenue — Steele Street to Illinois & Michigan Canal, 
cindering. [871. 

The first ordinance establishing a grade for the 
streets was passed in March, 1855. This made the 
grade of Lake Street 8.62 feet above the level of low- 
water of the Chicago River, as fixed by the (anal 
Commissioners in 1847. 

DeWitt Clinton Cregier, who for thirty wars has been 
connected with the Public Works of Chicago; having tilled the 



6o 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



position of chief and designing- engineer of the Water Works for 
twenty-five years ; city engineer for three years and having entered 
upon his fourth year as commissioner of Public Works, was born 
in the city of New York, June I, 1829. He is the son of John 
L. and Ann E. (LeFort) Cregier, his mother being the daughter 
of a well-known French ship-master who was, for many years, 
prominently identified with the merchant marine of New York. 
She was also a cousin of Henry Inman, the famous portrait 
painter, and nearly related by marriage to Daniel Tompkins, at 
one time vice-president of the United States. When Mr. Cregier 
was four years of age his father died, his mother surviving but 
few years, and he being left an orphan at thirteen years of age. 
Until he was in his sixteenth year he lived with relatives, attend- 
ing the public schools of New York City, and conducting himself 
as an industrious, ambitious, sensible lad should. He next tried a 
clerkship for a time, but mercantile pursuits being evidently dis- 
tasteful to him, he connected himself with the engineer's depart- 
ment of the steamer "Oregon," running on Long Island Sound, 
in which position he remained until 1S47. Next he entered the 
machinerv department of what subsequently became the famous 
-Morgan Iron Works of New York. Before he abandoned this 
vocation he had thoroughly mastered the principles of mechanical 
engineering, and, in 1851, he connected himself with the engineer 
corps of the United States mail steamers plying between New 
York, Havana and New Orleans. During the summer of 1853, 
Mr. Cregier came to Chicago to superintend the erection of the 
first pumping machinery for the water works, and has had active 
or general charge of them ever since. During his term of service 
he superintended the erection of all the machinery now in use at 
the North-side works, including the magnificent double pumping- 
engine which has no superior in the world. Since his connection 
with the water w-orks there has never been an accident which inter- 
fered seriously with their operation, with the exception, of course, 
of the stoppage occasioned by that grand "set back" to all city 
departments, the great fire of 1871. Mr. Cregier is of a very 
inventive turn of mind, and is the patentee of a large number of 
well-known and valued appliances used in connection with the 
public works. All of the fire hydrants used in the city are of his 
design. For these, and other improvements, he holds patents 
which the city uses free of charge. It is certain that few officials 
in the country can boast of a larger or a more meritorious connec- 
tion with public works than Commissioner Cregier. Mr Cregier 
was married August 2, 1S53, to Miss Mary S. Foggin, of New 
York City. The same day the young couple started for Chicago, 
where they arrived on the 6th of the same month. They have had 
ten children, of whom six sons and one daughter are living, viz. : 
Mary Florence, Nathaniel Banks, DeVVitt Clinton, Washington 
Rogers, Edward LeFort, Charles Knap and Frederick Quintard. 
As a Mason, Mr. Cregier is of high standing. His first service 
was with Blaney Lodge, in 1S60. Shortly after he joined it he 
was elected Senior Warden, which office he held for one year, 
when he was elected to preside over that body, which he continued 
to do for six years. He was elected to the office of Senior Grand 
Warden of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, held the office for one 
term and was afterward elected Deputy Grand Master for two con- 
secutive terms. In 1870, the fraternity conferred the highest 
honors in their power to bestow, by electing him Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge of the State of Illinois. At the annual commu- 
nication held in Chicago, in 1871, the Brotherhood further evinced 
their appreciation of his worth by unanimously re-electing him. 
lie was also a member of the Triennial Committee of the Conclave 
of Knights Templar in 1880. He is at present a life member and 
Master of Blaney Lodge, member of LaFayette Chapter, Siloam 
Council, Apollo Commandery and Oriental Consistory, and an 
honorary member of twelve other lodges and commanderies. In 
many of these he has held the highest official positions. He 
is also a member of the Supreme Council — 33 A. A. S. Rite — for 
the .Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States and of 
the Royal Order of Scotland. In addition he is representative of 
the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, Michigan, Missis- 
sippi, Connecticut and Indiana near the Grand Lodge of Illinois, 
and of the Grand Chapter of the State of New York near the 
Grand Chapter of Illinois. He is also president of the Illinois 
Masonic Benevolent Society, president of the Western Society of 
Engineers, and a member of the American Society for the Encour- 
agement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Soon after the 
great tire Mr. Cregier, as Grand Master of the State, took charge 
of the relief fund amounting to over $90,000, in conjunction with 
the committee organized to distribute the money and supplies. 
The subsequent report of the auditing commission, composed of 
Grand Masters from Pennsylvania, Iowa and the District of 
Columbia, in connection with the disbursement of the relief fund, 
was a just tribute to the faithfulness and ability with which the 
committee, at whose head was Mr. Cregier, administered the trust 
i to them by the Fraternity abroad. In fact, both as a 



public official and as a broad-minded, broad-hearted man, Mr. 
Cregier has been continually honored and has steadfastly retained 
the general confidence in his ability and honesty. 




Bridge Building. — In 1857 the Madison-street 
bridge, South Branch, was built by Gaylord & Co. It 
was of iron, one hundred and fifty-five feet long, and 
cost $42,000. The Clark-street bridge was constructed 
in 1858. In i860 a structure was thrown across the 
river at South Halsted Street, by Fox & Howard, con- 
tractors. The bridge was one hundred and fifty feet 
long, composed of wooden braces and iron chords, 
costing $8,500. A bridge similar to the one at South 
Halsted was built, in 1862, at Clybourn Avenue, North 
Branch, by the same parties, and also one at Wells 
Street, over the main river. In November, 1863, the 
iron bridge at Rush Street, built in 1856, was accident- 
ally destroyed. A drove of cattle were crossing it, when 
the structure was crushed down on one side, and fell 
into the river, two of the turn-table wheels being broken 
and three trusses thrown down laterally. The cost 
of the ruined bridge, with piers and abutments, was 
$50,000. Another bridge at this point was commenced 
in November, 1863, and completed in January, 1864, 
by Messrs. Fox & Howard. It was what is known as 
the wooden-truss bridge, and was two hundred and 
eleven feet in length. During 1864, also, the State- 
street bridge was finished. The city had a right of 
way on the South Side to the river front, but did not 
obtain the land to extend Wolcott Street (North State) 
until May, 1864. It was then purchased of the Galena 
& Chicago Union Railroad Company, and the work of 
constructing the bridge was placed in the hands of Fox 
& Howard. The city accepted the bridge in January, 
1865. It was one hundred and eighty-four feet in 
length, and cost $32,000, and was composed of wooden 
braces and chords. The piers and abutments were after- 
ward built, and the line of communication between the 
North and South sides opened for traffic. The via- 
ducts over the railroad formed, with the bridge, one of 
the most useful improvements of the time. In 1S65, 
the following bridges were built : North Avenue, North 
Branch, by N. Chapin & Co. ; Fuller Street by the same 
contractors ; Randolph Street, South Branch, by L. B. 
Boomer & Co. The latter was opened for traffic in 
July. A continuation of the bridge building by years, 
up to and including 1871, is as follows : 

1866 — North Halsted Street, North Branch, wooden braces 
and chords, Fox & Howard, 140 feet, $7,000 ; Clark Street, Main 
River, wooden braces and iron chords, Thomas Mackin, 1S0 feet, 
$13,800. 

1S67 — Chicago Avenue, North Branch, wooden braces and 
iron chords, Fox & Howard, 175 feet, $26,700; Yan Buren Street, 
South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard, 
163 feet, $18,270. 

1868 — Lake Street, South Branch, wooden braces and iron 
chords, Fox & Howard, 1S5 feet, $11,450; Twelfth Street, South 
Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard, 202 feet, 
$44,949.40 ; Eighteenth Street, South Branch, wooden braces and 
iron chords, Fox & Howard, 175 feet, $28,500; Main Street, 
South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard, 152 
feet, $12,450. 

1869-70 — Division Street, North Branch, wooden braces and 
iron chords, Fox & Howard, 176 feet, $15,794.84 ; Indiana Street, 
North Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, Fox & Howard, 
163 feet, $48,800; Polk Street, wooden braces and iron chords, 
Fox & Howard, 154 feet, $29,450; Western Avenue, West Fork 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



of South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords. F. E. Canda, 
125 feet. $13,000 ; Throop-street bridge, Fox & Howard, $12,649. 
The Wells-street viaduct was constructed during this year. 

1S70 — Rinzie Street. North Branch, wooden braces and chords, 
Fox & Howard, 170 feet, $15,850; Adams Street, South Branch, 
wooden braces and iron chords. Fox & Howard, 160 feet, $37,S6o; 
Archer Avenue, South Branch, wooden braces and iron chords, 
Fox & Howard. 152 feet, $11,500. 

1S71 — Erie Street, North Branch, wooden braces and iron 
chords. Fox & Howard. 200 feet, $30,000 (not then in use) ; 
Twenty-second Street, South Branch, wooden braces and iron 
chords, Fox & Howard, 210 feet, $26,900 ; Reuben Street, West 
Fork of South Branch, wooden braces and chords, Fox & Howard, 
152 feet, $11,500. Total original cost, $511,154.84. 




CLARK STREET BRIDGE. 

The great fire destroyed the bridges across the main 
river at Rush, State, Clark and Wells streets, across the 
North Branch at Chicago Avenue, and across the South 
Branch at Adams, Van Buren and Polk streets ; also 
the viaducts over the railway tracks at Wells and 
State streets. The Adams-street viaduct was partially 
destroyed. The damage to bridges and viaducts, includ- 
ing abutments, center-piers and protections, is estimated 
at ¥204,310. 

Contracts were at once entered into to rebuild the 
bridges destroyed. '1 he following table gives a clear 
idea of the stupendous work undertaken by the city in 
the matter of the construction of bridges alone, the 
date of the report being July r, 1872 : 



Samuel George Artingstall, acting engineer of the city 
of Chicago, was born on November 26, 1846, in Manchester, 
England. His parents were John and Ellen (Hall) Artingstall, 
his father being an architect and civil engineer in high standing. 
When the son was nineteen years of age Mr. Artingstall died, and he 
was thrown completely upon his own resources. But even at this 
early period of his life, his ability was recognized by the appoint- 
ment which he received of general superintendent of the viaduct, 
then being built over the canal and London & Northwestern Rail- 
road, at St. Helen's, near Liverpool. The engineer of the work- 
was William Fairburn, and the contractors, Robert Neil & Sons, 
of Manchester. Mr. Artingstall was in the service of the latter 
firm, with whom he remained for a number of years, having in 
charge, during that period, such important enterprises as the con- 
struction of the bridge at Manchester, and the building of the 
Bolton Cotton Mills, situated in the same county. In 1S69, he 
left Manchester, and came to Chicago, obtaining employment at 
once as a draughtsman in the city sewerage department. After the 
fire, he was actively engaged in designing plans for the bridges, 
especially of those first constructed, such as at North Halsted, 
Madison, and Randolph streets. The engine and station houses 
for the accommodation of the Fire and Police departments were 
also erected from his plans, and under his immediate supervision. 
William Bryson, who had been connected with the Department of 
Public W r orks for nineteen years, and who had the active superin- 
tendence in the construction of the tunnels, under City Engineer 
Chesbrough. died in October, 1S75. He had also drawn plans for 
the West-side pumping-works, from whose drawings they had been 
but partially constructed at the time of his death. 1 he work thus 
left uncompleted was taken up by Mr. Artingstall, and he has since, 
in reality, been the acting engineer for the public works of the citv. 
His formal appointment, however, dates from Februarv, 1S82. 
With the exception of Max Hjortsborough, chief engineer of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Qujncy Railroad, who was run over and 
killed near Rensington, town of Hyde Park, in 1SS1, Mr. Arting- 
stall is the only member of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
(London) who has ever lived in Chicago. Since coming to this 
country, and since the formation of the association in 1S69, he 
has also been connected with the Western Society of Engineers. 
Mr. Artingstall was married November 1. 1873. to Susan Archer, 
formerly a resident of Milwaukee. They have five living children, 
one son and four daughters. 

A. M. Hiksch, principal assistant engineer, and one of the 
oldest officials of continuous service connected with any depart- 
ment of public works, was born February 6, 1S27, in W 7 ormdit. 
near Rcenigsberg, East Prussia. He received his early education 
at the gymnasium of Ronitz, his design from the first being to 
prepare himself as a royal officer in the engineering corps of the 
Prussian government. After graduating from the gymnasium at 
Ronitz, he studied surveying, and, in 1S47, successfully passed his 
examination as a royal surveyor. He was then employed by the 
government in building railroads, macadamizing highways and 
constructing water-works. In 1S50, he entered the Architectural 
Academy at Berlin, where he remained two years and a half. Early 
in 1S53, he passed his examination, having, during this period, 
served as a volunteer in the Prussian army, and immediately after- 
ward emigrated to New York City. For a short time he found 
remunerative employment among the architects and surveyors of 
that city, but, meeting some friends from the Old Country who 
were on their way to the ambitious city of the West, he was 
induced to join them and pass on to Chicago. More fortunate 
than some of his comrades, he immediately obtained a situation 



Clark Street 

Van Buren Street. 
Chicago Avenue 
S. Halsted Street 
Rush Street. . . 

Polk Street 

Adams Street.. . . 

State Street 



Wells Street. 

('lark Street. 
Wells Street. 



\ Superstructure 

/ Substructure 

Superstructure 

* Substructure 

/ Superstructure 

Superstructure 

iteel ion 

' Superstructure 

1 Substrui ture 

I Superstructure 

j Substructure 

( Superstructure 

\ Substructure 

( Substrui I 

ucture 

Viaduct 

Approach 



Wood & Iron 

Stone 

Wood .V Iri. u 

Stone 

Wood & Iron 

Iron 

Pile work 

Iron 

Stone 

Iron 

Stone 

Iron 

Stone 

Iron 

Stone 

Iron 

Iron 

Iron 

Iron 



Fox lV Howard 

Fox <.V Howard 

E. Sweet, Jr., & Co 

Fox \ Howard 

Fox & Howard 

Ring Iron Brdg.& Mnfg.Co 

O. II. Green 

Detroit Bridge & Iron Wks 

E. Sweet. Jr., & Co 

King Iron Brdg.&Mnfg.Co 

Fox & I toward. 

Keystone Bridge Co 

Fox ,v I loward 

Keystone Bridge Co 

Fox & Howard 

Fox & I loward 

Keystone Bridge I !o 

t Keystone Bridge 1 

1 Robert Stuart 

Keystone Bridge Co 



Date of Contrac 



Oct. 


25, 


1S71 


Oct. 


25, 


1871 


Oct. 


25, 


1871 


Nov. 


27. 


!8 7 I 


Nov. 


27, 


1S71 


Nov. 


27. 


1871 


Nov. 


29, 


1871 


1 lee 


26, 


1S71 


Dec. 


26, 


1871 


1 tec. 


26, 


1S71 


I )cc. 


26, 


1871 


Jan. 


1, 


1872 


Feb. 


10. 


.872 


Feb. 


Q, 


1872 


Feb. 


S, 


1872 


Feb. 


°. 


1872 


Feb. 


q. 


1872 


1 1 1 1 n- 


s. 


1S72 


May 


3. 


1872 


Feb 


9. 


1872 



$32,000 00 

13,200 00 

20,850 00 

15,900 00 
5,860 00 
15,600 00 
23,970 00 
12,625 00 
30,274 26 
14,880 00 

22,500 00 



29,840 00 
12,300 00 



When Completed. 



January 9. 1S72. 

January 12, 1872. 

June 15, 1872. 

Nearly completed. 
Februarv I, 1S72. 
May '17, 1872. 
June I, 1872. 

June 17. 1S72. 

June iS, 1872. 
In progress. 
In progress. 
In progress. 

1 11 progress. 
In progress. 
In progress. 

Nearly completed. 



HOARD OF PUBLIC: WORKS. 



63 



under Roswell B. Mason, chief engineer in charge of the construc- 
tion of the Illinois Central Railroad. A few months thereafter, 
he received an appointment as engineer under Colonel J. D. Graham, 
United States Topographical Engineer, in charge of the Lake 
Michigan harbor improvements. In this capacity he remained 
until the spring of 1856, when he entered the service of the city 
of Chicago as assistant engineer in the street department, lie 
had the honor of drawing the first cross section of a Chicago 
street, and among other radical improvements which he introduced 
in early times, was the substitution of the old proportion of grades 
in bridge approaches (1:10) to the modern and accepted figures of 
1:40. For many years Mr. Hirsch has had the active management 
of this important branch of the Department of Public Works, his 
official title now being Principal Assistant Engineer. He is one of 
the very few now living who resided in old Fort Dearborn, he 
lived there during the years 1854-55. He married Miss Matilda 
Hildebrand, of Kiel, Germany. They have three children living 
— Alfred A., James H. and Clara S. Alfred A (now traveling 
salesman for J. V. Farwell & Co.) married Miss Matilda Schaefer, 
of St. Louis (her father, Colonel Schaefer, was killed at the Battle 
of Murfreesboro, Ky., during the late civil war). Theyhaveone 
child, a daughter, Cora. James H. (now with Clement, Bane & Co.) 
married Miss Anna Fox, of New York City; her father, Charles 
F"ox, was superintendent of the Singer Manufacturing Company, 
at South Bend, Ind , and died of consumption at Denver, Col. 
They have one child, a daughter, Verna Mae. 

River Tunnels. — If he is interested in the bridge 
question, the general reader will remember how sectional 
jealousies entered into, and raged around the question 
of locating the early bridges of the city. But by 1S57- 
58 the marine interests of Chicago had increased so 
prodigiously, that all locai feelings in the breasts of 
landsmen had been thrown aside ; and all the pugnacity 
of the city was divided in the fierce warfare which 
raged between river navigators and those persons who 
were obliged to use the thoroughfares. What consti- 
tuted the respective rights of land travelers and water 
travelers, and what was their relative importance in the 
community ? — this was the question which vexed the 




RANDOLPH AND LAKE STREET BRIDGES. 

public for many a long and weary month. So far as it 
related to the question of the conveniences of land travel, 
the problem was to be partially solved by the construc- 
tion of the two river tunnels. City Engineer Ches- 
brough made the following statement, showing what 
early" attempts were made to bring the reform about : 

The first bridges across the river were floating structures, and, 
of course, when closed could not allow the passage of vessels of 



any kind. The next kind of bridges wen- similar to the present 
ones, turning on their centers, but placed so low as scarcely to 
allow a canal boat to pass under them, and had to be opened for 
every tug or larger vessel. As the population and commerce 
increased, the crossing of the river was more and more frequently 
obstructed by the passage of vessels ; but the rights of navigation 
were considered paramount to all others on the river, and vessels 
could not be detained at all by the bridge, no matter what number 
of vehicles or individuals might be prevented from crossing. The 
first interference with the absolute rights of navigation was in 
requiring the tugs to lower their smoke slacks when passing under 
the bridges that had been placed high enough. There was quite a 
rebellion against it by the tug masters for a day or two, but it soon 
ended, and there has been none since, against so reasonable a reg- 
ulation. This reduced the necessity of opening the bridges so 
often, and consequently afforded much relief. As the business of 
the city increased, the obstruction to the land travel in crossing the 
river was greatly increased, notwithstanding the raising of the most 
important bridges. ***** Early efforts were made to 
set on foot projects for constructing tunnels under the river, and 
thus avoiding the inconvenience of waiting at the bridges for the 
passage of vessels. In 1853, a company for the purpose having 
been formed, with the Hon. William B. Ogden at its head, plans 
were proposed for such a work, both in masonry and iron. Among 
these plans were those of Messrs. William Gooding, E. F. Tracy, 
and Thomas C. Clarke. Had the company consttucted the work, 
it was their intention to adopt Mr. Clarke's plan, which was for a 
wrought iron tunnel ; because its estimated cost was less than that 
of a tunnel in masonry, and it could have been constructed without 
much interference with navigation. Owing to the more general 
adoption of turn-bridges about this time, the great necessity for 
tunnels was removed, and the probability of their yielding a satis- 
factory income much diminished. 

For the general benefit of the public, red and green 
signals were introduced under the ordinance of June 4, 
i860, and, under the law of October 7, 1861, bells were 
placed on Rush, Clark, Wells, Lake, Randolph and 
Madison-street bridges. But still the bridge-tender 
was an unruly member of the municipal body. He had 
the people under his thumb, as it were, and previous to 
1868 the city had no control over him. On April 22, 
1867, the ten-minute ordinance was passed, and busi- 
ness on the land once more moved along with some 
regularity, during the busy season of navigation on the 
lakes and rivers. The vessel men, however, were now 
delayed quite materially, and consequently they brought 
the question before the Illinois Supreme Court, to test 
its legality. The action of the Council was sustained. 
In April, 1868, the friends of the tug men and vessel 
owners in the Common Council attempted to repeal the 
ordinance of 1867, but were unsuccessful in their efforts. 
This celebrated ordinance, which may be called the 
ground work of all subsequent bridge legislation, pro- 
vided that vessel owners, bridge-tenders, or officers, 
found guilty of a violation of its provisions should be 
liable to a fine of $100, and to imprisonment in the tily 
bridewell for three months. 

Although this legislation had its effect in bringing a 
certain amount of relief, various tunnel projects, which 
were advanced, and some of them which were almost 
brought to a conclusion previous to 1868, indicated that 
the public were convinced in what direction lay the 
most permanent solution of the difficulty. 

As early as April, 1S64, the Chicago Tunnel Com- 
pany petitioned for the passage of an ordinance author- 
izing it to construct tunnels under the Chicago River at 
Franklin and Lake streets. Pending the action of the 
Council on this ordinance, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
& Chicago Railroad Company petitioned for the con- 
struction of a free tunnel at Adams Street, offering to 
subscribe $25,000 toward it, or $15,000 for any other 
street as far north as Washington, provided that Adams 
Street between Canal Street and the river should be 
vacated. On the 14th of November, a petition was 
presented for the passage of an ordinance appropriating 



64 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



§100,000 to construct a tunnel at Washington Street. 
In January, 1865, the ordinance was passed to issue 
$100,000 in city bonds, provided §100,000 could be 




WASHINGTON-STREET TUNNEL. 

raised by subscription. Plans for it had been approved, 
bids received, and the contract was about to be awarded 
for its construction, in June, when it was discovered 
that there was no legal authority for building it at all. 
These difficulties were obviated by the passage of the 
legalizing ordinance, and the contract was awarded to 
Jarrjes H. Moore. By March, 1866, however, it became 
evident that the subscription of §100,000 had failed of 
being raised, and the City Council therefore fell back 
upon the Adams-street tunnel, the railroad offer being 
still open. 

State, Franklin and Clark streets were next favored 
with the attention of the city fathers, but in July they 
returned to their first plan, and requested the Board of 
Public Works to proceed as soon as possible with the 
construction of the tunnel on Washington Street. Bids 
were again received, the contract being awarded, in 
August, 1S66, to Messrs. Stewart, Ludlam & Co., for 
§271,646. The contractors broke ground west of the 
river October 2 and east of the river October 1 1. They 
excavated to a depth of thirty-seven feet just east of 
the river and removed a large portion of the earth as far 
as Market Street. West of the river they removed the 
earth from the upper portion of the cut between Clinton 
and West Water streets. They also accomplished other 
work, but, on account of an insufficient supply of funds, 
which were, at last, completely cut off, it was entirely 
abandoned in May, 1867. The excavation then caved 
in, and after the city had expended over §20,000 upon 
the enterprise, everything was as if it never had been. 
New plans and specifications were prepared, and in July, 
1867, the contract was awarded to J. K. Lake for §328,- 
500. Operations were commenced July 25, the found- 
ation of the main archway, east entrance, being begun 
on the 13th of August, and the key-stone put in < )< lobes 
31. The masonry on the main arch east of the river was 
carried to near the middle <>f Market Street, when, owing 
to the severity of the weather, work was suspended f < >r 
the winter. Operations were continued during 1867, 



with slight interruptions, Mr. Clark withdrawing from 
the contracting firm, and A. A. McDowell being admit- 
ted. In the spring of 1868, the contractors having 
prepared improved machinery, prosecuted the work 
night and day, until it was completed. Yielding of 
braces, leaks in the coffer-dams, and other drawbacks, 
which often accompany such undertakings, delayed the 
final completion of the tunnel until January 1, 1869. 
The day was celebrated by the contractors taking the 
Mayor, City Council, Board of Public Works, Fire 
Department and other public officials through it. Much 
pains had been taken to prevent leakage through the 
roof of this tunnel, by the use of asphaltum, and through 
other portions of the arch by a composition of coal tar, 
lime, etc. 

The tunnel is located with its center line in the 
middle of Washington Street. The eastern approach 
commences in the center of Franklin Street, and the 
western terminates in the center of Clinton Street, 
thirteen and a half feet above low water line. The 
bottom of the tunnel below the center of the river bed is 
32.4 feet below the line. There are three passage ways, 
the south one for foot passengers and the other two for 
horses and vehicles. On each side of the river, two 
hundred feet apart, was a wall of rubble masonry, built 
to provide for the prospective widening of that stream. 
At the eastern and western ends of the covered passage 
way there was the face-wall extending up to the surface 
of the street. The surface drainage of the tunnel was 
carried through pipes into several wells, the one at the 
east end under the river section being carried up to the 
street grade, in the form of a shaft enclosed in the stone 
abutment. Through this shaft the water that collects 
in the well is pumped by machinery into the chamber 
above, which is built for that purpose. The total cost of 
Washington - street tunnel is placed at §517,000. Its 
length is 1605 feet. In the preparation of plans and es- 
timates for the tunnel E. S. Chesbrough was assisted by 
William Thomas, architect. In November, 1866, Wil- 
liam Bryson was appointed resident engineer. 

LaSalle-street Tunnel. — In 1869, the plans for the 
LaSalle-street tunnel were prepared by William Bryson, 
and the contract for its construction awarded to R. E. 
Moss, George Chambers and A. J. McBean; the two 




STATE STREET, LOOKING north fRQM LAKE, street, 



BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 



65 




THE COURT-HOUSE BEFORE THE FIRE. 



latter gentlemen fulfilling the contract. Work was 
begun November 3, 1869, on the north coffer-dam and 
by the last day of March, 1870, the masonry was 
completed from the center of the river to a point fifty 
feet north of the north dock line. With the exception 
of a change in grade from 1 in 16 to 1 in 20, the 
liberal use of asphaltum for the brick beds, and a head- 
way two feet higher, this subterranean passage varies 
little from the Washington-street tunnel. The LaSalle.- 
street tunnel was opened to the public July 4, 187 1. 
Its length is 1890 feet and its cost was $566,000. The 
fire of October warped the railing around the open 
approaches to the tunnel, as it did that of the east 
approach of the one on Washington Street, rendering a 
considerable portion of it unfit for anything but scrap 
iron. The stone coping was also somewhat damaged. 

Ellis S. Chesbrough, as the constructor of the two lake 
tunnels, stands among the world's great civil engineers. Previous 
to coming to Chicago, most of his professional life was passed 
upon eastern railroads. He was the son of Isaac M. and Phrania 
(Jones) Chesbrough, and on account of his father's failure in busi- 
ness, Ellis lost much schooling which otherwise would have been 
given him, working for various mercantile establishments in the 
city of Baltimore, where he was born, and where he spent his days 
up to his seventeenth year. At the age of fifteen his father became 
one of a company of engineers employed by the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad Company, and, through his influence, the son also ob- 
tained employment in the same line and with the same corpora- 
tion. Ellis remained with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany until 1830, when he entered the service of the State of 
Pennsylvania, in the survey for the projected Allegheny Portage 
Railroad. During the succeeding eleven years he was employed 
on the Patterson & Hudson, the Boston & Providence, the Taun- 
ton Branch, and the Louisville, Charleston & Cincinnati railroads, 
being a member of the engineering corps of Captain, afterward 
General, William Gibbs McNeill. In 1840, Mr Chesbrough was 
appointed superintendent of construction of the last named rail- 
road, and held that position until the line was completed to Co- 
lumbia, S. C. He then went to Providence, R. I., where his 
father resided, and, after spending a few months in the shops of 
the Stonington Railroad Company, was thrown out of employ- 
ment by stress of hard times, tried farming and failed, and finally, 



in 1844, returned to his profession. In 1S46, he was appointed 
engineer of the Water Commissioners of Boston, and upon com- 
pleting the structures along the line of the Cochituate aqueduct, 
was elected Water Commissioner, and subsequently City Engineer. 
Having been appointed chief engineer of the Board of Sewerage 
Commissioners of Chicago in December, 1S55, Mr. Chesbrough 
presented a plan for a sewerage system of the city, which was 
adopted by the municipal authorities, and fixed his reputation as 
an expert in that specialty throughout the country. The next 
year he went to Europe to obtain information relative to the 
drainage of cities, and his report was published by the Board, and 
has been considered standard authority on the subject ever since. 
In 1S61, when the sewerage and water systems of the city had 
become so cumbersome as to require a larger governing organiza- 
tion, a regular board of public works was established, Mr. Ches- 
brough being chosen chief engineer, and subsequently city 
engineer. The latter position he retained until succeeded by 
Devvitt C. Cregier, four years ago. The wonders which he 
accomplished for Chicago during that period, are detailed in that 
portion of the corporate history devoted to the grand march of 
public improvements from 1S61 to 1S82. For the past few years 
Mr. Chesbrough has retired from the active duties of his profes- 
sion. His wife, formerly Miss Elizabeth A. Freyer, of Baltimore, 
Md., whom he married in 1S37, is still living. 

Sewerage System. — Previous to the organization 
of the Board of Public Works, about 54.5 miles of 
sewerage had been constructed — 6.02 miles in 1856; 
4.86 miles in 1857; 19.29 miles in 1858; 10.45 miles in 
1859; 13.07 miles in i860 ; and .53 miles in 1861. 
Although but 2,826 feet were constructed in 1861, 
three fourths of this amount was built by private, and 
interested parties. The board had no resources from 
which to draw, and suit was commenced against the 
Sewerage Commissioners for $58,882 84, on orders 
which the Marine Bank refused to pay at par, and for 
$107,746.53 against S. Lund, treasurer of the late 
board. In 1862, about three miles of sewers were con- 
structed, principally of brick. The balance of the 
account due from S. Lund, now found to amount to 
$108,696.53, had not been obtained. After the year 
1863, when the finances of the city were somewhat 
embarrassed, the construction of sewers and the growth 



66 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



of the system progressed favorably. Following is a 
table covering the period, commencing with the time 
the Board of Public Works assumed charge, up to and 
including 1S71. the figures for 1861 being the number 
of feet constructed up to that year, with cost : 



Year. 

1S61 

1S62 

1863 

1S64 

1S65 

1S66 



Feet Built. Cost. 

_ 283,586 §665,18846 

2,856 3,617 31 

15,676 57,264 51 

39.605 169,299 29 

25,021 S7.22I 4S 

29,94s 137,643 02 

1S67 4S.I27 225,56453 

1S6S Sg,66i 416,730 51 

1869 47.S4I - 197.152 92 

1570 139705 654.141 26 

1571 78.166 258,66470 



Totals 800,192 ft. $2,872,48799 

or 151 2SS-52Sths miles. 

The damage to the sewerage system, by the great 
fire, was comparatively light, consisting of injury to 
man-hole and catch-basin covers, and in the extra 
expense occasioned in cleansing sewers and basins, 
caused by the deposits of lime and debris from burnt 
buildings. The loss in this department is estimated at 
§42,000. 

The City Hall. — The joint building which had 
been completed in 1853 by- the city and county for 
their municipal purposes, after a few years was found to 
be entirely inadequate to the public wants; and in 1869 
the Board of County Commissioners and the Common 
Council of the city agreed upon an enlargement. Two 
wings and an additional story were added to it, and 
these were completed during the year 1870. The west 




half of the court house as it stood, was purchased 
outright by the city from the county, and entirely 
remodeled. 'I his, with the additions, gave room for 
all the city officers, except those of the Board of 
Education. The cost to the city of its portion of the 
addition, including the purchase money for the half 



bought from the county, together with the cost of 
remodeling and furnishing, was $467,000. The orig- 
inal building was of marble, from the Lockport quarries 
of New York. The additions were built of the stone 
from the well-known Lemont quarries of Cook County. 
The Water System. — The Lake Tunnel. — 
The early settlers of Chicago were ever gazing toward 
Lake Michigan as the source from which, as a 
people, they were eventually to be saved from the 
vileness of their then water " privileges." Up to 
1858 they had not gone more than a few rods from 
the shore ; nor did they make the attempt for some 
years thereafter. It seemed to slowly dawn upon the 
municipal authorities that, as servants of the public, 
they were called upon to look to the quality as well as 
the quantity of the drinking supply. Two new reser- 
voirs, each having a capacity of half a million gallons, 
were erected in 1858, one being placed in the North 
and one in the West Division of the city. During that 
year the average daily supply was three million gallons. 
For several years the operations of the old works were 
uniform and satisfactory, except at periods during the 
coldest weather, when vast quantities of fish and ice 
collected at the mouth of the inlet pipe and threatened 
to cut off the supply entirely. The Board of Water 
Commissioners having met the immediate wants of the 
community as to quantity, now began seriously to con- 
sider the question of purity of the water supply. 
Surveys and estimates of various improvements were 
made. 

During i860 five plans were submitted to the 
Council for attaining the requisite purity. First, by 
extending a pipe one mile out into the lake ; second, 
by building a tunnel one mile under the lake ; 
third, locating the pumping works at Winnetka ; 
fourth, by the construction of filter beds ; fifth, 
by the erection of a subsiding reservoir. The 
suggestions did not receive much attention, but 
the people continued to cry for the purest water 
which could be obtained. The next year (1861) 
E. S. Chesbrough, as the newly appointed city 
engineer, submitted to noted chemists a number 
of samples of water, taken from the lake and 
river. One fact was ascertained which, at first, 
gave rise to some surprise, viz., that water taken 
from near Clark-street bridge, in the spring, was 
found purer than that taken from the lake, one 
mile from Cleaverville. This was afterward ex- 
plained, on the ground of " freshets." The in- 
vestigation continued from early in the spring to 
late in the fall, and the fact was demonstrated 
that the water of Lake Michigan, some distance 
from the shore, was superior in every respect to 
that used by any other city, and could not be 
excelled. 

In 1862 Mr. Chesbrough made an elaborate 
report to the Common Council in regard to 
B obtaining a better water supply, and then for the 
£iS r first time forcibly pointed out the benefits of the 
|fe tunnel system, which he subsequently carried to 
a splendid engineering triumph. Meanwhile the 
water supply had increased from about three 
million of gallons daily, in 1S5S, to 6,400,000 
gallons in 1863. The tunnel plan having been 
adopted in June of that year, an exploration of the 
lake bottom was commenced by Mr. Chesbrough, 
about twenty feet from shore. It was ascertained 
that the underlying stratum was a thick bed of blue 
clay, for some distance to the eastward. At about 
three-quafters of a mile from the shore, a boring 



BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 



67 



was made through the upper layer of sand and the 
thirty feet of blue clay, the water at thai point being 
twenty feet deep. Two miles and a half east of the 
Water Works, at a point where is located the present 
crib, the strata revealed no change of consequence. 
The water in this locality was thirty feet deep, and 
as clear and cold as if flowing from living springs. 
At a depth of thirty-six feet the water was 5154° in 
temperature, while it reached 60° on the surface. 
The revised city charter of February, 1863, had au- 
thorized the extension of aqueducts and inlet pipes 
into the lake and provided for their protection. Mr. 
Chesbrough's plan was formally adopted by the city, 
in September of that year. Proposals for construct- 
ing the tunnel were received on the ninth of that 
month. The contract was awarded to Messrs. Dull & 
Gowan, of Harrisburgh, Perm., their bid being $315,139. 
That firm assumed all risks, incident to such works. 
The tunnel was to be completed November 1, 1865. 

The inaugural ceremonies attending the breaking 
of ground for the tunnel took place March 17, 1864. 
Mayor Sherman, after addressing the people present, 
took a pick and, breaking the ground, declared the 
great work commenced. The majority of the Common 
Council, Messrs. Letz and Rose of the Board of Pub- 
lic Works, City Engineer Chesbrough, Comptroller S. 
S. Hayes, Dewitt C. Cregier, chief engineer of the 
water works ; Colonel James Gowan and James J. Dull, 
contractors ; U. P. Harris, chief engineer of the Fire 
Department, and others, were present. Each public 
official took a shovelful of earth and, placing it in a 
wheelbarrow, transferred that vehicle to Messrs. Dull &: 
Gowan, the contractors, thus symbolizing the fact that 
the undertaking had been placed in their hands. After 
breaking ground the shore shaft was sunk. It was 
originally intended to construct the shaft wholly of 
brick, running it down from the surface of the ground 
to a depth of fifteen feet below the level of the lake ; 
but the fact that a shifting quicksand had to be passed 
through, compelled them to abandon that plan of opera- 
tion. The contractors were, therefore, authorized to 
run down an iron cylinder, of the same dimensions as 
the center of the crib, to a depth of twenty-six feet, 
and to the bottom of the sand bed. This inlet cylinder 
was nine feet in inside diameter. It was put down in 
four sections of about nine feet in length. From the 
shore shaft the tunnel extended two miles out in a 
straight line, at right angles with the shore. Excava- 
tions were commenced immediately after the ground 
was broken. In July, 1865, the giant crib* for the east 
end of the tunnel was launched, in the presence of 
Governor Oglesby and a large concourse of citizens. 
After being towed out in safety, two miles from the 
shore, it was there sunk. With regard to the character 
of the work, the material met with in the process of 
excavation was stiff blue clay throughout, so that the 
anticipation of the contractors in this respect was ful- 
filled. The soil was found to be so uniform, that only 
one leakage of water through the tunnel ever occurred, 
and that only coming at the rate of a bucketful in five 
minutes. This occurred in September, 1865. From 
that time no accident of any importance transpired. 
There were two or three slight escapes of gas. The 
first brick was laid at the crib end on the 23d of De- 
cember, 1865, and on the last day of the year the work- 
men began to excavate from that end, at which time 
they had already 4,825 feet done from the shore. From 

> feet of lumber and 200 tons of 



that time the work progressed steadily and with few 
interruptions. 

In the early part of November, 1866, when within 
a few feet of meeting, the workmen, for the fust 




EXTERIOR VIEW OF COURT-HOUSE RUINS. 



time, discovered sand pockets, which caused leakage, 
and delayed the final blow until December 6, 1866, 
when the last stone was placed by Mayor J. B. 
Rice. A large flag floated from the cupola of the old 
ante-fire Court House, in which building the Board of 
Public Works had their office. It was in honor of the 
final closing up of the tunnel arch at the point where 
the crib and shore sections met. The Board of Public 
Works had previously extended invitations to the Com- 
mon Council, Board of Education, and many other 
prominent citizens, to witness the ceremonies. 

At the time fixed, about two hundred of the guests 
were on the spot, awaiting anxiously the rare adventure 
before them. The invitations stated that a number of the 
guests were to make a tour of the tunnel from the shore 
shaft to the crib, and return by the lake, on board tug- 
boats, while others went out to the crib first, and 
returned by the tunnel railroad. Thousands of people 
were on the spot who had not received invitations, and 
who, of course, could not make the interesting voyage. 
The Board of Public Works had managed to have two 
trains of cars pass through the tunnel, from the shore 
to the crib, one leaving the shore shaft at ten o'clock, 
and the other at half-past twelve ; also to have a tug- 
boat leave State-street bridge at corresponding hours for 
the crib. Twenty-one earth-cars were put in readiness 
for the tunnel, or subaqueous, trip, and the tug-boat " S. 
N. Crawford " was chartered for service for the super- 
marine voyage. The hour for starting was ten o'clock, 
at which time the entire party were on hand, full of 
eager expectation. When the hour arrived, J. B. Rice, 
then mayor, the general members of the Board of Pub- 
lic Works, the Common Council, and as many of the 
guests as could ride in the first train, were lowered into 
the shore shaft, where they entered the cars. The 
Mayor took the first car, and the other members of the 
party arranged themselves in the train, four persons 
occupying a car, one sitting in each corner. As the 
memorial stone was to be inserted upon the south side, 
the passengers were seated so as to face that point of 
the compass. The motive power of the train was a 
mule, which could be dimly discerned in the gloom 
ahead. When all was in order, the train started off 
through the tube-like passage, the mule cantering along 



68 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



at a rapid pace. At the distance of a mile and a half 
from shore, the exact point where the two tunneling 
parties met, the train stopped. The Mayor and mem- 
bers of the Board of Public Works left their seats and 
advanced to the spot. Mr. Kroschell, the city in- 
spector, said : 

" Mr. Mayor, and Members of the Common Council : You 
have arrived at the spot where the two ends of the work are to be 
closed up. It only remains for you, Mr. Mayor, to place the last 
stone in position in this work, and we are going to help you to do 
it." 

Mayor Rice then came forward, and, amid the cheers 
of the guests, spoke as follows : 

" Members of the Board of Public Works, of the Board of 
Aldermen, Gentlemen, Contractors, and Fellow Citizens : At the 
commencement of this important work, the Mayor of the city, be- 
ing its chief officer, and supposed to represent the sentiments of all 
our citizens, was appointed to remove the first shovelful of earth, 
therebv introducing the work, and showing the world that the great 
undertaking should be done. Now that this portion of it is com- 
pleted, I have the great pleasure and the honor, as Mayor of the 
city, in like capacity to put the last finishing stroke upon this 
work, which is intended, as I understand, to show the world that 
the citizens of Chicago, through me, give this great enterprise their 
approval." 

His Honor then took the trowel and the stone, a 
perfectly white block of marble one foot long by six 
inches wide, inscribed with the words, " Closed De- 
cember 6, 1866," and deposited the key-stone in its 
final resting place, remarking further, as he did so - . 

" Now, gentlemen, in behalf of the City of Chicago, I place 
the last stone in this great tunnel — the wonder of America and the 
world." 

A number of pieces of American coins were deposited 
inside the stone by the guests, when the Mayor con- 
tinued : 

" Gentlemen, I announce to you all that the last stone in this 
great tunnel is laid, and that the work is completed." 

It was now eleven o'clock, and the party, re-entering 
the cars, were soon at the crib shaft, appearing some- 
what blinded by the light as they ascended from beneath 
the lake. The party who came by the tug were already 
there, and many were the congratulations exchanged. 
In a short time the second train from the shore arrived, 




'I'll: BEING I'.UILT. 



and the passengers were also elevated to the large room 
in the crib. At this juncture the cannons boomed, 
being fired simultaneously from the crib and shore. 
Some little time was spent in examining the wonderful 
structure, and then the regular order of exercises pro- 
ceeded. J. G. Gindele, then president of the Board of 
Public Works, addressed the visitors in a brief speech. 
In response, Mayor Rice said : 

" Members of the Board of Public Works, Aldermen of the 
City of Chicago, and Fellow Citizens, one and all : The remarks 
last made by the President of the Board of Public Works render it 
unnecessary for the Mayor of Chicago to speak a word ; but, as I 
am here, I would gladly testify with such weak words as I can use, 
my appreciation of the wonderful work of which I have seen the 
completion to-day ; and with heartfelt joy I stand here among you 
to-day — this day of gladness, — made doubly glad by the genius of 
man. This great work is completed. We have seen it. It is now a 
means of furnishing every inhabitant of the city of Chicago with 
pure, sweet water; and a supply in excess of the demand, sufficient 
for a million of inhabitants more. All honor and thanks to the 
men who conceived, and to the men who executed this great work. 
And I would congratulate the citizens of Chicago, here, that they 
have the healthy winds of our boundless prairies, that they have the 
life sustaining bread of our perfectly cultivated fields, that they 
have the pure refreshing water of our mighty lake, all of which 
tend to make Chicago the most favored of cities. I do not intend 
to enter into statistics as to when the tunnel was commenced, how 
it has progressed, how difficulties have been met with at every 
turn, how these difficulties have been surmounted, how men 
doubted at its commencement, how these doubts are forever set at 
rest ; but I will unite with you all in saying : Hail ! Chicago, 
metropolis of the great West, vast in her resources, fortunate in 
her citizens, whose genius, industry and integrity secure to us the 
use of all those advantages and blessings which are vouchsafed to 
us by the Creator and Dispenser of all the things which we have." 

Addresses were also made by Aldermen Holden and 
Clark, and D. D. Driscoll, the corporation attorney. 
Mr. Chesbrough likewise made a short speech, in which 
he claimed that great credit and praise were due Messrs. 
Dull & Gowan, the contractors, upon whom the respon- 
sibility of the work rested. After partaking of a fine 
collation, prepared in the kitchen of the crib, the party 
who came by the tug started for the shore, via the 
tunnel railroad, and the Mayor, aldermen, etc., took 
passage on the tug. 

The total cost of the tunnel to the city was $464,- 
866.05. 

The Water Works. — The grounds upon which 
were erected the buildings of the water works of 1867, 
were bounded by Chicago Avenue, Pine and Pearson 
streets, and the lake.* They had a frontage of two 
hundred and eighteen feet on Pine Street, and extended 
from the lake westward a distance of five hundred and 
seventy-one feet. When, in 1863, it became evident 
that additional machinery would be required, in order 
to embrace the tunnel system, and otherwise extend the 
operations of the water works, it was found that the 
dimensions of the old building, pump-well and founda- 
tions would not admit of any such extension. Plans 
and specifications for a new engine, boiler, etc., were 
prepared early in 1864, and in July the contract was 
awarded to George W. Quintard, proprietor of the 
Morgan Iron Works, New York City. Various plans 
were suggested by which the new buildings required 
for the more extensive system could be erected, with- 
out disturbing the supply of water furnished the city by 
the old works. In pursuance of the plan finally 
adopted, the preliminary work of removing the north 
boiler and brick smoke-chimney, the wall of the main 
building, the boiler house and a portion of the water- 
tower of the old works, was commenced in March, 

* Most of the facts in regard to the construction of the water-works build- 
ings arc from the official reports of Dewitt C. Cregier, engineer under E. S. 
Chesbrough. 



BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS. 



69 



1866. Upon the site thus prepared a pump-well was 
sunk to the depth of twenty-one feet, being completed 
in March, 1867. The structure was located within a 
dozen feet of one of the engines then in use, and on 
account of the yielding nature of the soil, the work was 
proceeded with cautiously but successfully. 

On March 25, 1S67, water was first let into the tun- 
nel. On that day the new water works were formally 
inaugurated by the laying of the corner-stone of a new 
tower, situated half a block west of the old one, and 
subsequently completed to a height of one hundred and 
thirty feet. Within this tower was to be constructed 
an iron column, three feet in internal diameter, to the 
top of which the water would be forced from the tunnel 
by the powerful machinery then being built. The wa- 
ter was thence forced by its own pressure through the 
mains, and to the tops of the highest buildings in the city. 
In consequence of the delay in completing the north 
wing of the main building, and the unfinished condi- 
tion of the connection of the tunnel with the new pump- 
well, as well as the laying of the connecting mains 
between the engines and new water-tower, the engine 
was not used for some time after it was completed. On 
the 20th of July, 1867, the work alluded to had so far 
progressed as to admit water to the new pump-well, and 
the engines were put in operation. 

The first stone for the engine foundations was set 
October 6, 1866, and the work completed during the 
following month. A new engine was now being built, 
in addition to the two then in use, it being constructed 
by George W. Quintard, proprietor of the Morgan Iron 
Works, New York City. The entire cost was $112,350. 
It was first brought into play in July, 1867, and had a 
capacity of eighteen million gallons daily. 

In the fall of 1867, the city commenced to erect a 
machine shop for the manufacturing of hydrants, stop 
valves, and for doing other work connected with the 
water system. The building was completed in Feb- 
ruary, 1868. It was two stories high, built of brick. 

During the early part of 1869, the building for the 
new pumping works, and the beautiful water-tower, 
were completed. The former was erected upon the site 
of the old works, and owing to the care necessary to 
guard against accident to the water supply, operations 
had naturally been conducted slowly. The style of 
architecture was castellated Gothic, with heavy battle- 
mented corners, executed with solid rock-faced ashlar 
stone and cut-stone trimmings, all the details being of 
a massive and permanent character. The dimensions 
of the engine-room were one hundred and forty-two 
feet long, sixty feet wide, and thirty-six feet in the 
clear. The central portion of the main front was 
divided into two stories, the upper part being devoted 
to draughting rooms and sleeping apartments for the 
engineers. The lower part was divided by the main 
entrance. A large reception room, engineers' offices, 
etc., comprised the ground floor. The roof of the 
main building was constructed of massive timbers, cov- 
ered with slate and pierced with the necessary venti- 
lators. Midway between the floor and ceiling, and 
extending around the entire interior space of the build- 
ing, was a handsome gallery, from which could be 
viewed the operations of the engines. Below the main 
floor of the principal building there was a space extend- 
ing over the whole area, nine feet high, in which were 
located the pumps, delivery mains, etc., and from which 
the pump-wells, connected with the lake tunnel, de- 
scended. The boiler rooms were placed nineteen feet 
apart, and were situated in the rear of the main build- 
ing. Between the boiler rooms was the smoke-stack, 




WATER-WORKS T.UILUINO. 

which rose to a height of one hundred and thirty feet 
from the ground. 

About one hundred feet to the west of the main 
building was the imposing water-tower. The exterior 
of the shaft was octagonal and rose one hundred and 
fifty-four feet from the ground to the top of the stone 
work, which terminate in a battlemented cornice. The 
whole was surmounted by an iron cupola, pierced with 
numerous windows, from which might be obtained a 
magnificent view of the lake, the city and surrounding 
country. The exterior of the tower was divided into 
five sections. The first section was forty feet square 
and surrounded the base of the shaft. The floor and 
roof of this portion was of massive stone, the latter 
forming a balcony. The bottom of the interior was 
hexagonal. Here the base-piece of the stand pipe a 
casting weighing six tons) was placed, having six open- 
ings, supplying thirty-inch gates, to which the water 
mains were connected. From this base a thirty-six 
inch wrought iron stand-pipe ascended to a height of 
one hundred and thirty-eight feet. Around this pipe 
was an easy and substantial iron stairway, leading to 
the cupola on the top, and lighted throughout with alter- 
nating windows. The whole structure was looked upon 
as thoroughly fire-proof, being composed wholly of 
stone, brick and iron. Much credit was justly accorded 
to W. W. Boyington, the architect of the buildings, for 
the professional skill, taste and judgment displayed in 
the work entrusted to him. 

The year 1869, then, marks the virtual establishment 
of the second system of Water Works, although it has 
since been extended to such magnificent proportions, to 
keep pace with the wonderful growth of the city, that 
the fine accomplishments of the past are lost sight of in 
the splendid achievements of the later period. Up to 
March 31, 1869, the cost of the water system, including 
all expenditures for works then in progress had been 
$3,146,383.14; this expenditure having been met by the 
issuing of over two million and a half in bonds, and by 
water rents. During the year 1S6S-69 thirty and a half 
miles of water pipe were laid, making over two hundred 
and eight miles then in use. Even then the extent of 
pipes laid exceeded that of any cities except New York, 
Brooklyn and Philadelphia. One important improve- 



7o 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



ment suggested at this time, and subsequently carried 
out, in order to meet an insufficient supply of water, 
was an extension of the system of two-feet mains around 
the three divisions of the city, making, in fact, a contin- 
uous main of about thirteen miles in length. 

In October, 1S69, the plans and estimates for the 
establishment of the West-side water works, on the 
corner of Twenty-second Street and Ashland Avenue, 
were submitted to the City Council. But as they were 
not completed until six years thereafter, a history of this 
important extension of the water service must be defer- 
red to the third volume. 

During 1870-71, the tunnels under the canal and 
river at Division Street, and under the river at Chicago 
Avenue, and at Adams Street, to accommodate the 
water mains passing to the West Division of the city, at 
these points, and the tunnel under the South Fork of 
the South Branch at Archer Avenue, for the water main 
passing to the southwestern portion of the city, were all 
completed and put in use. The grounds at the water 
works were fenced and preparations made to beautify 
them. A fourth engine, constructed in Pittsburgh, of 
thirty-six million gallons daily capacity, was also in 
place at the works and nearly ready for use. It was 
designed to increase the combined capacity to seventy- 
one million gallons. 

•The great fire of 187 1 swept away most of the build- 
ings connected with the pumping works, damaging the 
machinery so badly that the water supply (and there- 
fore all means of checking the conflagration) was cut 
off. The loss on buildings and machinery was about 
$75,000. The machine shop connected with the works, 
including much valuable machinery was almost a total 
loss, while the damage to the North and South Side 
reservoirs was some $20,000, and nearly three miles of 
water-service pipe were melted or otherwise injured. 
The total damage to the water works system was 
$248,910. 

While the three engines were disabled, a partial sup- 
ply of water was furnished some sections of the city by 
pumping into the pipes from the river, at different 
points, and by making connections with wells at the 
corner of Western and Chicago avenues, at Wahl's glue 
factory, at the Northwestern Distillery and at Lincoln 
Park. Many of the inhabitants living in the vicinity of 
Union and Jefferson parks obtained their supply from 
the artificial lakes, thus preventing much threatened dis- 
tress. The damage to the engine house was repaired, 
the machine shop reconstructed upon the old founda- 
tion, and the engines so promptly put in working order 
that the one of 1867 was running October 17, 1871 ; 
that of 1857 on November 10, and that of 1853 on the 
30th of November. 

The following table shows the amount of assess- 
ments for the maintenance of the water system made 
by the Board of Public Works since it was created, in 
1861, up to the time of the fire — the fiscal periods 
end with April 1 for the years specified : 

1862 $42,635 49 

'863 4 f >,493 67 

■•''4 389.169 31 

- I03.576 35 

- 802,574 56 

1867 317,206 18 

1868 1,354,436 48 

'-' 1 2,395,68303 

1870 2,836,852 48 

1871 2,359,835 89 

Total $10,648,463 44 

The following table will show the great strides 



which Chicago has made in the development of her 
water system from 1858 to 187 1, inclusive, the period 
covered bv this volume : 







Estimate 










Year. 


Daily Supply. 
Gallons. 


made in 1851, 
based on 35 
gals, per in- 
habitant. 


Capacity of 
Works. 


Revenue. 


Miles 
of pipe 
laid. 


Miles 

of pipe 


1S5S 


2,99L4I3 


2,340,000 


20,000,000 


$102,179 




72.4 


1S59 


3. 877.119 


2,520,000 


20,000,000 


I22,94S 


12.7 


85.1 


i860 


4.703,525 


2,700,000 


20,000,000 


131,162 


5-9 


91.0 


1861 


4,841,520 


2,8So,OO0 


20,000,000 


150,290 


4-3 


95-3 


1862 


6,074,739 


3,060,000 


20,000,000 


150,920 


96 


104.9 


1863 


6,400,29s 


3,240,000 


20,000,000 


190,886 


10.5 


115. 4 


1864 


6,913,259 


3,420,000 


20,000,000 


224,246 


11. 9 


127.3 


1S65 


7,6io,a59 


3,600,000 


20.000,000 


252,441 


13.9 


141. 2 


1866 


8,681,536 


3,780,000 


20,000 OOO 


301,124 


11. 


152.2 


1867 


11,562,273 


3,960,000 


20,000,000 


337.46S 


22.6 


1748 


1868 


14,724,999 


4,140,000 


3S, 000,000 


420,656 


33.8 


208.6 


1869 


iS, 633, 278 


4,320,000 


38,000,000 


476,96s 


31-3 


239-9 


1870 


21,766,260 


4,536,000 


3S, OOO, OOO 


539.313 


32.5 


272.4 


1871 


23.464.S77 


4,752,000 


3S, OOO, OOO 


446,265 


15.3 


2S7.7 



RIVER, HARBOR AND MARINE. 

Harbor and River Improvements. — The location 
of the streets of the city, the course of the river and 
the condition of the sand-bars at the beginning of 1858, 
varied but little from descriptions given in the first 
volume of this history. The charts made between 
1854 and 1S58 by S. S. Greely show the former posi- 
tion of Fort Dearborn, the ancient river bed, the sand- 
bar at its mouth and the grounds and the buildings of 
the Illinois Central Railroad Company. The distance 
from the east line of Michigan Avenue, at Randolph 
Street, to the shore of Lake Michigan (according to the 
plat of the Fort Dearborn Addition to Chicago i is given 
at about seventy-five feet. The distance from the same 
point to the shore line, as laid down by Surveyor John 
Wall, in 182 1, was one hundred and seventy-five feet, 
continuing northeasterly to a point at the intersection 
of St. Clair and Illinois streets. In 1836 the west line 
of the sand-bar was one hundred and fifty feet east of 
the line of 182 1. In the map of 1858 a large area of 
" made land" is shown on the lake side of the sand-bar. 
West of " Slip A " was the Illinois Central freight 
house. Between this building and the old channel of 
the river was the Michigan Central freight house, and 
west of it was a second structure of a like character. 
South of the latter freight house was the passenger 
depot belonging to the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany, while, standing on the southeast corner of Mich- 
igan Avenue and River Street, was the old United 
States Marine Hospital, sold in 1864. Diagonally across 
from the Marine Hospital was the block house and 
two small buildings belonging to Fort Dearborn. The 
south building, or officers' quarters, stood on what is 
now River Street, nearly at the foot of Rush-street 
bridge - while the north building stood on land, which 
was subsequently excavated, and now forms the south 
channel at that point. The light-house stood on the 
river bank, just west of Rush-street bridge. The above 
particulars are given that the general reader may obtain 
an idea of the appearance of the harbor, the river's 
mouth, and the surrounding country in the year 1858. 

The Government seemed still loath to recognize 
Chicago's importance as a commercial emporium, even 
by so much as making a modest appropriation by which 
her decaying harbor piers could be kept in repair. 
The city herself therefore took up the matter, trusting 
to the future for re-imbursement. In the fall of 1859 a 



RIVER, HARBOR AND MARINE. 



7i 



small sum was raised by the Board of Trade to pre- 
serve a portion of the North Pier, which was fast 
rotting and falling into the lake. In 1861 and 1862 
the repairs undertaken by the city were just sufficient 
to prevent the harbor improvements from becoming 
utterly useless, the municipal authorities and public- 
spirited citizens still hoping for justice, if not an out- 
burst of generosity, from the General Government. As 
the city failed to obtain an appropriation from Congress, 
in 1863 she undertook the work of dredging the mouth 
of the river, in order to obtain a channel fourteen feet 
deep, between the north and the south piers, and across 
the bar. This effort to effect even a temporary im- 
provement was quite abortive, and it was not until 
August, 1864, that the mouth of the river was relieved, 
to a marked extent, of its troublesome accumulations. 
Messrs. Fox & Howard, who had contracted with the 
city to do the work, had opened a passage which would 
admit craft drawing from twelve to twelve and a half 
feet of water. The channel was, however, too narrow, 
and vessels were in danger of being stranded during a 
high wind. During the years 1864-65 the channel was 
dredged through the bar to a depth of fourteen feet. 
The north pier was extended four hundred and fifty 
feet, at a cost, to the city, of $75,000. 

At this time it was felt more keenly than ever that the 
outlay should be made by the United States Govern- 
ment rather than by the city, and it was hoped that what- 
ever amount was expended would be refunded from 
the national treasury, especially as the work was being 
done under the direction of a United States engineer. 
A map of the harbor made during August, 1865, shows 
a channel of thirteen or fourteen feet deep at the 
mouth of the river, and a sand-bar covered by six feet 
of water for a distance of one thousand feet in a south- 
erly direction, and having a width of one hundred and 
fifty feet, at a point twelve hundred feet from the North 
Pier. During this year the outer end of the pier work 
was completed, and the dock lines along the Chicago 
River and its branches were surveyed. The pier was 
further extended, the channel dredged, and Goose 
Island, at the confluence of the North and South 
branches was removed during 1865-66. A channel, 
fifty feet wide and ten feet deep below low water, was 
also made in the upper part of the South Branch. 
During the year ending August, 1866, the formation of 
another sand-bar across the entrance to the harbor was 
in its incipient stages, the water shoaling from three to 
six feet. 

The General Government at last had become cog- 
nizant of the errors of the past, and made an appro- 
priation of $88,000, which enabled the contractors to 
extend the pier six hundred feet further to the east- 
ward. While Lieutenant-Colonel J. 1). Graham was in 
charge of the harbor improvements, the War Depart- 
ment granted permission to the Chicago Dock and 
Canal Company to mike an opening through the 
United States North Pier; so as to allow a communica- 
tion between the harbor, and the ship-basins and canals, 
which that company had been authorized to build. In 
1867, to provide for the required three hundred feet of 
opening in the pier, the United States commenced to 
extend the pier, beginning from a point three hundred 
feet from the shore terminus. The extension was 
therefore carried out nine hundred feet, to a depth of 
twenty-four feet of water. During the year ending 
June 30, 1868, the Chicago Dock and Canal Company, 
in conjunction with the United States Government, was 
feebly prosecuting the harbor improvements. Owing 
to the delay caused by the inclosing of the ship-basin 



by the Dock Company, the bar at the mouth of the 
harbor continually increased, and the United States 
engineer in charge of the works granted the contract- 
ors an extension of one year's time. The appropria- 
tion made in 186S by Congress amounted to $35,000, 
followed by one of $29,700 in 1869. Early during the 
latter year the channel of the North Branch was 
dredged to a uniform depth of eleven and one-half 
feet. At this time the width of the river, at various 
points, was as follows: At Lake Street, 200 feet; 
Randolph, 170 feet; Washington, 165 feet; Madison, 
155 feet; Monroe (North side), 163 feet; Monroe 
(South side), 133 feet; Adams, 127 feet; Jackson, 133 
feet; Van Buren, 200 feet; Tyler, 130 feet; Harrison, 
127 feet; Polk, 115 feet; Taylor, 130 feet; Twelfth 
(North side), 155 feet; Maxwell, 142 feet; Mitchell, 
139 feet; Sixteenth, 143 feet; Seventeenth, 135 feet; 
Eighteenth, 118 feet. When the proposition was made 
to give the main river a uniform width of two hundred 
and fifty feet, and the branches a uniform width of two 
hundred feet, the measurements given above were 
ascertained. It was necessary to widen the main river 
only below Rush-street bridge. 

In 186S, opposite Randolph and Monroe streets, in 
twelve-feet soundings, the bar had reached a width of 
1,050 feet, while from the pier, southward, its length 
was 3,900 feet. The continued extension of the pier 
up to 1868 divided the sand current further east, and a 
new bar was then in process of formation in a southerly 
direction from the end of the pier, with its center six 
hundred and fifty feet distant. This new bar formed 
an angle of between sixty and seventy degrees with the 
old one, and in 1868 the water was shoaling near the 
pier, so that it was dangerous for vessels of heavy 
draught to attempt to enter without a tug-boat. Of the 
appropriations made by the General Government, during 
the previous three years, the sum of more than $66,000 
was available in 1869. During the early part of this 
year the North Pier was fully completed. The greater 
portion of the six hundred feet of the South Pier was 
also completed in 1869. The total length of the Illi- 
nois Central breakwater was now nearly seventeen 
thousand feet, the water line of the crib works, south 
.of Randolph Street, being six hundred feet east of the 
east side of Michigan Avenue. The area then enclosed 
amounted to about thirty-three acres, and upon a por- 
tion of that area the Illinois Central Railroad depot 
was built. It was during the season of 1869 that the 
land between the mouth of the river and Twelfth Street 
to the south, and Chicago Avenue to the north, was 
dredged away, and the channel also completed through 
the South Fork from the canal locks to the rolling mills. 
This year was one which proved great, not only in un- 
dertakings, but in accomplishments. Among other 
enterprises, the Chicago Canal & Dock Company 
inaugurated the system of outside docks, on the north 
side of the North Pier extension. During July and 
August, 1869, a survey of the harbor entrance and lake 
front was made, under the direction of Major Wheeler, 
who recommended an extension of the South Pier until 
it equalled the North, the building of a breakwater at 
right angles, extending four thousand feet in a southerly 
direction, and the connection of this breakwater to the 
shore by a pier. These improvements were to form an 
outer harbor, and relieve the overcrowded condition of 
the Chicago River. If future necessities required an 
enlargement of this basin, the breakwater could be ex- 
tended. Major Wheeler estimated the cost of the 
improvements at $897,095.73. In January, 1S70, the 
Board of United States Engineers, consisting of Colonel 



7 2 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 




CHICAGO 



vt-Sa.sTO.i to.b/^.'/to m>. 6 (Q.a to.s'-.u.s »s -. 

TO ! TO.^V'^.. 3 \3 3 « 5 99 \i 3 8 }.»■-'' 

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.3 .■ B.6\!.3 : -5 ; :" £ •.^•*.*.'.'^-:6 ::: 9.3 TO.3;V2.3 n \! ^ "" 




X 



CHICAGO HARBOR IN 1870. 



J. N. Macomb, Colonel W. F. Reynolds, Major J. B. 
Wheeler and Major \V. McFarland, agreed upon the 
necessity for carrying out Major Wheeler's plan, sug- 
gesting, however, that the construction of the closing 
pier be deferred until the effect upon the bottom be 
observed from the building of the breakwater. In July, 
Congress appropriated $100,000 to the carrying forward 
of this improvement. Messrs. Fox and Howard com- 
menced work in September, and one thousand four 
hundred and fifty feet of breakwater were constructed 
during the year. In May, 187 1, a contract was entered 
into with the Illinois Central Railroad Company for 
continuing the work, the expense to be met by the 
appropriation of $100,000 made by Congress in March, 
1871. 

The expenditures for harbor and improvements by the city from 
1861 to 1871 were as follows : 1861, $291.25 ; 1862-63, $507.99 ; 
1863-64, $30,255.67; 1864-65; $52,097.51; 1865-66, $115,840.95; 
1866-67, $25,351.58 ; 1867-68. $23,830.58; 1868-69, $82,405.63; 
1869-1870, $65,485 12 ; 1870-71, $120,265.08. 

The engineers on duty at Chicago from 1857 to 1871 were : 
Colonel J. D. Graham, who took charge of the harbor in April, 
nd continued in charge until April 20, 1864. Colonel 
Graham had been commissioner of the survey of the northeastern 
boundary and was connected with the survey of the Mexican 
frontier, being distinguished for mathematical and astronomical 
abilities. Colonel Thomas |. Cram was in charge of the harbor 



improvements from October, 1S64, to August, 1865, and was suc- 
ceeded by Major J. B. Wheeler, who remained on duty until 
February 21, 1870, when Major William E. Merrill took temporary 
charge. Major D. C. Houston, U.S.E., was appointed engineer 
in charge of the harbor May 3, 1870, and served until June 26, 
1874, when Major G. L. Gillespie, U.S.E., was appointed. 

Dockage. — In early times the navigation up the 
North Branch was accomplished as far as Chicago 
Avenue and up the South Branch to Eighteenth Street. 
With the construction of the canal the South Branch 
was improved a mile and a half beyond Eighteenth 
Street. Next, the North Branch was deepened and the 
dockage extended. Then, as has been already noticed, 
came the demand for a uniform width of the river, so 
that the dock lines, which had heretofore followed the 
curvature of the banks, were straightened. By 1869, 
when this latter improvement was progressing, the 
wharfage of the city amounted to nearly twelve miles. 
The dock system had been especially extended in the 
West Division along the South Branch. In 1870-71 the 
improvement carried on at the mouth of the harbor 
by the Government, the Chicago Dock Company and 
the Illinois Central Railroad Company, and which has 
been previously commented upon, added greatly to the 
pier and wharfing facilities of Chicago. 



RIVER, HARBOR AND MARINK. 



73 



The Marine. — The narrow muddy inlet called the 
Chicago River, has made Chicago one of the largest 
ports of entry in the United States. When the naviga- 
tion of the great lakes was primarily instituted, it was 
the only place from St. Joseph River, in Michigan, to 
Milwaukee, a distance of more than two hundred and fifty 
miles, where a vessel could be loaded or unloaded or find 
shelter in a storm. It was the only accessible port, and 
hence destined to become the commercial center of the 
vast Northwest. The early growth of the marine is de- 
tailed in the first volume, and the improvements of the 
harbor are given elsewhere in the present volume. 
With those improvements, the shipping interests of 
Chicago continued to grow yearly, until, before the year 
187 1, there were annually entered at this port a greater 
number of vessels than at the ports of New York, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, San Francisco, Charleston and Mo- 
bile combined. And this, notwithstanding the fact that 
the harbor of Chicago is closed for at least three months 
of the year. 

We here present some tables which illustrate the 
growth and vast extent of Chicago's lake commerce; 
and, although such details are necessarily unattractive, 
they will well repay a study by the admirer of historical 
statistics. 

The lake tonnage enrolled at the port of Chicago in 
1858 amounted to 8,151 tons in steam vessels and 
58,771 tons in sail vessels. Estimating the value of 
the steam vessels, completed and rigged and equipped 
for active service, at $35 per ton, the value of these two 
classes of tonnage amounts to the sum of $2,383,025. 
In addition to these there was the canal tonnage, 
amounting to 152 canal boats of about 15,000 tons. 
Estimating the canal boats at $1,000 a piece, the value 
of the whole would be — 

Lake tonnage $2,383,025 

Canal tonnage 152,000 



$2,535,025 

The number of vessels owned in Chicago in 1! 



Steamers 61 

Sail vessels 687 

Canal boats 152 



Tonnage 8,151 

5 8,7 7I 

15,000 



900 Si, 921 

The arrivals and clearances at the port of Chicago 
for 1858 were : 



Arrivals 6,882 

Clearances 6,768 



Tonnage _ — 1,644,060 
1,640,643 



The value of the lake commerce for 1858 was as 
follows : 

Imports - $27,194,144 24 

Exports 21,261,074 73 

$4S,455,2iS 97 

Some further statistics of receipts and shipments of 
the principal articles of commerce will be presented in 
the table for the year 1S71. The figures for 1858 and 
1 87 1 we present as fully as they can be obtained, in 
order that the commerce of the first and last year, 
comprised within this volume, may be contrasted. 

The following tables, obtained from the United 
States Custom House and from the Board of Trade of 
Chicago, show the constant and rapid growth of the 
lake commerce. 

Owing to the destruction of records in the great 
fire, the arrivals and clearances for 1859, i860, and 1861 
are not obtainable. Those for the years here given 



present very compactly the increasing activity of the 
Chicago marine. 



Arrivals. 


Clearances. 


Years. 


Vess Is. 


Tonnage, 


V, SSI Is 


Tonnagi 


1858 

1862 

1S63 

1S64 

1S65 

1S66 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 


6,882 
7,417 
8,678 
8,938 
10,112 
11,084 
12,230 
13,174 
13,730 
12,739 
12,330 


1,644,060 
1,931,692 
2,172,611 
2,172.866 
2,106,859 
2,258,572 
2,588,527 
2,984,591 
3,123,400 
3,049,265 
3,096,101 


6,768 
7,270 

8,457 
8,824 
10,067 

IT, 115 
12,140 
13.225 
13,872 

12,433 
12,312 


[,640,643 

1,915,554 

2, l6l, 221 
2,166,904 
2,092,276 
2,361,520 
2,512,671, 
3,020,812 
3,149,946 
2,983,942 
3.082,235 



The registered, enrolled and licensed tonnage, at 
the port of Chicago, was as follows for the years men- 
tioned : 

1858,67,001.23; 1859, 68,123.39; tSoo, 78,81605; 1861, 
85,743.66; 1862, 108,357.42; 1863, 126,684.40; 1864, 160,- 
241.07; 1865, 75,444.41; 1866, 86.6S5.33; 1867, 95,330-05; 
1868, 100,753.71; 1869, 104.314.3S ; 1870, 93,625.49; 1S71, 
93,918.9V. 

The following are the imports and exports, as exhib- 
ited by the records of the Custom House, for the years 
specified : 



Years. 



185S $222,930 $1,713,077 

1S59 93,588 1,269,385 

i860 60,214 1,165,183 

1861 77,34S 3.522,343 

1862 62,129 2.303,275 

1863 134,204 3,544,085 

1864 - 322,352 3,529.034 

1865 3".455 --- 4.590,350 

1S66 1,095,585 2.644,475 

1867 - 355.790 1,824,371 

1868 _._ 1,454,682 5,052,062 

1869 1,215,003 3,742,256 

1870 1,687,841 2,613.072 

1871 2,042,499 5,5So,i74 

The number of vessels owned in Chicago in 1871 
was as follows : 

Steam 

Sail. -- 

Canal boats 



S4 
333 


Tonnage 


6,846.30 
.. 64.S14.26 


233 




•• 23,735.39 



Estimating their value upon the same basis as those 
for 1858 are estimated — 

The value of this tonnage would be $3,775,351 

Tonnage of 1S5S 2,535,025 



Increase $1,240,326 

This indicates a growth of one-third in thirteen 
years ; not at all comparable to the mighty extension 
of railroad transportation in the same time, but never- 
theless a very constant and substantial growth. 

The following table illustrates more strikingly the 
vast growth of Chicago's lake commerce. It gives the 
receipts and shipments of the principal articles of com- 
merce for the years 1858 and 187 1 : 



Flour, bbls. . 
Wheat, bush. 

Oats, bush 

*Beef, bbls. -- 



2.354 

4,458 

90,631 



unt of beef packed for i 



I87I. 

47,673 

77.54" 

1,750 

50 



74 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



receitts — Continued. 

1S58. 1S71. 

*Pork, bbls 127 

Butter, lbs 1, 093,795 

Hides, lbs 53.820 203, 6S0 

Tallow, lbs. .-- 9.700 

Wool, lbs S,6oo 194.100 

Fotatoes, bush. -.. - 31.153 

Lumber, ft - 278,943,506 984,758,000 

Shingles, No.. - 127,565,000 401,346,000 

Lath, pieces 44,559,150 102,487,000 

Salt. bbls. -. - 334.997 66S,4io 

Coal, tons... - 76.571 515.253 

SHIPMENTS. 

1S58. 1871. 

Flour, bbls 377,177 4SS.705 

Wheat, bush 8,716,734 12,120,923 

Corn, bush 7,590,364 34,200,876 

Oats, bush 1,315,226 8,797,599 

Rye, bush - 7,569 1,047,262 

Barley bush 139,862 1,397,048 

Beef.'bbls 5.603 

Pork, bbls 34.207 

Lard, lbs 384,550 

Cured meats, lbs 155,600 

Butter, lbs. 528,330 

Hides, lbs 6,510,561 1,783,240 

Tallow, lbs 206,765 

Wool, lbs 598.264 174,700 

Broom corn, lbs.- 963.S50 

Salt, bbls 10,550 4,778 

Potatoes, bush 5.271 

Lumber, ft 5,993,000 

The following shows the dates of the opening of 
navigation at the Straits of Mackinac for the years speci- 
fied : 1858, April 6; 1859, April 4; i860, April 26 ; 
1861, April 25 ; 1862, April 18 ; 1863, April 17 ; 1864, 
April 23 ; 1865, April 21 ; 1866, April 29; 1867, April 
23; 1S6S, April 19 ; 1869, April 23 ; 1S70, April 18 ; 
1871, April 3. 

Marine insurances are made from April to Novem- 
ber, including both months. 

The Skjoldmoen. — On the 16th of July, 1863, one 
of the smallest crafts that ever crossed the Atlantic, the 
sloop " Skjoldmoen," commanded by Captain L. We- 
senberg, arrived at the port of Chicago, from Bergen, 
Norway, which latter port she left on the 12th of April, 
arriving at Quebec on the 2d of July, and reaching 
Chicago on the afternoon of the 16th of July, occupy- 
ing ninety-four days in the voyage. She had a rough 
and stormy passage, but made good sailing time. She 
was a vessel of 55 tons burden, sixty feet long and for- 
ty-eight feet keel, and was said to be the smallest ves- 
sel that ever crossed the Atlantic. She certainly was 
the smallest vessel that ever crossed the Atlantic and 
arrived safely at the port of Chicago. She brought to 
a Chicago firm a cargo of herrings, stock fish, ancho- 
vies, and Norwegian cod liver oil. 

On the 31st of July following, she cleared this port 
for Christiania, Norway, with a cargo of flour, pork, 
bides, hams, tobacco and kerosene lamps. Although 
the freight was of this varied character, the amount of 
each was small. 

Shu- building lias never been an extensive industry 
in Chicago, for the reason that owing to the high prices 
of labor and materials vessels could be more cheaply 
built elsewhere. There have been, however, a number 
of ship-yards more or less nourishing, and some very 
fine vessels have been built. The following are among 
the prominent firms engaged in the business from 1S58 
to 1871: Akhurst & Douglas, Doolittle & Miller, Miller 
.- flood, Miller Brothers, J. W. Banta, Miller, Freder- 

pocked. At this time Chicago wan first in beef packing and 
third in hog». Cincinnati and Louiiville respectively first and second. 



ickson & Burns, Orville Olcott, Fox & Howard and O. 
B. Green. 

The tug "George B. McClellan," named in honor 
of the future General, then the vice-president of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, was launched from the ship- 
yard of Martin, Green & Co., June 20, 1S60. 

The " Union," the largest tug in the harbor except 
the " McQueen," was launched from the yard of Miller 
& Hood. She was built for Messrs. Redmond and 
John Prindiville, and blew up in 1862 in the lake near 
the entrance to the river, killing Thomas Daly, the cap- 
tain, Thomas Boyd, the harbor master, and the fireman. 
Captain John Prindiville was on board of her but es- 
caped unhurt. The tug "J. Prindiville," one of the 
largest and most powerful tugs afloat, was built at the 
yard of Miller & Hood for Captains John and Red- 
mond Prindiville, Captain Joseph Nicholson, and Mr. 
John Ebbert, and launched May 8, 1862. She was com- 
manded by Captain Nicholson, and was employed in 
towing vessels between Lakes Erie and Huron; and 
also in wrecking during the summer and in the fall in 
rendering assistance to vessels in distress near this 
port. The propeller " Lady Franklin " was built at the 
yard of J. W. Banta for J. T. & E. M. Edwards, and 
was launched March 11, 1861. 

A complete list of the vessels built at our ship- 
yards prior to the great fire is now unattainable, but 
since 1873 the Board of Trade reports contain a list of 
the vessels annually built and documented at the port 
of Chicago. They show an average of about twelve 
vessels of various classes. It is more than probable 
that the average for the years prior to 1871 was larger 
than this. 

Disasters. — The perils of " those who go down to 
the sea in ships " are amply complemented by the 
perils of those who sail upon the waters of the great 
lakes. The long list of lake disasters tells a frightful 
story of hardship and danger and loss of life. Of 
vessels owned in Chicago alone, from fifteen to twenty 
are lost annually, with many lives. 

We here give a brief account of some of the great- 
est of these disasters: 

The propeller "Troy," commanded by Captain By- 
ron, and owned in Chicago by A. H. Covert and John 
B. Warren, carrying a cargo of wheat to Buffalo, was 
wrecked on Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, opposite 
Goderich, October 19, 1859. In a storm, a heavy sea 
struck her and broke in her gangway, and she foundered 
in a short time. The crew and passengers, including 
the wife of the captain, got safely off in the boats but 
all foundered in the heavy sea. No one was saved but 
two deck hands, who were swept across to Goderich on 
pieces of the wreck, and these made the shore. 

The Loss of the Lady Elgin. — The most terrible 
disaster that ever occurred on the great lakes was the 
loss of the steamer " Lady Elgin," on the 8th of Sep- 
tember, i860. 

The " Lady Elgin," one of the largest vessels of 
her class, was a Canadian built boat and was launched 
in 185 1. She was three hundred feet in length, of one 
thousand tons burden, and had a reputation for speed 
that made her a great favorite with the traveling public 
and excursion parties. Before the completion of the 
(.rand Trunk Railway of Canada, she carried the Cana- 
dian mails along the lakes, but after the completion of 
that road she was sold to Gurdon S. Hubbard & Co., of 
Chicago, ami employed by them in the Lake Superior 
and Michigan trade. She carried the mails, freight and 
passengers to points on the lakes between Chicago and 
Bayfield, Wis. The captain of the steamer was John 



RIVER, HARBOR AND MARINE. 



75 



Wilson, of Chicago, who commanded her from the 
time she changed ownership. He had an extensive 
experience in lake navigation, and was a popular and 
favorite master. 

On Thursday the 6th of September, i860, on her 
voyage from Milwaukee to Chicago, she took on board 
a large party of excursionists at the former place, who 
intended to make a trip to Chicago and return. Among 
them were some of the most prominent Irish citizens of 
Milwaukee, several public officers, and a large number 
of the members of the military companies of that city. 
On Friday, near midnight, the steamer left the Chicago 
dock for her northern destination, taking with her the 
Milwaukee excursionists and a number of other 
passengers. Including the crew, three hundred and 
ninety-three persons were on board when she started; 
as the vessel steamed swiftly northward, music and danc- 
ing ruled the hour, and all was mirth and gaiety in the 
salon cabins. 

At two o'clock in the morning, the vessel was off 
Waukegan, about ten miles from shore, and the pas- 
sengers were at the height of their merriment. With- 
out, the night was threatening, rain was falling and the 
wind blew freshly from the north. Another vessel was 
also nearing the same point ; it was the schooner 
" Augusta," laden with lumber and bound for Chicago, 
she sailing south by east under all sail, except the gaff 
top-sail, and was making eleven knots an hour. The 
steamer had all her lights set, the schooner had none. 
The watch of the schooner saw the lights of the 
steamer for at least half an hour as the vessels were 
rapidly rushing towards each other. The officers of 
the steamer were totally unconscious of the schooner's 
presence, for it could not be seen from the deck. For 
twenty minutes the captain and crew of the schooner 
actually gazed at the vessel they were about to run 
down without making one effort to avoid it. The rule 
of navigation was, that vessels going north should pass 
vessels steering south to the larboard side ; but the 
captain of the " Augusta " seemed determined to pass 
the " Lady Elgin " on the starboard side, and with the 
full view of the steamer before him it was not until 
within three, to five minutes of the collision that he 
ordered the helm "hard up." Whether the order was 
obeyed, or whether the vessel steered so badly that she 
would not answer her helm on such short notice, is 
uncertain, but her course remained unaltered, and 
coming straight on she struck the steamer on the 
larboard side, knocked a great hole in her, and then 
glided swiftly off into the darkness, five minutes after 
the collision being totally lost to sight. At this moment 
the wind grew into a gale and the waves commenced 
running high. The hole was below the water line, and, 
though everything was done by the captain that could 
be done, nothing could stop the rush of water into the 
hold. After the crash of the collision the music and 
dancing ceased of course, but though the lamps were 
extinguished by the concussion no cry nor shriek was 
heard. The women stood in the cabins, pale, motion- 
less and silent. No sound was heard but the escaping 
steam, and the surging of the waves. As the vessel 
settled, the passengers mounted to the hurricane deck. 
There were several boats, but only a few succeeded in 
getting off in them without oars. There was an abund- 
ant supply of life-preservers, it is said, but no one seems 
to have thought of using them. Within a half hour 
after the collision, the engine fell through the bottom 
of the vessel, and the hull went down immediately 
after, leaving the hurricane deck, with its vast living 
freight, floating like a raft. A number of the passen- 



gers jumped from this, thinking ;t would sink. And 
now, drifting before the wind and tossed by the waves, 
the deck commenced to break up, and finally separated 
into live pieces, to each <>f which, half submerged, many 
of the passengers desperately clung, but many, as their 
strength gave out, sank amid the tossing waves. One 
portion of the deck, on which the captain was, held 
twenty-five persons. He was the only one who stirred 
from the recumbent position, which was necessary to 
keep a secure hold on the precarious support. Ik- 
carried a child, which he found in the arms of an 
exhausted and submerged woman, to an elevated posi- 
tion of the raft, and left it in charge of another woman, 
but she could not long care for it and it was washed 
away. He constantly exhorted all to keep silent, and 
to refrain from moving, and thus save their strength. 
Clinging to their frail support in silent terror, day broke 
upon them and found them drifting southward, nearly 
off Winnetka. The lake seemed covered with floating 
pieces of the wreck, on many of which one or more 
persons were still desperately making a fight for life. 
Soon it became known on shore that a great vessel had 
been wrecked, and that hundreds of persons were still 
struggling in the water. Relief parties hurried to the 
scene from Evanston, from Winnetka and along the 
shore. At this point there is not much beach and the 
shore rises abruptly for more than one hundred feet. 
The surf ran high, but the bolder spirits of the relief 
parties, with ropes tied around them, dashed through 
the surf and rescued many who, nearly exhausted, came 
dritting near the shore. Among those who distin- 
guished themselves in this way was Edward W. Spen- 
cer, now of Rock Island, 111., but at that time a student 
in the Garrett Biblical Institute of Evanston. He saved 
some fifteen persons. The saving of John Eviston 
and wife of Milwaukee created great excitement. The 
gallant fellow was seen some distance out on the wheel- 
house, on which he firmly held his wife. As he reached 
the shore the surf capsized his raft, and for sev- 
eral seconds both were submerged. When they rose 
again to view, the wife was at some distance from the 
wheel-house, to which Mr. Eviston was still holding. 
Seeing his wife he swam out to her, and again suc- 
ceeded in regaining the wheel-house with her. Again 
the rolling waves carried them toward the shore, 
and at last the wheel-house grounded. Taking his 
wife in his arms, the gallant fellow now attempted to 
wade to the land, but after a step or two sank exhausted 
in the water. At this moment he was caught by the 
brave Spencer, and they were safely brought to shore. 

From the raft on which Captain Wilson was, not 
more than seven or eight persons were saved. It. too, 
capsized in the surf as it neared the shore, but a few 
regained their hold. The captain, who throughout had 
behaved with the greatest heroism, succeeded in getting 
one of the ladies back on it, but a great sea washed 
them off again, and both were drowned when within a 
few rods of the shore. Of the twenty-five persons on this 
portion of the deck when it broke up, eight only were 
saved. They had been in the water for more than ten 
hours. It was considerably past noon of that fatal <Sth 
of September when the last struggling survivor was 
pulled ashore. Of the three hundred and ninety-three 
persons who had sailed the previous night, two hundred 
and ninety-seven were lost. 

The "Augusta " was a schooner of three hundred 
and fifty tons burden, was owned by George W. Bissell, 
of Detroit, and commanded by Captain I>. M. Malott, 
of the same city. After the disaster, her name was 
changed to "Colonel Cook." The community cast the 



;o 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



blame for the catastrophe upon the captain of the 
schooner, but in the investigation that followed he was 
exonerated. 

Among the lost were Colonel Lumsden, of the New 
Orleans Picayune, and his family, who were traveling 
in the north for pleasure. Another distinguished per- 
son was Herbert Ingram, an English gentleman, a 
member of Parliament, and proprietor of the London 
Illustrated News. He was traveling through the United 
States, with his son, a lad of fifteen years. His original 
plan was to cross the prairies of Illinois, and descend 
the Mississippi to New Orleans. Reaching Chicago, 
he concluded to first visit Lake Superior, and took 
passage on the " Lady Elgin " on her fatal voyage. 
His body was washed ashore near Winnetka on the 
afternoon of the 8th, just as one of his friends, from whom 
he had parted the night before, Mr. Hayward, of Chi- 
cago, reached the spot. It was supposed that life was 
not extinct, but all efforts at resuscitation failed. His 
remains were carried back to England. 

It was many weeks before the lake gave up all the 
victims of this great calamity, but it is believed that all 
were ultimately recovered. 

But the great mourning was in Milwaukee, some of 
whose best and most prominent citizens were lost. Of 
all the gay excursionists who had taken passage on the 
" Lady Elgin " two days before, only about seventy-five 
returned alive. 

Captain Malott, with all hands, was lost in the wreck 
of the bark " Major," in Lake Michigan, two or three 
years after the " Lady Elgin " disaster. 

Captain Wilson left a wife and two children, a son 
and daughter. His son was drowned at Cleveland a 
few years afterward, at the age of fifteen. 

November 6, i86i,the propeller " Hunter," Captain 
Dickson, having been chartered for Buffalo went up the 
South Branch to the Union Elevator of Sturgis & Co. 
At three o'clock the next morning the hands came on 
board intoxicated, and went to the steerage. A moment 
later the watchman saw smoke coming from the hold 
near the stack. When the captain, clerk and some of 
the hands rushed on deck, they found that two of the 
deck hands who had gone below were not to be found. 
The flames spread so rapidly that these two could not 
escape, and were burned to death. The vessel was 
entirely destroyed, the loss being $40,000. 

The Wreck of the Sunbeam. — The passenger 
steamer " Sunbeam " was built in the winter of 1862 by 
Albert E. Goodrich, of Chicago. She was about four 
hundred tons burden, was elegantly furnished, and was 
a great favorite with the traveling public. She was 
used in the lakes Michigan and Superior trade, but in 
the summer of 1863 plied between Superior City and 
Portage Lake. On her fourth trip, she left Superior 
City on Monday night, the 23d of August, 1863, and 
reached Ontonagon a little before noon on Thursday, 
where she remained until half-past six in the afternoon. 
When she started from Ontonagon the wind was blow- 
ing freshly from the north, and about ten o'clock grew 
to a ^ale. The steamer rode the storm successfully 
until morning, when she became unmanageable. Her 
machinery would not work, nor could anything be done 
with the sail. The crew consisted of twenty-one per- 
sons, and the passengers numbered five or six. They 
now took to the boats, except the pilot, Charles Frazer, 
who when the vessel careened was still in the pilot 
house. He got out, and as the vessel went down was 
left floating on a portion of the hurricane deck. A few 
moments after, as Frazer was floating on the waves, he 
saw both boats capsize. Frazer was on his raft from 



eight o'clock Friday morning until two o'clock Satur- 
day afternoon, without any nourishment except a demi- 
john of port wine he had caught floating near him. He 
finally reached the shore, and was the only survivor of 
the wreck. 

Among the lost was W. J. Isham, one of the edito- 
rial staff of the Chicago Times. Mr. Isham was the 
brother of the first wife of W. F. Storey, proprietor of 
the Times. At the time he took passage on the "Sun- 
beam " he was returning from his summer vacation. 
His body was never recovered. 

The Burning of the Sea Bird. — The " Sea 
Bird," Captain John Morrison, of Chicago, was a side- 
wheel steamer belonging to Albert E. Goodrich, after- 
ward president of the Goodrich Transportation Com- 
pany. She was of about five hundred tons burden, and 
was built at Marine City, on the St. Clair River, in 
1 86 1, for E. B. Ward, of Detroit, and was bought by 
Captain Goodrich. She was employed in the Lake 
Michigan trade, stopping at various points along the 
western shore of Lake Michigan from Chicago to Two 
Rivers. 

In the spring of 1868 she made her first trip of the 
season, from Chicago to Two Rivers, in the first days 
of April, and on her return, when off Lake Forest, 
twenty miles north of Chicago, was totally consumed 
by fire, on the morning of the 9th of April. Of seventy 
persons on board at the time, including the crew and 
passengers, only three escaped. 

How the fire originated was never known, but it 
was supposed to have been through the carelessness of 
one of the porters, who was observed by one of the 
survivors to throw a scuttle of coal and ashes over- 
board, and a very short time afterward the fire broke 
out in the aft part of the vessel, near the place where 
the porter had stood. It was a little before seven 
o'clock in'the morning when the fire was discovered, as 
the passengers were rising for breakfast. The steamer 
was immediately headed for shore, but the wind was 
blowing heavily from the northeast, and drove the 
flames forward, soon stopping the machinery. Rapidly 
the fire drove the passengers toward the bew, and then 
over it into the lake. No boats seem to have been 
lowered nor any effort made by the officers to save life. 
If there were life-preservers on board, and there pre- 
sumably were, none were used. Panic seems to have 
seized officers, crew and passengers alike. Before 
noon the vessel was burned to the water's edge. The 
survivors were A. C. Chamberlin and Mr. Hennebury, 
of Sheboygan, Wis., and James H. Leonard, of Mani- 
towoc. 

Loss of the Iron Life-Boat Little Western. — 
In June, 1868, Captain James Garrett, Professor 
LeGendre, and Edward Chester, all of Chicago, com- 
pleted the building of an iron life boat, in which they 
declared their intention to make a voyage from Chicago 
to Liverpool. The vessel was twenty feet long, two feet 
six inches breadth of beam, and length of keel eighteen 
feet. The cabin was six feet long and four feet six 
inches high, furnished with two bunks, underneath 
which were two tanks for fresh water. The keel was of 
wrought iron and weighed three hundred and fifty 
pounds. The center board was of boiler-plate iron and 
weighed two hundred pounds. The forecastle was 
water tight, and used as a store room. The cost com- 
puted was $1,500. 

On Sunday morning, June 21, in the presence of a 
great crowd that lined the shore of the lake, the " Little 
Western " made what appeared to be a very successful 
trial trip, sailing from the North Pier out into the lake 



RIVER, HARBOR AND MARINE. 



77 



about six miles and return. The wind was high and 
the waves rolled quite heavily, but she answered every 
movement of her helm, and seemed to give great satis- 
faction to her owners. 

In the afternoon another trip was made toward the 
Douglas monument. There were on board Captain Gar- 
rett, Professor LeGendre, Edward Chester, George At- 
kins, foreman of the Times newspaper, Henry Chisholm, 
a reporter of the Times, and a little boy. They left the 
North Pier at two o'clock, sailing southward. When off 
the Chicago University, the wind stiffened considerably, 
and it was thought advisable to stand on the other tack, 
and make for shore. After sailing shoreward about ten 
minutes, a sudden squall struck the boat and turned her 
completely over. Just before the squall struck her, all 
the passengers were on deck, except Mr. Chisholm, who 
had retired to the cabin and was reclining on one of the 
bunks. All were thrown into the water except Mr. Chis- 
holm, but secured themselves on the vessel, which they 
attempted to right, in which effort they succeeded for a 
moment, but an adverse wind again striking her, she 
fell over again. An effort was made to rescue Mr. 
Chisholm from the cabin but it proved unsuccessful 
The captain and Mr. Atkins clung to the mast, while 
the rest held on to the bottom of the vessel. Succor 
immediately put out from shore, and a tug also steamed 
to their help. When aid arrived, Captain Garrett was 
observed to become exhausted, and he died the moment 
he was hauled on board the tug. He and Mr. Chis- 
holm were the only victims of the disaster. 

The Wreck of the Arrow. ^On Tuesday the 16th 
day of November, 1869, one of the greatest storms of 
wind, rain and snow came down upon Lake Michigan, 
and the great lakes generally, that has ever been known. 
Hundreds of vessels were driven ashore and many lives 
were lost. 

On Wednesday morning the schooner "Arrow," a 
vessel of two hundred and eighty tons, owned by 
Michael Brandt, of Chicago, was discovered wrecked off 
Grosse Point. The vessel was sunk, but the top of her 
cabin was out of the water, and on this the crew, con- 
sisting of eight persons, were discovered. The waves 
ran high, and no boat could be launched in such a surf 
as rolled up on the beach. Word was sent to Chicago, 
and a tug with a life-boat and volunteer crew hastened 
to the scene of the wreck, where they arrived Wednes- 
day afternoon. The sea still ran high, but the life- 
boat was launched, and attempt made to reach the 
wreck. Scarcely had a half-dozen strokes been made 
before the boat was stove in, and the crew were thrown 
into the water. They reached the shore with great dif- 
ficulty. No other boat could be procured, and nothing 
further could be done. Fires were built on the shore, 
to encourage the shipwrecked crew to believe that 
efforts would still be made, and the tug steamed back to 
Chicago for further aid. 

Volunteers were now called for, and the following 
party was organized Thursday morning : Captain Wil- 
liam Crawford, Captain Freer, Captain George C. Clark, 
Samuel Marshall, a mate, Mr. Evans, a pilot, and 
Thomas H. Iverson, a steward of the tug " G. W. Wood." 
A regular life-boat could not be obtained, but Captain 
Freer tendered the use of the yawl of the propeller 
" East Saginaw," and with this the adventurers steamed 
north, on the tug " G. W. Wood," and reached the place 
at eight o'clock in the evening. The storm had abated 
its force, through the waves were still running. The 
wrecked crew were observed to be still safe on the 
cabin of the schooner. 

Launching the yawl in safety, with great difficulty 



they got to the leeward side of the wreck. A line was 
cast on board, and soon every one of the almost per- 
ishing seamen were on board the yawl. The word was 
given, and the oarsmen were about to give way, when 
a huge wave raised the bow of the boat, tipped it over 
backward, and threw savers and saved into the water. 
The crew of the schooner, benumbed with cold and 
weakened by starvation, were incapable of making the 
least effort to save themselves, and sank like stones. 
Four of the yawl's crew, by great efforts, succeeded in 
getting on the wreck, thus finding themselves in the 
same position of the crew they had come to save. Mar- 
shall succeeded in getting on the capsized yawl, and 
finally drifted ashore. Iverson, who had shown great 
gallantry throughout the whole adventure, and who was 
a fearless swimmer, started to swim to the shore, but 
the undertow was too strong for him, and he was car- 
ried out into the lake and lost. 

Those who were on the wreck were obliged to 
remain there throughout the night, but the next morn- 
ing, the waves having abated, an old yawl was manned 
from the shore and the heroic party was saved. Their 
sufferings through the night had been terrible, but no 
permanent injury was received by any of them. 

Losses of Vessels in the Great Fire. — A num- 
ber Of vessels in the Chicago River, at the time of the 
fire, escaped by being towed up the North Branch, but 
the following were destroyed : 

Loss. 

Propeller " Navarino,". $50,000 

Schooner " N. C. Ford," 6,000 

Schooner " Stampede," 11,000 

Schooner " Ellington," 3,000 

Schooner "Eclipse," 7, 000 

Bark ". Fontenelle," 12,000 

Bark " Glen Beulah," 27,000 

Bark "Valetta," 17,000 

Barge " Green Bay,". 40,000 

Total $173,000 

John Prindiville. — There is no name better known or more 
highly esteemed on all our inland seas and among the old settlers 
of Chicago than that of Captain John Prindiville, familiarly called 
the "Storm King" in insurance, marine and yachting circles. 
He was born in Ireland in 1S25, and at the age of eight came to 
America with his parents; who were in comfortable circumstances. 
His uncle was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin. His father, 
Maurice Prindiville, was about to enter that university but, being 
of a roving disposition, left school and went to India, where he re- 
mained for several years. At the age of twenty-five he returned to 
Ireland, married, and determined to live quietly at home for the 
remainder of his life, but the old adventurous, roving spirit was 
not to be quenched, and he then concluded that America was the 
country wherein he should live He accordingly came hither with 
his family. After their arrival, they remained in Buffalo for some 
time and afterwards lived in Detroit for about two years. Mr. 
Prindiville, having been educated to no trade or business, speedily 
got rid of the greater portion of the money he had brought with him 
from Ireland, and to retrieve his fortunes determined upon coming 
to Chicago, the then promised land, where he and his family 
arrived on August 23, 1836. John Prindiville commenced attend- 
ing the public school on Kinzie Street, between Dearborn and 
Wolcott streets, then taught by Edward Murphy ; it was after- 
ward removed east on Kinzie Street, between Wolcott and Cass 
streets ; his teachers being Messrs. Dunbar, Calvin DeYVolf and 
A. G. Wilder. He also attended school in the room under the old 
St. James Church, on Cass Street, between Michigan and Illinois 
streets, — which was also taught by Mr. DeWolf, — finally ter- 
minating his educational course at St. Mary's College of this city. 
He commenced sailing on the lakes when quite young, advancing 
step by step, until he was promoted to the position of captain. I It- 
commanded the schooner "Liberty" in 1845 and, in the fall of 
1850, the brigantine " Minnesota," the first American vessel ever 
allowed to go through the river St. Lawrence. She was loaded 
with copper ore at the Bruce Mines on Lake Huron, to be tran- 
shipped to Swansea in Wales. The position of commander of this 
vessel was considered, at that time a very important one, involving 
a larger amount of responsibility than would ordinarily be entrusted 
to one so young. Captain Prindiville continued sailing until 1855, 



73 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



but later, at intervals, commanded several steamers, the last of 
which was the "Adriatic," in 1S72. He became connected with 
the insurance business in 1S66. For many years he has represented 
the St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company, of St. Paul, 
Minn., and the Continental, of New York. His continued and 
diversified experience has made him replete with valuable informa- 
tion, which he uses for the benefit of his clients. He has also a large 
vessel agencv and is a prominent official of the Chicago Yacht 
Club. He was married in 1S45 to Miss Margaret Kahlor who 
died in 1S65 after a long and painful illness ; they had a family of 
six children : three of whom are living. In 1S6S he was married 
to Miss Margaret Prendergast, a native of Yermont ; they have 
six children, all living. 

John B. Warren, the son of Truman A. and Margaret 
(Bazine) Warren, was born at Mackinac, October 15, 1S21. His 
father was a native of Yermont, his mother of French extraction. 
Young Warren spent his early days on the island, hunting, fishing, 
sailing, and obtained such schooling as the frontier afforded at that 
earlv day. His natural taste was for a sailor's life, which not 
meeting the entire approval of his parents, when he was seventeen 
the young man took his own destiny in his hands, by saying good- 
bv to school one day without his parents' consent, and slyly going 
on board the schooner "Jacob Barker," then discharging at the 
pier. Unseen, the young fellow found a bunk forward under 
the windlass, and when the vessel got under way, at daylight 
the next morning, was roused out and assigned to duty as fore- 
castle bov, during the passage to Grand Haven. There he shipped 
on board the sloop " Ranger" as chief cook. This was in June, 
- - ind from that time until 1S67. nearly thirty years, he con- 
tinued in various capacities to sail the great lakes. Having a 
special aptitude for the business, he rapidly advanced, soon becom- 
ing mate and then captain. The first vessel he commanded was 
the schooner " Crook." in 1S42. In 1S54, he became part owner 
of the propeller " Troy," but never had very good fortune with 
that ill-fated vessel. He commanded her from 1S54 until 1S58, in 
the trade between Chicago and Buffalo. In 1S59, he gave up the 
command, and turned her over to Captain Byron, under whom she 
was lost in Saginaw Bay. as related in this chapter. Captain 
Warren commanded various other vessels in the Chicago, Grand 
Haven and Buffalo trade, until 1S67, when he was appointed 
United States Inspector of Hulls at the port of Chicago, which 
position he still holds. He resided at Grand Haven until 1858, 
when he removed to Chicago. Captain Warren has been twice 
married — first at Grand Haven in 1S4S. His wife dying, he 
married a second time, in 1867. By the last marriage there have 
been two children, only one of whom, a son, is now living. 

The following are sketches of a few of the typical 
mariners of the port of Chicago : 

Captain James L. Higgie was born in Fifeshire, Scotland, 
March 23. 1S34. the son of John and Jane (Mitchell) Higgie. 
There were nine children in the family, and the parents died when 
the son of whom we write was only four years of age. Young 
Higgie came to the United States in 1847 and settled in Kenosha, 
Wis., and was educated at Racine and Kenosha in the common 
schools. He worked in the country about two miles from Kenosha 
in the summer, and attended school in the winter. In the spring of 
184S he shipped aboard the schooner "Mary Ann Leonard" as 
cook, returning to Kenosha in the winter. He spent two years of 
his life as cook, part of the time on the " L. C. Erwin." In 1S50 
he went before the mast on the " Erwin," and during the next 
year he was captain and sailed her two years ; then he went as 
captain of the schooner " Whirlwind," sailing her for two years. 
In 1855 he sailed the schooner " William Jones," and remained on 
her until 1856. In 1857 he bought the schooner " Pilgrim," pay- 
ing *'. 000 cash and earning the balance out of the vessel. He 
was her captain seven years. In 1863 he came to Chicago, and 
during 1864 remained on shore, and engaged in the commission 
business, forming a partnership with Mr. Halsted, the firm being 
Higgie \ Halsted. During his partnership, in 1865, he purchased 
the barque " William Sturges." In 1866 the partnership was dis- 
solved and he retired from the firm in order to give his undivided 
attention to his personal affairs, intending, as he did. to increase 
the number of his vessels. In 1867 he purchased the schooner 
" William Shook," making three vessels sailing in his interest. In 
1868 he purchased the schooner " City of Chicago," and in 1869 
he lost the " William Shook " on Lake Huron and sold the schooner 
" Pilgrim." In [870 he purchased the schooner "John Miner." 
The year of 1871 was an eventful one to those having marine in- 
terests, for it was this year that the tug owners raised the tariff so 
high as to almost prohibit business, in consequence of which the 
owners combined, raising a capital stock company called the 
' Owners' 'lowing Company, electing Captain Iliggie presi- 
dent, after which he .vent to Buffalo and contracted for five new 
tugs and then returned to Chicago. When the tugs were ready to 



deliver to the company he again went to Buffalo and equipped 
them, and they arrived in Chicago about one month prior to the 
great fire of 1871, since which time the company have added six 
tugs, making eleven in their service. Captain Higgie has con- 
tinued as president of the Yessel Owners' Towing Company since 
its organization, and has continued also to operate vessels of his 
own, and has handled a large quantity of real estate in the mean- 
time. The first boat under his command was the " Lewis C. 
Erwin," and the last that he sailed was the " Pilgrim," in 1863. 
Captain Higgie was married in Racine, Wis , in 1867, to Miss 
Mary J. Kirkham, and they have seven children living — James L., 
Mary L., Noble K., Arthur M., Archie, Imogene and George K. 
Tames L. Higgie is one of the prominent men who is closely 
identified with marine matters in Chicago, and his name is famil- 
iarly known over the whole extent of the lakes, and is a synonym 
for honorable dealing and commercial equity. During his thirty 
years' of active life, Captain Higgie has made, a multitude of close 
and earnest friends, whose number is increased each day of his 
life. He has been a Mason since 1S62, and is a member of Cleve- 
land Lodge, No 211, A. F. & A. SI.; of Washington Chapter, No. 
43, R. A. M.; and of Chicago Commandery, No. 19, K. T. 

Captain Charles J. Magill, now the oldest vessel agent 
in Chicago, is a native of Placentia, Newfoundland, where he was 
born October 29, 1818. At the age of thirteen years he went to 
sea, and followed a seafaring life thereafter for eleven years, being 
commander of a vessel during one year of his service. In 1S42, 
he left sailing on the ocean, and, in July of that year, went to 
Buffalo, N. Y., and commenced sailing upon the great lakes. He 
first made the port of Chicago in August, 1S42, and took up his 
place of residence here in 1853. He was in command of lake ves- 
sels several years, but on settling in Chicago, gave up the hazard- 
ous business which he fad followed for twenty-two years. In 
April, 1S53, he became a member of the Board of Trade, and 
engaged in the lake transportation business. He was, in 1S53-54, 
agent of the New York and Lake Erie line, and, in 1S55, became 
the general western agent of the Collingwood line of steamers. 
Ever since his arrival in Chicago he has followed the vessel and 
transportation business, acting as agent for the chartering of 
vessels and steamships seeking freight in this port. His high 
standing and popularity as a business man are evinced by his 
being chosen to serve on the Board of Trade Committee of Ap- 
peals, the duties of which require integrity and business acumen of 
the highest order. He was married in September, 1846, at Guil- 
ford, New Haven Co., Conn., to Miss Esther Chalker. Sir. and 
Mrs. Magill have eight children, five sons and three daughters. 

Captain Benjamin F. Davison, deceased, was born in Nor- 
wich, Chenango Co., N. Y., Slay 3, 1810. In 1S31 he went as 
deck hand on a steamer. In 1832 he was emploved on the 
schooner " Detroit." He was married in 1839 at Buffalo, N. Y., 
to Sliss Armenia Phelps Sawyer, who died in 1S51. In 1S39, he 
sailed the " John C. Spencer" from Chicago to Buffalo, and in 
the fall he sailed and owned the schooner " Edwin Jenny," which 
was wrecked in the fall of 1S45, when he was badly frozen. From 
1846 to 1854 he was with Fox & Bruce, engaged in fitting out 
vessels and in wrecking. In 1852 he superintended the building 
of the steamer " Golden Gate," of Buffalo, and in 1S53 sailed the 
steamer "Charter." In 1852 he married, at Buffalo, Sliss Sarah 
Thorne, and in 1854 was sent to Chicago by the underwriters to 
perform the duties of marine inspector, during which time he 
entered into partnership in the ship-chandlery business, associat- 
ing with him Levi J. Colburn, which partnership continued until 
1S66, when Sir. Colburn retired, and Captain Davison associated 
with him his two sons, Benjamin F. jr. and Edwin C. Davison ; 
which firm remained until 1871, and was then dissolved by the 
great fire. In 1872 he formed a partnership with John F. SlcCor- 
mick, and they remained together until October, 1S76, when the 
store was destroyed by fire. In the spring of 1S77, Captain Da- 
vison was taken sick, and died Slay 1, of the same year, leaving a 
wife and three sons; Edwin C. and Benjamin F. jr., by the first 
wife, and John I.. T. by tie second. He was a member of the 
Slasonic fraternity for many years, having joined in Buffalo, and 
affiliated with Cleveland Lodge, No. 211, A. F. & A. SI., of 
this city. 

BENJAMIN F. Davison, Jr., son of Captain Benjamin F. 
Davison, was born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1S42. He came to Chi- 
cago in 1854 and was employed with his father, assisting him in 
inspecting vessels, until 1S57. He then engaged with Sanford Hall 
>V Co., agents of the People's Line of propellers, remaining with 
them until i860. He was for two years as office-clerk, and was check 
clerk during the balance of the time. In 1 862 he enlisted in the army, 
going in the Slarine Artillery Battery, and was afterward transferred 
to Co. "G," 3d New York Artillery. He returned to Chicago in 
1863, and, in 1864, entered the service of Colburn & Davison, 
ship chandlers, being their bookkeeper for three years. In 1867 
he was employed by Jesse Cox, collecting tug boat bills. In the 



RIVER. HARP.OR AND MARINE. 



79 



same year he went into partnership with his father under the style 
of B. F. Davison & Sons, remaining until the lire of 1S71. From 
1872 to 1S78 he was employed as a tug boat collector; he then 
went into vessel brokerage and insurance business, and formed a 
partnership with Mr. Holmes, the firm being Davison iV Holmes. 
lie was married December, 1866, in Chicago, to Miss Martha 
Simpson, and has two children, Benjamin F. and William Simpson 
Davison. He is a member of Covenant Lodge No. 526, A. F. & 
A. M.; of Corinthian Chapter, No. 69, R. A. M.; and of Chicago 
Commandery, No. 19, K. T. He is also a member of Post 28, 
<;. A. R., and of Chicago Lodge, No. 91, A. O. U. W. 

Captain Joseph Wilson was born in Cork, Ireland, in the 
year 1S34, and lived with his parents and attended school until he 
was about eleven years of age; when, like so many boys, he 
longed for a seaman's life and ran away and went into the English 
Navy, where he served two years as naval apprentice on the school 
ship " Crocodile"; then going on the brig " Dolphin " in search of 
slavers, remaining on her for eighteen months, when he was trans- 
ferred to the frigate "Indefatigable," the lirst fifty-gun ship the 
English Navy ever built, and remained there during the balance of 
his time. He then returned to England and, after being paid off, 
joined the steamship " Hague," cruising in the English channel; 
after being about two weeks on board, he ran away and joined an 
English barque "Orromocto," a merchant ship from St. John's, 
N. B., going from there to Wales and arriving in New Orleans in 
1850. He left her at that city and joined the American ship "Old 
England," of Bath, sailing from New Orleans to Havre, France, 
in which vessel he made two voyages; he then shipped aboard the 
American ship, " Trenton of Bath," in the fall of 1851, being 
second mate the first two years, and the last year being promoted 
to mate. In 1S54 he left the ocean and came directly to Chicago, 
landing in May, and in a few days after his arrival, he shipped 
before the mast on schooner "A. G. Gray," but remained only a 
short time; then shipped on the barque "Ocean Wave," for Grand 
Traverse Bay, leaving her there with several of the crew, on 
account of having to do Sunday work. He then worked his way 
to Grand River on a propeller, and came back to Chicago on the 
schooner "Mary;" of which boat he was soon made mate, and, 
after serving as mate two months, was made captain and sailed 
her for two years. In 1857 he went to New Orleans and shipped 
again on the "Trenton," on the ocean, and was eighteen months 
aboard her, coming back to Chicago in 1S59. For a short time 
he sailed the scow " Storm " on the lakes, and in the fall shipped 
as second mate of barque "Major Anderson." In 1861 he was 
second mate of barque "American Union," going as mate in brig 
"Pilgrim," in 1S62, and, in 1S63, as mate on the barque "Nu- 
cleus" for a season. In 1864 he sailed the brig "Montezuma," 
continuing on her one year, when for nearly three years after he 
was captain of the " John F.Warner." For the next five years 
he was captain of the " Two Fannies" and two years on the "City 
of Milwaukee," that foundered on Lake Huron in two hundred 
and forty feet of water, going down a total wreck; all hands were 
saved, however, by the schooner " Mary L. Higgie " about three 
hours after. He then returned to Chicago and sailed the ' ' Two 
Fannies " another year, going as mate the next season, and as 
master for two years after on the " Lizzie Law," when he changed 
to the " Ellen Spry," which he sailed up to the spring of 1SS4, 
remaining on shore during the remainder of that year in the em- 
ploy of Miller Brothers. Captain Wilson was married in Chicago 
in 1S62, to Miss Tillie Poison. 

Captain John A. Crawford is a native of New York State 
and was born in Cohoes, Albany County, in 1S30. His father, 
James Crawford, was killed in Lockport, N. V., in 1S40. in widen- 
ing the canal in that place. After his father's death, John went to 
West Troy, N. V., with his mother, where he lived two years, and 
when twelve years old went to work for a farmer in Watervliet, 
working for two years for his board and clothes ; he then went to 
West Troy and commenced work in Roy's butt factory, remaining 
there for six months, and then shipped as cook on the sloop 
"Clinton," getting $4.00 a month, remaining on her until he 
became her commander. During the winter of 1S45, and until 
1S47, he worked for the Government at the arsenal at Watervliet, 
N. V., making ammunition ; and in the spring of 1S47 he was 
seriously injured bv an explosion. After his recovery he shipped 
on the sloop " Mechanic," afterward going on board the " High- 
lander," buying a half interest in her. In the winter of 1S4S, and 
for two years following, he was on the ocean, aboard the " John 
Silliman," which was commanded by Captain Ross, who had his 
wife and sister-in-law with him. It was there that Captain Craw- 
ford obtained his knowledge of books, and it was through the 
kindness of Captain Ross's wife and sister that he had the oppor- 
tunity ; they manifesting an interest in their student. In 1S52 he 
commenced steamboating on the Hudson River, and went on board 
the "Washington Hunt" as pilot, and, in 1853, served as pdot of 
the steamer "John S. Ide," occupying the same position the next 



year on the steamer " Annie," one of the " Swift-shore Line," 
and, in 1S55, went as mate on the tug-boal "Commerce," belong- 
ing to the same line. Sailing until the winter, he went to Philadel- 
phia at '.he request of some friends, and superintended the building 
of a tug, preparatory to coming I' 1 Chil agi >. 1 1 is uncle made him 
a one-third owner, ami he sailed from Philadelphia on the new tuc; 
called the "Andrew luster" in April, arriving in Chicago June 
10, 1S56. On his arrival at Chicago he at once commenced tow 111:4 
vessels. That year was a prosperous oik- for shipping agents, 
vessels getting twenty-live cents a bushel for carrying grain to 
Buffalo and New York. In 185(1 he went to Two Rivers for the 
purpose of towing down two canal boats, but soon after starting 
on the return trip, the wind rose from the southeast and he was 
obliged to make a harbor, putting in to Manitowoc, where he- 
arrived in safety through the assistance of the captain of the 
"Gertrude." This was said to be the first steamboat ever inside 
that harbor, at that time. In 1S57 the panic began, and, during 
that year and a part of 1858, the shipping interests were severe- 
sufferers, as many as fifty vessels lying in port during the entire- 
season. April 1, 1857, was the date of the severest gale in this 
locality, in the memory of Captain Crawford; the brig "David 
Smart" foundering outside the North Pier while anchored, and, 
with one exception, all hands on board were lost. A volunteer 
crew, which started to the rescue, were capsized and lost. From 
1856 to 1863 he was continuously in service on the lakes in the tug 
service, and on the close of the season of 1S62 gave up his posit i,, n 
on the "Foster" to take charge of a large wrecking tug, the 
" George W.Wood." Since 1S63 he has been interested in a tug 
line, and during the first season built the tug " Crawford," whose 
boiler exploded about two weeks after, in Chicago harbor, killing 
all the hands but one. Captain Crawford was married to Mrs. 
Kate Vance, a widow, daughter of Captain John Mcl-'adden. 
Three children are living, Samuel A., Jane Belle, and the younger, 
a girl, who, through her own persistence, was christened ' 'John " 
Ellen, and who is regularly called by that name. 

Captain Ira H. Owen, one of the early citizens of Ohio, 
was born in Conneaut, in that State, in 1823, at which place he 
remained until 1837, when he shipped on the schooner "Savan- 
nah," commencing in the capacity of cook the first year; the fol- 
lowing three years he went before the mast, and at the end of that 
time he was promoted mate of the " Alps," where he remained for 
about two years; and continued as mate of different vessels until 
1845. He was part owner of the "Wm. L. Marcy," which was 
lost in November, 1844, when all hands on board went down, 
Captain Joseph Perry having command of the vessel during the 
absence of Captain Owen, which was caused by sickness. When 
able for duty again, he sailed the schooner " General Harrison," 
plving between Chicago and St. Joseph, Mich., carrying stone to 
build the pier at the latter place. He spent about a year in travel, 
and went into business at Sault Ste. Marie, and in 1847 was mate 
of the steamer "Sam Ward," E. B. Ward, commander. From 
1848 to 1852 he was mate, and afterward captain of the propeller 
" Pocahontas," and was mate and master of the propeller " May- 
flower" for two seasons, and then master of the " M. D. Spauld- 
ing," the "Buffalo," the " Evergreen City," and the " Fountain 
City," leaving the lakes in 1S60 on account of sickness. In 1867 
he built the steam barge " St. Clair," in which he carried lumber 
east from different points, receiving therefor the liberal remunera- 
tion of $S per thousand. From 1S70 to 1875 he was in the ore 
trade, and. during that time, built the tow-barges "AgnesL. 
Potter "and "Jessie Lynn," the steam-barges "S.C.Baldwin" 
and " Ira H. Owen," these boats belonging to the Escanaba and 
Lake Michigan Transportation Company. The boats were sold to 
the Inter-Ocean Transportation Company, leaving the charters 
intact; the Escanaba Company bought the propellers " Inter- 
Ocean " and her consort, the "Argonaut," Captain Owen being 
then elected treasurer, in which office he has remained from 1S77. 
The company has since transformed the "Argonaut" into a 
steamer, and has built the steamer "Escanaba," of about 1,000 
tons, and the " Rhoda Emily," of about 500 tons, having in all 
four steamers. Captain Owen is at present interested in and 
president of the Delta Transportation Company and the Escanaba 
Towing and Wrecking Company, the first company owning the 
steamers " Minnie M." and "Lady Washington." and the latter 
company the tugs "Owen" and "Delta." The Escanaba Com- 
pany being chartered under the laws of Michigan, was made- 
plaintiff in the celebrated case contesting the rights of the city to 
close the bridges, and, after a desperate contest, was defeated. 
Captain Owen first landed in Chicago in 1S39. and came here per- 
manently in the spring of 1S71, just previous to the great lire, lie 
married Miss Electa Bunker, of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1847, ami has 
two sons living, named William R. and Ira D. Although ai 
in years, he bears his age gracefully, and carefully attends to 
the details of his business, being promptly identified with tin- 
shipping interests of this port, and having perhaps as extensive an 



8o 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



acquaintance among marine men as any one living here at this 
time. 

Captain William Walsh was born near New Ross, County 
Wexford, Ireland, in 1829. He graduated at the public schools at 
the age of thirteen, and then took a commercial course of six 
months. He afterwards studied navigation, and, in 1S43, shipped 
as cabin-bov from New Ross on the schooner " Victoria of Wex- 
ford," going to ports in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, 
and the Baltic and Black seas. In March, 1S44, he bound himself 
as apprentice to Mr. Hewlett of New Ross, who had several vessels 
trading in different parts of the world. He first joined an expedi- 
tion for the release of the barque " Clarinda," on shore at the Isle 
of Skye, Scotland, loaded with deals from Nova Scotia. She was 
taken off the beach and towed to Dublin, Ireland, where she 
underwent repairs, was fitted out, and sailed for St. John's, N.B., 
about November 1, 1S44 ; and after several attempts abandoned 
her voyage and put in at Newport, Wales, where she was loaded 
with coals for Wexford, Ireland, and was finally driven by con- 
trary winds to Liverpool, where she was sold. He was then trans- 
ferred to the barque " John Bell," owned by the same proprietors, 
and sailed to Baltimore, Md., from whence he returned on the 
" John Bell " to Waterford, where he arrived safely, and again 
sailed for Quebec, Canada, and on return trip brought a load of 
square timber for Cardiff, Wales. He shipped next on the barque 
" William Stewart Hamilton," in January, 1846, loaded at Liver- 
pool with a cargo of general merchandise for Calcutta, and returned 
to London in 1S47. He next joined the ship " Margaret Pember- 
ton." same line, sailing from London, England for New Ross, to 
take a load of passengers to Quebec, Canada. Owing to the pre- 
valence of ship fever at Quebec, nearly half the list of passengers 
died, either from ship-cholera or ship-fever. Captain Walsh was 
taken down with the disease on his arrival, and sent to the Marine 
Hospital, where he recovered, and finding that his ship had sailed, 
he shipped aboard a new vessel named the " Plantagenet " for 
Liverpool, and found the "Margaret Pemberton " fitting out for 
New Orleans. He joined the "Pemberton" and sailed in her 
about October, 1847. She was dis-masted during the trip, about 
four hundred miles southwest of Cape Clear, and put into Milford 
Haven, Wales, and repaired. He accompanied the vessel to Car- 
diff. She abandoned the trip first contemplated and loaded with 
coal and merchandise at that place for Valparaiso, S.A. They en- 
countered a gale of wind in the Bay of Biscay, which caused the 
" Pemberton " to spring a leak, and they put in to the Island of 
Teneriffe, where, on account of lack of place to repair, they lay 
nearly five months, and the vessel and cargo were condemned and 
sold. He sailed on a Spanish brig to New Ross, via London, and 
again joined the barque " William S. Hamilton," going to Quebec, 
, loaded with passengers and returning with timber, and February 1, 
184S. his apprenticeship ended. He then shipped on the brig 
" George Ramsey " in the coasting trade, took a load of passengers 
to Quebec, Canada, and on May 1, the vessel was sold. He 
worked towing timber until September, and joined an English ship, 
for Cork, Ireland. He then went to Liverpool and shipped on 
the " Scotland" of Belfast, and sailed for Mobile, Ala. In 1850 
he loaded with cotton for Liverpool, and arrived in July of the same 
year. He next shipped on the barque " Unknown" for Nova Scotia, 
where she loaded with deals for Liverpool. He joined a brig at 
Liverpool, in the coasting trade between that point, Cardiff and 
Waterford. He shipped on the barque " John Bell," in 1851, with 
passengers for Quebec, Canada, where he left her, and engaged again 
in towing timber. In November of the same year he shipped on the 
"Julia," bound for Liverpool, and on arriving there shipped 
aboard the " James Wright " bringing passengers to New York 
City. He joined a barque there, bound for Savannah, Ga. , and 
afterward made another voyage from New York City to Charleston, 
S C. and back, where he joined the steamship " Lady Franklin " 
as quartermaster, bound for Havre, France. He remained with 
her until fall, and shipped for Mobile, Ala., on the " Moses 
Taylor." He then went steamboating on the Alabama and Tom- 
bigbee rivers, where he remained until the spring of 1853, when he 
shipped for Philadelphia, going to New York City by rail ; at 
which time he married. He afterward joined a packet at Portland, 
trading between Philadelphia and eastern ports, and in the fall 
joined a steamboat as wheelsman, going to New Orleans. Leaving 
her there he went to Mobile, Ala., and was employed in a cotton 
yard that winter, going to Boston on a Providence boat, and by 
rail to New York City, where he was engaged in rigging work 
until 185;, when he embarked in the grocery business. lie sold 
out his business at a loss and went to Buffalo, N.Y., and at that 
port shipped on the barque " John Sweeney," then considered a 
large vessel, loaded with coal for Chicago, landing here in May, 
185;. lie then joined the schooner " Ashtabula," and finally, in 
September, came to Chicago permanently. He next sailed in the 
schooner " Palmetto" as mate, and in the winter went again to 
Mobile, Ala., coming back in the spring. He afterward was mate 



on the schooner " E. G. Gray," then made a trip in the barque 
" Cherubusco," another in the " Pilgrim," and spent the next 
winter in Mobile, Ala.; remaining South, going to Cuba, and re- 
turning to Chicago in 185S. He was mate of the schooner " Abi- 
gail," and became master of the " H. N. Gates" and sailed her 
the season of 1S59 on the lakes. He bought one-third interest in 
the schooner " Barney Eaton" in i860, and sailed her until 1862, 
when he sold his interest and bought the scow "Union" and 
sailed her during 1862 ; sold her, and bought the schooner " Fal- 
con " in the spring of 1S63, and afterward the schooner " Peoria "; 
and in the years of 1865-66 remained ashore looking after his 
vessel interest. He sailed the schooner "Peoria" during the 
season from 1S67 to 1871, and sold her in 1872, and he afterward 
bought the schooner " Albrecht " and sailed her until 1879, when 
he sold her to Hackley & McGordon, taking the tug "J. H. Hack- 
ley." He later took an interest in two vessels with the Ford River 
Lumber Company, and superintended them, carrying lumber from 
their mills at Ford River to Chicago. He superintended the build- 
ing of the schooners " Ford River" and " Resumption," at Wolf 
& Davidson's ship-yard at Milwaukee, Wis., in 1879-80. He 
sailed the " Ford River " the season of 1S80, and gave up sailing 
in the spring of 1SS1. He bought a half-interest in a new tug, 
building at Wolf & Davidson's yard, fitted her out and brought 
her to Chicago. She was named after W. H. Wolf her builder, 
and is running on the Chicago River under his control. He still 
holds an interest in the schooners "Resumption" and "Ford 
River" and the tug " Hackley." Captain Walsh was married in 
New York City April 23, 1853, to Miss Mary Barron, a native 
of County Wexford, Ireland ; they have a family of four sons and 
four daughters now living. 

William Harman, the first shipsmith to establish him- 
self in Chicago, was born in Hull, Yorkshire, England, in Septem- 
ber, 1804. After learning his trade he went to Paris, France, 
where for six years he was employed in the Charronton Iron 
Works. While a resident of the capital, in 1824, he married 
Phcebe Spencer, an old acquaintance and also a native of Hull. In 
1830 Mr. Harman emigrated to America and, settling in New 
York City, worked at the West Point Foundry for a number of 
years, but, on account of his wife's health, decided to come West. 
Arriving at Chicago, in June, 1S35, he started his shop in which 
were manufactured heavy forgings for vessels. He continued in 
this business until the spring of 1853, when he removed to Oregon 
and for twenty-three years resided at the Dalles. Portland, being a 
great portion of this period foreman of the shops of the Oregon 
Steamship Navigation Company. He has paid Chicago several 
visits and at this time (June, 1883) is with his son (William Har- 
man, jof the Union Tug Line), but is making preparations to return 
to Oregon and active work. Mr. Harman is still hale and hearty. 
In 1840 he was a convert to the Washingtonian temperance move- 
ment, and for the past forty-five years has been an ardent advocate 
of the principles to which he then subscribed. 

William Harman, Jr., was born in New York City, in 
March, 1834, coming to Chicago, as an infant, in June of the next 
year. He served his time, as an apprentice, with Philetus W. 
Gates, who then, in partnership with Hiram H. Scoville, and after- 
ward with A. H. Hoge, ran a foundry and machine shop on the 
corner of Washington and West Water streets. From 1S50 to 
1858 he remained in Mr. Gates's employ, and subsequently became 
chief engineer on the Prindiville & Sturges line of tugs. When 
Captain Prindiville sold out in 1863, Mr. Harman bought the 
"Sturges" and " Rumsey," but a few days thereafter they were 
seized by the United States Government for service on the Mis- 
sissippi River. The "Sturges" exploded in running the Vicks- 
burg blockade, and the " Rumsey" is said to be still in service at 
Memphis, Tenn. Mr. Harman has been engaged in the business 
ever since, owning at the present time four of the nine tugs which 
compose the Union Line. He was married August 1, 1S60, to 
Miss Nora Everett, of Chicago. They have had twelve children, 
six of whom are living, four boys and two girls. Mr. Harman's 
eldest son is associated with him in the tug business. 

In connection with the marine interests of this city, 
it is proper to make mention of the transportation com- 
panies which have done so much toward amplifying 
Chicago's commercial and maritime relations. The 
most prominent, as well as among the oldest of these, is 
probably that of Captain A. E. Goodrich. Another 
firm, however, which is well and thoroughly known, is 
that of Leopold & Austrian, commission and transpor- 
tation agents, which was established originally in 1847, 
at Eagle River, Mich., under the style of Leopold Bros. 
& Co., general merchants, the firm being composed at 
that time of Samuel F., Aaron F. and Henry F. Leo- 



RIVER, HARBOR AND MARINE. 



81 



pold, and Joseph Austrian. They built up an extensive 
trade in that region, and were largely engaged in hand- 
ling copper ore and other products from the mines. 
About 1S64, Samuel F. Leopold and Joseph Austrian 
came to Chicago, and established the house here under 
the style of Leopold & Austrian, the present title, with 
a branch house at Milwaukee conducted by Aaron F. 
Leopold Henry Leopold retired from the concern in 
1875, and Aaron Leopold in January, 1X85, the busi- 
ness being now carried on by Samuel F. Leopold and 
Joseph Austrian. They do a very large commission 
business in grain, produce and copper, and are also 
agents of the Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Trans- 
portation Company. Both partners have been mem- 
bers of the Board of Trade for the past fifteen years. 

Samuel F. Leopold, of the firm of Leopold & Austrian, was 
born in the Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany, in 1S25, and was 
educated at his home, attending the high school, and finishing his 
studies by acquiring a knowledge of the French language. At the 
close of his schooldays he went into the employment of a leading 
dry goods house, where he remained from the age of fifteen to 
twenty-one In 1S46 he concluded to come to America, and dur- 
ing that year arrived at Mackinaw, Mich., where his brother Louis 
was then in the business of general merchandising. He at once 
went into his brother's employ, and was with him for several years. 
He next went to Green Bay, Wis , opened a general store, in com- 
pany with his brother Henry, and remained there until 1851, after 
which he concluded to try the Lake Superior region, and went into 
the mining supply trade, there being at that time but two promi- 
nent mines on the lake— the " Cliff " mine at Eagle River, and the 
" Minnesota" at Rockland, a small place near Ontonagon. His 
intuition and business sagacity led him to believe that this was to 
become a great mining region, and to supply those mines would be 
a trade well worth looking after. He accordingly commenced that 
business in a small way, with his brothers Henry and Aaron, and 
was joined the second year by Joseph Austrian, under the firm 
name of Leopold Bros. & Co , after which, with increased capital 
and facilities, they extended their business, opening a new store at 
Eagle Harbor, which was managed by his brother, and one at Han- 
cock, which was the first store building in that place. By perse- 
verance and industry he was enabled to see the business increase, 
and he, in 1867, came to Chicago and joined his brother here. 
One item will show the business methods of the Leopold Brothers. 
The copper ore was sent to Boston and New York, there smelted, 
and after being manufactured into wares a large portion of it was 
returned to Chicago. He made up his mind that Chicago was the 
place to ship to direct, and that it was entirely unnecessary to send 
the copper east. He at once commenced the trade here, and it is 
largely due to his determination and that of his partner, Joseph 
Austrian, that the West was so readily supplied, and through them 
were saved large sums, especially in transportation, for it was soon 
discovered that the price of copper was the same here as in New 
York. Mr. Leopold was early identified with the People's Line of 
Transportation, carrying passengers and freight to and from the 
Lake Superior region. The interests of this line were constantly 
increased, and it was finally merged into the Lake Michigan and 
Lake Superior Transportation Company in 1S79, when this or- 
ganization was perfected, and regularly chartered by the State of 
Illinois. At the first election of officers Mr. Leopold was made 
president, and at each succeeding election has been re-elected, 
which position he holds at present. After remaining in America 
ten vears he returned to Germany, and at Stuttgart, in 1S56, mar- 
ried'Miss Babetta Goodman. He has six children living— Helen, 
Nathan, Alfred, Rachael, Hulda and Celia. 

Joseph Acstkian, a member of the well known firm of Leo- 
pold.*: Austrian, and general manager of the Lake Michigan and 
Lake Superior Transportation Company, is the son of Abram I. 
and Malia Austrian, of Witkelshofen, Bavaria, Germany, and was 
born September 15, 1033. He received a liberal education in the 
public schools of his native city, and, after completing special 
studies under private instruction, he assisted his father in agricul- 
tural pursuits until he was seventeen years of age. After a year s 
stay with relatives at Feuchtwangen, he concluded to try his for- 
tunes in the New World. Accompanied by his sister, Ida, he em- 
barked on the sailing vessel " Robert Kelly." and after a perilous 
voyage of nearly a month's duration, he arrived at New \ ork. 
Leaving his sister in care of an uncle, he immediately departed for 
Mackinaw, Mich., where he had relatives Upon reaching De- 
troit he found, to his consternation, that navigation to his destina 
tion had closed for the season, and that he would be compelled to 
remain there all winter. His position was trying in the extreme, 
6 



as he was a stranger in a strange land, unfamiliar with Ihi 1 
and language "i the people, ami almost penniless, lie was, how- 
ever, equal to the emergency, ami managed to earn an 
living, and wisely employed his evenings in making himsell 
of the English language, On the 28th of March, 1S51.I1. took 
passage lor Mackinaw on board the propeller " Republic," ami 
reached that city mi the i -i ol April. Alter remaining with his 
sister and brother-in-law one month, he went to LaPointe, then a 
small village on .Madeleine Island, one of the Apostle group, and 
entered the employ of his brother Julius, who was engaged in gi D- 
eral merchandising and in the fish business, making himself gen- 
erally useful in the store and assisting him on the fishing-ground. 
At that time the inhabitants of l.al'ointe and MadeleilK I 




LIGHT HOUSE. 

were Indians and half-breeds, and about half a dozen white peo- 
ple. During his stay at LaPointe, he experienced many adven- 
tures and narrow escapes On one occasion, while attending to 
his duties on the fishing-ground, his boat was capsized by a sud- 
den squall, and only through the greatest exertion was he enabled 
to save his life. At another time he set out to visit a distant habi- 
tation, and was obliged to pass through a den'e forest. Night 
coming on, he lost his way and wandered into a swamp, where he 
was compelled to remain until the following day before he con], I 
make his way out. There were at that time but few vessels on 
Lake Superior, as the Sault Ste. Marie Ship Canal had nol been 
constructed. The only two steam vessels on that lake were the 
small propellers " Napoleon " anil " Independence," which had 
been drawn over the portage. 1 hese vi ss< Is, with a few si hooners, 
constituted the entire fleet. In the spring of 185 1 the propeller 
" Monticello," was transported over the portage and was added to 
the tonnage already there. It took the propeller " Napoleon " a 
week to make her trip from l.al'ointe to Sault Ste. Marie. In the 
winter of 1851-52 he was engaged in the logging camps, and when 
the snow left in the spring he was employed in a saw-mill, tin- 
power of which was obtained from a small stream, now called Pike's 
Creek. In the fall of [851, also of the following year, he coasted 
between l.al'ointe and Ontonagon, a distance ol ninety miles, for 
the purpose of obtaining provisions and merchandise. These trips 
were often dangerous on account ol perverse winds and violent 
storms. His cargo from LaPointe consisted ol fish, furs, etc., 
which he traded for groceries and othel necessaries. During these 
voyages il was 1 ustomarj to camp out al night on the lake shore, 
and on one occasion the snow fell during the night to such a depth 
that he had great difficulty in extricating himself. Late in the 
year ol [852 he went t" Eagle River and entered the em| 
Henry F. Leopold, who was engaged there in general merchandis- 
ing, with whom he remained until the fall ol [853, as salesman 
and bookkeeper, when Mr. 1 eopold disposed ol his business. He 
then went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he met his mother and the 
rest of the family, who had left their Bavai II homi ipon the 
death of his father. In the following spring he returned I 
kiver, .md as partner of the firm of II. 1 I Co., re- 

opened the store at that point and began business on a larger 



82 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



scale. He remained at Eagle River during the next ten years, 
and. through his energy and ability, increased their business from 
an insignificant amount to the most gratifying proportions. In 
1S63 he went to Hancock, Mich., where his firm were among the 
first to erect a large store and warehouses, the erection of which he 
directed and superintended. His firm also operated a branch store 
at Eagle Harbor during that year. He disposed of his business 
interests in 1S64. and, coming to Chicago, entered upon the enter- 
prise of establishing a transportation line between this city and 
Lake Superior. Associating himself with Messrs. L. F., H. F., 
S. F. and A F. Leopold, under the firm name of Leopold & Aus- 
trian, thev organized the " People's Line." Their first vessel was 
the propeller *' Ontonagon," which was soon found inadequate to 
meet the demands of their rapidly increasing business, and during 
the next vear they put in another boat, the propeller " Norman." 
These vessels made weekly trips to Sault Ste. Marie, and were the 
means of dive-ting to Chicago the bulk of northwestern shipments, 
which had previously been sent to Detroit and Cleveland. 
Although the 'People's Line" was busily engaged their boats 
were not of the class calculated to attract the attention of great 
shippers, and, to supply the deficiency, Mr. Austrian contracted in 
Cleveland for the building of a first-class freight and passenger 
vessel, which would in all respects meet the demands of their busi- 
ness. He returned to Chicago a day prior to the great fire. After 
the holocaust, he correctly divined that the future held brilliant 
business prospects, and gave orders for the immediate completion 
of their new vessel. In July, 1S72, the " Peerless " came from the 
ways, and was pronounced the finest craft of the lake marine. The 
,: Ontonagon" was sold and replaced bv the "Joseph L. Hurd," 
which was thoroughly refitted, and supplied with a handsome and 
commodious passenger cabin. Upon the consolidation of the 
Lake Michigan and People's lines, under the name of the Lake 
Michigan and Lake Superior Transportation Company, he was 
elected general manager of the company, which position he now 
fills Through the combination of these two companies, other 
vessels were added to the line, which afford unequaled facilities 
to both the shipping and traveling public for all points between 
Chicago and Lake Superior. Mr. Austrian was married in Feb- 
ruary, 1S69. to Miss Mary Mann, daughter of S. Mann, Esq., of 
Cleveland, Ohio, a graduate of the high school of that city, and a 
lady of unusual musical accomplishments "" They have now four 
children : Belle, Florence, Stella and Alice, having lost their only- 
son, Alfred, in 1SS0. 

The Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Transporta- 
tion Company, whose office is located at the corner of Washing- 
ton and Market streets, was first organized in 1879, and regularly 
chartered by the State of Illinois. At its organization. S. F. 
Leopold was elected president ; A. T. Spencer, vice-president ; C. 
F. A Spencer, secretary and treasurer ; Joseph Austrian, general 
manager. The election of officers is held every three years, and 
each time since the organization have the original officers been 
chosen. The company was established for the purpose of forming 
a line of passenger and freight boats, plying between Chicago and 
Lake Superior, and several steamers, used privately by some of the 
members of the company, were placed in the line, among which 
were the steamers "Peerless," " City of Duluth," " City of Fre- 
mont," and "J.L. Hurd." They afterward added the steam barge 
"J. R. Whiting" and its consort " Guiding Star," and in 18S4 the 
"jay Gould." 

Captain Albert T. Spencer was born in Westfield, Chau- 
tauqua Co., X. V , in 1S22, where he remained until about eight 
years of age, when he removed with his parents to Erie County, 
Penn. After residing there about three years, he moved to Erie, 
Penn., in 1836, where he remained until 1846, attending in the 
mean time the academy in the winter, and in the summer spending 
his time on the steamboats. He commenced his first trip in 1836, 
on a steamer called the " Thomas Jefferson," plying between Chi- 
cago and liuffalo. In 1838 the steamer " Buffalo" was finished, 
and he served on her ; in 1S39, he went on the new steamer "Wis- 
consin," and remained with her until 1S40. when he transferred 
his services to the " Missouri." The last new boat added to the 
line, which belonged to Charles M. Reed, of Erie, in whose ser- 
vice he had been from the first, was the " Keystone State." He 
went on this vessel and remained until 1851, when he gave up 
Steamboating. lor year^ he had been engaged as steward and 
purchasing agent, which latter office included the filling orders for 
Western merchants in Eastern markets In 1836, when he first 
came to Chicago, there was but one landing in the city, located at 
the north end of the present Kush-street bridge, and in front of a 
hotel then building, called the Lake House, and also opposite old 
Fort Dearborn. This dock was used until 1S39, when the prop- 
erty easl t, called the Reservation, was sold, Charles 
M. Reed, of Erie, Penn . bought at that sale all ol the property 
on the south side, from the foot of Male .-street to Wabash Avenue, 
a portion of which he still owns, and on which he built di 



his boats, which regularly landed there until sidewheel steamers 
were superseded by propellers. In 1S55, it was determined to run 
a line of sidewheel boats between Chicago and Collingwood, to 
be called the Collingwood Line, which included the " Queen City," 
" Niagara," " Louisiana," and " Keystone State," connecting with 
what was then known as the Ontario, Simcoe & Huron Railroad, 
now called the Northern Railroad of Canada, under the manage- 
ment of the Grand Trunk Railroad. Captain Spencer acted as 
agent of this company for nearly twenty-five years. During 1855, 
the Sault St. Marie Canal was completed, and he commenced run- 
ning to ports on Lake Superior, having formerly run to the Sault 
and connected with the steamers above. This was the first line 
between Chicago and Lake Superior. He came to Chicago to 
reside permanently in the spring of 1S47, and has been ever since 
either steamboating or as part owner of steamboats. In 1879, ne 
was elected vice president of the newlv consolidated line of the 
Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Transportation Companv, and 
has held this office up to the present time, being three times re- 
elected. Captain Spencer has lived to see Chicago grow from 
almost a wilderness to a city of the first rank, and has reared a 
family in whom he has a pardonable pride. He was married in 
Chicago, in 1845, to Miss Lucia E. Howe, daughter of F. A. 
Howe, Esq , and has three children living, Charles F. A, Mrs. W. 
H. Dodge, of Waukegan, 111 , and Louis V. 

Charles F. A. Spencer, a son of Captain A. T. Spencer, 
was born in Chicago, at the corner of Dearborn and Washington 
streets, on September 13, 1846. He commenced his studies in 
Chicago and completed them in Waukegan, 111 , where his father 
afterward lived. In i860 he entered at Chicago the office of 
his father, who had charge of the business of the Collingwood 
Line of steamers, and remained with him until 1S66. when he 
went to Milwaukee. He there took charge of the office of the 
steamers of the Grand Trunk Railroad, plying between Chicago, 
Milwaukee and Sarnia, Canada, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and Lake Superior Line of steamers, plying between Chicago 
and points on the upper lakes, this line being a competitor of 
the People's Line, which was afterwards consolidated with it. 
In the winter of 1866-67 ne managed the business of the Blue 
Line, a fast railroad express for freights, and in 1S67 came to 
Chicago and took charge of the Chicago, Milwaukee & Lake 
Superior Line of steamers, also doing a commission business 
with merchants and mines on the lakes. When the two lines of 
Lake Superior steamers consolidated under the name of Lake 
Michigan and Lake Superior Transportation Company, he was 
chosen secretary and treasurer at the first election of officers in 
1S79, and has been re-appointed to the same positions at each suc- 
cessive election. Mr. Spencer was married in Chicago, in 1S72, to 
Mrs. A. J. Wonnacott, who died in 1S83, leaving two children — 
May H. and Albert L. 

Ocean Marine. — As an adjunct to the marine 
interests may, with propriety, be mentioned some of 
the individuals who have been important factors in 
building up the immigration business here. 

Andrew J. Graham, who, since the retirement of John M. 
Graham, the pioneer Catholic bookseller, has had charge of his 
father's business, also claims the distinction of operating the oldest 
established ocean-steamship agency in Chicago. When Mr. Gra- 
ham, sr., left the firm after the fire, its management fell to Joseph 
L. Mrs. John M., and Andrew J. Graham. The former died in 
January, 1885, and Andrew J. Graham became the active man- 
ager of the business, which is the oldest and largest of its kind in 
the city. The establishment at No. 113 Desplaines Street is the 
most extensive west of New York and does a large business in 
general and church goods, besides being the general headquarters 
for all books and goods employed by the clergy. In connection 
with the book business, Mr. Graham operates an agency for the 
Cunard and other large ocean steamship lines. The agency ,was 
established in 1S66 by his father, who was the first agent of the 
Black Ball Line. The books of the establishment show the sales 
of tickets, to be used on the sailing vessels of this line, which 
date back nearly to the time of the war, when money was selling 
at thirteen dollars for the pound sterling. Since then the firm 
has done much to encourage and promote immigration, Mr. Gra- 
ham booking seven hundred and fifty passengers from the old 
country in less than five months of 1885. The establishment has 
become known prominently here and in Ireland, and the utmost 
rare is given to protecting the interests of emigrants consigned to 
1 he Graham agency. Mr. Graham was burn February 5. 1801. in 
Chicago, and was married on November 10, 1SS4, to Miss Minnie 
Padden of this city. He is the youngest man in his line in the 
city, but he has conducted the establishment, founded in the fifties, 
with credit and success. Mr Graham is associated with all 
progressive church and social movements of importance in the 



THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. 



83 



community where he resides, and the increase of the business he 
controls is due largely to his ability and enterprise. 

Fred G. Whiting, the general western agent for the Cunard 
Ocean Steamship Line, has been a resident of Chicago for thirty- 
two years; in the employ of the company he now represents since 
1871, and connected with the line in a managerial capacity since 
1883. The position occupied by Mr. Whiting is one of respon- 
sibility and importance, representing as it does the entire western 
interests of the oldest ocean line of steamers in existence, the 
Cunard Company having been formed in 1S40. Since his first 
connection with the company, Mr. Whiting lias witnessed its mar- 
velous growth, and has been one of its trusted auxiliaries in 
bringing about that result. The integrity and honor of his office, 
a post under direct authorization from John Burns, chairman of 
the corporation, in Liverpool, can not be fully estimated without a 
knowledge of the wonderful prosperity of the same, and the 
extensive element it comprises in trans-Atlantic traffic. The Cunard 
was first known as the British and North American Royal Mail 
Steam Packet Company, with headquarters in Liverpool. It com- 
menced business with four paddle-wheel steamships, with an 
aggregate of four thousand six hundred and two tonnage. This 
has increased, from year to year, until there are now some sixty 
vessels afloat, many of which are the fastest and most magnificent 
ships yet constructed, some with a tonnage of eight thousand, and 
with fourteen thousand five hundred horse-power, and a grand 
total aggregate of one hundred and fifty thousand tonnage. In 
the last forty-five years the steamers of this line have made five 
thousand trips, and carried three million passengers, and have 
never lost a life nor a letter from the mails entrusted to their 
charge. Mr. Whiting, to whom the western business of this large 
company is confided, entered the service of the same under P. H. 
Du Vernet, an old and '.rusted servant of the company, who estab- 
lished its first agency here in 1S71, at its first office location, 
No. 72 Market Street, and its present quarters, under the Sherman 
House, where the agency has been for over ten years. Mr. Whiting 
filled every position in the province of employment, from a subor- 
dinate clerkship to chief bookkeeper. His attachment personally 
to the retired agent, is quite as sincere as his fidelity to the company, 
which recognized the ability of an ambitious young man, deter- 
mined to reach the top of the ladder through industry and integrity. 
When Mr. Du Vernet was called to take charge of the Boston 
office of the company, in July, 18S3, Mr. Whiting was appointed 
his successor. Since that date, the flattering success of the first 
agent in increasing the business of the company, seems to have 
followed his successor, until the Cunard maintains the lead in its 
line, throughout all the numerous agencies under control of the 
Chicago office. Mr. Whiting's career has been closely identified 
with the history of the city. Born at Cheltenham, England. June 
g, 1852, the son of Ezra and Sarah Whiting, he came with his 
parents to Chicago the following year. The senior Whiting was 
an expert in the art of architectural construction, and was prom- 
inently known as a builder among the old settlers, having erected 
the old Adams House, the Rock Island car-shops, and other large 
structures. The present steamship manager spent most of his 
youth in Chicago, and received his early education at the Jones 
School, on Harrison Street. During the oil excitement, his father 
removed to Canada, and the son completed his education at the 
Upper Canadian College, at Toronto. He returned to Chicago 
three years later. In 1878 Mr. Whiting was married to Minnie, 
daughter of Edwin Walker, the stone contractor and builder of 
the court house. They have one child, named Edwin W. The 
prosperity that has attended the efforts of Mr. Whiting, are no 
more pleasing to himself and his friends, than the realization that, 
though the youngest of the steamship agents in Chicago, he 
holds one of the most important positions in that service, and 
has employed his honors only to serve the line he so ably repre- 
sents, and to conduce to the progress of the community of which 
he is an esteemed member. 

Fritz Frantzen, one of the earliest foreign steamship agents 
in Chicago, was born in Jutland, near Horsens, Denmark, in [835, 
his father's name being Jens J., and that of his mother, Anna. 
His father was a school teacher, and was greatly honored and 
esteemed by all for his strict integrity of character. After gradu- 
ating from the Horsens' College in 1S50, he served a practical 
apprenticeship as millwright, securing a theoretical experience at 
the industrial schools of Copenhagen. In l36l, he was appointed 
assistant to the chief engineer of railroad construction at Copen- 
hagen, in which capacity he served until 1S63, when the wai 
between Germany and Denmark broke out. Mr. Frantzen entered 
the army and was promoted to a lieutenancy in May, 1S64. After 
the battle of Diippel, where he had a narrow escape from death, 
and from which engagement one regiment marched home deci 
mated and with every important officer killed. Schleswig-Holstein 
was ceded to the Germans, peace proclaimed, and Mr. Frantzen set 
sail for America, intending to offer his services in the war of the 



Rebellion, lie arrived in Chicago in the spring ol 1865, to find 

the country at peace, anil for two years engaged in the millwright 
business with George 1 Hson, the pioneer Dane, who has lived fort) 
veils in this city. I n 1867 he opened a steamship agencj and 
foreign exchange office, at No. 43 Wesl Kinzie Street for the Allan 
Line, operating under the local managemenl "f its principal repre- 
sentative at this point. In 1X70, he moved to No 83, on the same 
thoroughfare, and in 1875 to No. 98 Milwaukee Avenue, purchas- 
ing the property and remaining there, and at No. 92, until i""f 
when he bought his present place of business al No. 296 Milwau- 
kee Avenue. Immediately after the great fire, Mr. frantzen was 
almost the only agent in shape (or the transaction of business, and 
he enjoyed a transient monopoly of the ocean steamship trade, lie 
was one of the first notaries public in the division of the city 
where he resides. He has returned to Europe several times, 011 
one occasion to arrange for the importation of foreign publications. 
He was married in 1S67, to Miss Helena Michelsen. They have 
four children: Arthur, George, Henry and Walter. 

THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. 

From 1858 until the spring of r.861, the police of 
the city continued to act under the direction of the 
Mayor or the City Marshal. By ordinance of May 17. 
i85t,the City Marshal was constituted the acting chief- 
of-police, but the Mayor, by virtue of his office, was 
the head of the force. He made the appointments 
and could direct their action, and, during the two 
terms of the mayoralty held by Mr. Wentworth, in 
1857 and in i860, the Mayor was a very important fac- 
tor of the force. One of the notable acts of his first 
term was his raid upon street and sidewalk obstruc- 
tions, on the night of June 18, 1857. There was an 
ordinance prohibiting the obstruction of sidewalks by 
signs, awnings, posts, merchandise or other things, but 
as it had never been enforced, it was looked upon gen- 
erally as a dead letter. Not so, however, thought the 
Mayor, and finding that warnings and notices were of 
no avail, on the night mentioned he gathered a force 
of his policemen with drays and wagons, and took 
down every sign or other obstruction to the sidewalk 
on the principal streets, and before morning had them 
all deposited in a pile on State Street, at the north end 
of Market Hall. There they remained until reclaimed 
by their owners, the reclamation being invariably ac- 
companied by a fine for violating the ordinance. 

At other times Mr. Wentworth accompanied a force 
on special "raids," and at all times was the" active ami 
real chief of police. 

Under Mayor Wentworth the police wore leather 
badges, but had no other distinctive mark or uniform. 

In 1858, under Mayor Haines, a* uniform for the 
police was adopted. It consisted of a short blue frock- 
coat, which got the nickname of the "copper" stock 
coat, and a blue navy cap with gold band. A plain 
brass star took the place of the leather badge. When 
Mr. Wentworth came in again in 1 S60, he replaced the 
star with his leather badges, but made no change in 
uniform. 

During these years, from 1 S 5 S to [86 1, each divis- 
ion of the city constituted a police district, with a sta- 
tion at the different market halls. The force consisted 
of a captain, six lieutenants, three sergeants, and 
between fifty and sixty patrolmen. About half the 
latter, under the captain, two lieutenants ami a ser- 
geant, were stationed in the South Division, the rest 
being divided between the North and West divisions. 
There were also two polii e magistrates. The following 
were the last City Marshals who were at the head of 
the polite department: 1858, J. M. Donnelly; 1859, 
Jacob Rehm; 1S60, Iver Lawson, 

On the 15th of February, 1861, the Legislature of 
Illinois passed an act to establish a Hoard of Police 



84 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



Commissioners in the City of Chicago. The board 
was to consist of three commissioners, one to be chosen 
from each division of the city. The Governor of the 
State was authorized to appoint the members of the 
first board, who were to hold their offices for two, four 
and six years respectively, from and after the next gen- 
eral municipal election. The respective terms of the 
first commissioners were to be decided by their draw- 
ing lots. It was further provided that at the general 
municipal election in 1863, and biennially thereafter, 
there should be elected a commissioner to succeed the 
one whose term then expired. 

Under this law Governor Yates, on the 22d of 
February, 1S61, appointed Frederick Tuttle from the 
South Division, William Wayman from the West Divis- 
ion, and Alexander C. Coventry from the North Divis- 
ion, as the Board of Police. 

The commissioners organized and elected Mr. Cov- 
entry president, and Mr. Wayman, treasurer of the 
board. In drawing lots for their terms of office, Mr. 
Coventry drew the long term, Mr. Wayman the inter- 
mediate term and Mr. Tuttle the short term. 

By the law it was made the duty of the board to 
organize the police force by appointing a superintend- 
ent and deputy superintendent, captains, sergeants and 
patrolmen. While they were in the midst of the per- 
formance of this duty, but before they had made any 




appointments, Mayor Wentworth, whose term of office 
was drawing near its close, startled them into action in 
a very surprising way. About one o'clock in the morn- 
ing of the 26th of March, 1861, he assembled the 
entire police force before him at his office in the City 
Hall, and discharged them, leaving only a custodian at 
each station. The reason he gave for this sensational 
stroke was that the Board of Commissioners should 
have a chance to start fair in their work of appoint- 
ment. It certainly had the effect of causing the board 
to make a beginning. Jacob Rehm was at once ap- 
pointed deputy superintendent, and before the close of 
the day several officers and some twenty-five patrolmen 
were appointed and sworn in. The city had been 
without a police force for about twelve hours. In a few 
weeks the force was thoroughly organized under Cyrus 
P. Bradley as superintendent, and Jacob Rehm, deputy. 

One of the first things the new board did was to 
adopt a new and complete uniform for t'he members of 
the force. It consisted of a blue frock-coat and gray 
pantaloons with blue stripe. The badge was a silver 
shield. 

This was the first full uniforming of the police in 
In February, 1863, the Legislature revised 
the city charter, and in so doing made a change in the 
constitution of board of police. The term of office 
was reduced to three years, one commissioner to be 
elected every year, and the mayor was made a member 
of the board ex officio. 

In 1S63 Mr. '['uttlc's term expired, and J. L. New- 
house was elected as his successor, the board being 
composed of A. C. Coventry, William Wayman, and J. 
I.. Newbouse. Jacob Rehm was appointed superin- 
tendent, and the captains were John Nelson, William 



Turtle, and Frederick Gund. The city was divided 
into three police precincts, each division of the city 
constituting one, with stations and sub-stations. 

The First Precinct Station was the Armory Building 
on the corner of Franklin and Adams streets, with a 
sub-station at the corner of Twenty- sixth and State 
streets. A captain, three sergeants and thirty-six patrol- 
men formed the force in the first precinct. 

The Second Precinct Station was at the west end of 
West Market Hall, Randolph Street, with a captain, 
two sergeants and twenty patrolmen. 

The Third Precinct Station was at the north end of 
North Market Hall, Michigan Street east of Clark, and 
had a captain, two sergeants and eighteen patrolmen. 

During 1864 the force remained unchanged except 
that Thomas B. Brown was elected member of the 
board from the West Division, and William Turtle was 
appointed superintendent. In 1865 the Legislature 
again amended the law with respect to the Police Board. 
By the act of February 16, 1865, the term of the Police 
Commissioners was extended to six years, one to be 
elected every two years, and it was provided that the 
police force should consist of a general superintendent, 
one deputy superintendent, three captains, sergeants of 
police not exceeding twelve, and patrolmen not exceed- 
ing two hundred. 

The board in 1865 was composed of Alexander C. 
Coventry, president ; John Wentworth and Thomas B. 
Brown, with William Turtle as superintendent. The 
stations remained the same as during the previous year, 
but the patrolmen were increased to one hundred and 
twenty-five 

In 1866 the members of the board were Thomas B. 
Brown, A. D. Titsworth and Frederick Gund. Jacob 
Rehm was appointed superintendent, and the number of 
patrolmen was increased to one hundred and fifty five. 
There were also sub-stations at the corner of Archer 
Road and Halsted Street, at Lake and Paulina streets, 
and at North Avenue and Larrabee Street. 

In 1867 the Legislature again amended the police 
law, mainly in respect to salaries. The Board of Com- 
missioners were required to devote their entire time, if 
requisite, to the duties of their office, and were each to 
receive an annual salary of not less than $2,500 ; the 
amount, however, was to be fixed by the Common 
Council. 

The other salaries were as follows : The superin- 
tendent not less than $3,000 ; deputy of superintendent 
not less than $2,500 ; each captain not less than $1,500 ; 
each sergeant not less than $1,200, and each patrolman 
not less than $800 nor more than $1,000. 

By a later act of the Legislature in March, 1869, the 
salary of each commissioner was fixed at $3,000, each 
captain's at $2,000 and each sergeant's at $1,500. 

In 1S67 the patrolmen were increased to one hun- 
dred and seventy-three, but no other change, either in 
board, officers, or stations, occurred. In 186S there was 
no change except that Wells Sherman was appointed 
deputy superintendent in the place of John Nelson. 

In 1869 the board was unchanged, but W. W. Ken- 
nedy was appointed superintendent. The stations were 
the same with the addition of sub-stations on Cottage 
Grove Avenue, between Twenty- fifth and Twenty-sixth 
streets, on the corner of Twelfth and Johnson streets 
and on Chicago, near Milwaukee Avenue. 

In 1870 the precincts and stations remained the same. 
Two hundred and seventy-four patrolmen were employed 
under W. W. Kennedy, superintendent. The commis- 
sioners were Thomas 1!. Brown, Mark Sheridan and 
Frederick Gund. In 1871 the Board of Commissioners 



86 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



and officers remained the same as during the previous 
year, the patrolmen being increased to three hundred 
and ten men. Three additional stations were estab- 
lished ; called the South Branch sub-station, the North 
Branch sub-station and the Webster Avenue sub-station. 

CvRl'S Parker Bradley was one of the most energetic and 
able men ever connected with the fire and police service in Chi- 
cago ; in fact, for many years he was considered one of its most 
practical and useful citizens, doing much to bring an orderly and 
efficient municipal government out of the changes and struggles 
for excellence of these early times. Mr. Bradley was born at Con- 
cord, N. H., November 14, 1S19, locating in Chicago when in his 
eighteenth year. For a number of years he remained in the em- 
ploy of H Norton, Walters & Co., owners of a large warehouse 
located near old Fort Dearborn. In 1S43. he was married in 
Chicago to Martha Ann Hodgson, eldest daughter of John H. 
Hodgson, formerly of London, England. They have had five 
children, two sons and three daughters. In 1849, Mr. Bradley 
was appointed collector of taxes for the town of South Chicago. 
It was while thus serving that the great flood occurred, so disas- 
trous to the shipping interests of the city, and which destroyed so 
much municipal property He was then one of the most vigorous 
and brave young men in Chicago, and upon this particular occasion 
made quite a hero of himself in detaching vessels from the ice 




MICHIGAN AVENUE AND THE LAKE FRONT 



gorge, and otherwise breaking up the "jam." Long ere this, Mr. 
Bradley had connected himself with Pioneer Engine Company, 
No. 1, of which he afterward became one of the first foremen In 
1S50, he succeeded Ashley Gilbert as Fire Marshal, serving for two 
terms. He was also one of the organizers of the Firemen's 
Benevolent Association, and acted as its secretary in 1855. In 
June of that year, under Mayor Boone's administration, the Police 
Department was created, and Mr. Bradley became the first Chief 
of Police, having, during the previous two years, served as sheriff 
of the county. He was Chief of Police for one year, and remained 
connected with the department until 1S60, when he was appointed 
.Superintendent of Police. From the spring of 1856 to the spring 
of 1858, Mr. Bradley, in connection with Bartholomew C. Yates, 
I. II. Williams and Charles Noyes, conducted a detective and 
collecting police agency, which was an invaluable adjunct to the 
regular city police department, and placed him in. the front rank of 
the skillful and brave detectives of the country. In 1S58, Mr. 
Bradley bought his partners' interests in the firm, and, for some 
time, conducted the agency alone. During this period, he was also 
an active member of the Chicago Light Artillery, which served in 
the war a, old batteries A and B, under Colonel Ezra Taylor. 
I- rorn 1856 to 1860, Mr. Bradley acted as sergeant and third lieu- 
tenant. When the war broke out, he was holding the position of 
superintendent ol police, and, as provost marshal, accomplished 
invaluable work for the l.'nion cause, by placing an iron-bound 
embargo upon the cowardly fugitives from the operations of the 
draft. Policemen wire placed at the depots of all eastern railroads 
and on board all vessels in the harbor, and every one, subject to 
draft, was required to show that he was not leaving the state to 
avoid service ; that he had legitimate business, and that he would 
return to answer to a draft, should one Ik- made. Agents of rail- 
road, and boats wtte not permitted to sell tickets to persons liable 
to draft, unless they had a pass from Mr. Bradley, except at depots 



where an officer was stationed to examine all applicants for tickets. 
Other rules were made, showing the superintendent's determination 
to uphold the Union cause at home. Mr. Bradley resigned his 
office in 1862, and was soon afterward elected secretary to the 
Board of Police, continuing to serve in that capacity until the fall 
of 1864. From that date until his death, he was connected with 
the Government Detective Force as special agent of the Treasury 
Department. In this position he acquired special prominence for 
his success in the detection of counterfeiters and the capture of 
their outfits As he gave his personal attention toeach case placed 
by the Government in his hands, and did not trust to his subordi- 
nates, the draft upon his strength was too much The last piece 
of detective work which he did consisted in the breaking up of a 
nest of counterfeiters in St. Louis. Untiring labors and exposures 
brought on an attack of erysipelas, which resulted in his death at 
Chicago, on March 6, 1865. His funeral was attended by the 
officers of the city government and his many and warm friends, his 
decease being universally regarded as a great public loss Mr. 
Bradley left, besides a multitude of warm personal friends, a wife 
and five children to mourn his loss. The eldest daughter, Martha 
Louise, is Mrs. George H. Heafford ; Anna Maria is the wife of 
Joseph G. Peters ; Henry C. Bradley and Charles H. Bradley are 
too well known in political and county circles to require more than 
a mention here ; Emeline E. Bradley, the youngest daughter, is 
now the wife of Dr. W. H Morgan. 

Frederick Gund was born in Planckstadt, Baden, Germany, 
on December I, 1S23. From the 
age of seventeen until he was 
twenty-three he attended the noted 
military school at Mannheim. This 
city being close to the French 
frontier, it contained an arsenal, 
barracks and military school, being 
in fact the center of military oper- 
ations during the wars between 
France and Germany. Although 
it was also an extensive manufac- 
turing point, its attractions were 
not sufficient to hold the young 
man, and, in 1846, he embarked 
for America where he could exist 
under a republican form of gov- 
ernment. After his arrival here he 
engaged in the manufacture of 
cigars for a short time at Troy, N. 
Y., in company with an experi- 
enced cigarmaker, and then came 
to Chicago, obtaining his first view 
of its then muddy and unattractive 
streets in April, 1847. Here he 
continued in the cigar business 
alone, subsequently taking into 
partnership his brother, John A Gund, to whom he sold out his 
interests about 1855, having accumulated a comfortable fortune. 
In 1854 Mr. Gund joined the police force under the mayoralty 
of Isaac L. Milliken, and was promoted to the rank of second 
lieutenant of the third district in 1856, and that of first lieutenant 
in 1859. In I 8°3 he was chosen captain of the fourth precinct, 
it having been changed to the North Side. In November, 1S65, 
he was appointed police commissioner, his term expiring in No- 
vember, 1871. In the spring of 1872 he was appointed captain 
of the fourth precinct, which position he occupied until August 
1 of the same year, when he resigned. Mr. Gund married his 
present wife, Adelheid Wertbeim, in Chicago, during the fall of 
1848. They have three living children — Frederick W., an em- 
ploye of the City Telegraph Service; Mary, wife of J. T. Casper; 
and Frank A., a clerk in the post-office. Since his residence in 
Chicago Mr Gund has been an influential and prominent member 
of the St. Joseph's Catholic Church. 

JOHN Bonfiei.d, now captain of the third precinct, has been 
a resident of Chicago for over forty years He was born in 
Bathurst, New Brunswick, on April 26, 1S36, being the son of 
Michael and Mary (Julien) Bonfield. His father was a farmer, 
and when the boy was six years of age his parents removed to 
a point near Buffalo, N. Y. Remaining there two years, they 
settled at Chicago, in July, 1844, where young Bonfield laid the 
foundation of a primary education in the public schools of this 
city, principally at District No. 4, then in charge of A. G. Wilder. 
When he was about nineteen years of age he commenced to learn 
the machinist's trade, running a stationary engine for a number of 
years, both in the packing house of R. M. Hough and in Wahl 
Brothers' glue factory. In 1S57 he secured a position as engineer 
of a locomotive on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, and there 
remained for about ten years. His next ventures, which were 
both unsuccessful, were in the grocery business, and as a proprietor, 



THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. 



«7 



with his brother, in a fertilizing establishment at the Stock Yards. 
He failed in the former, and his fertilizing establishmenl ».!■. 

burned to the ground. In 1S71 Captain Boniield became inspi r 

of customs, retaining that position for three years, and soon after 
resigning his office. In January, 1878, he was appointed patrol- 
man on the police force and detailed at the Twenty-second-street 
station. William J. McGarigle placed him on the detective force, 
his headquarters being at the Central station. He was next 
appointed lieutenant in command of the Twenty-second-street 
station, and, in the summer of 1879, was transferred to the 
Madison-streel district. Subsequently he became lieutenant of the 
West Twelfth-street station, was placed in command of the detect- 
ives at the Central station, and on December 14, iSSo, was 
appointed captain of the third precinct, with headquarters at the 
Desplaines-street station. Captain Bonfield is a Mason in good 
standing, being a member of Richard Cole Lodge, No. 697, 
A.F. & A. M., and Washington Chapter, No. 43, R. A. M. Ik- 
was married to his first wife, Catharine Slattery, in July, 1S56, bv 
whom he had three daughters, who are all living. She died in the 
year 1865, and two years later he married Miss Flora N. Turner, 
his present wife. 

William Buckley, captain of the fifth police precinct, is, in 
point of service, one of the oldest officials connected with the 
department He was born in the County of Waterford, Ireland, 
fune g, 1832. After having received a fair education, at the age 
of sixteen, he emigrated to America, his first occupation being 
employed as a farm hand by Colonel George D Coles, of Glen 
Cove, Queens Co.. N. Y. For five years he also worked on a 
farm in Warren County, Ohio, coming to Chicago July 7, 1856. 
During the first three years of his residence in this city he was 
employed by Colonel Richard J. Hamilton and Law"& Strother, 
in the coal business, and had a taste of the trials accompanying a 
car driver and conductor. He pushed bravely and successfully 
through all difficulties, however, and, in April, 1S65, joined the 
police force and began that career in his life which has been marked 
with such success, rising through the grades of roundsman, station- 
keeper and sergeant to his present position — all within eight years. 
On July 14, 1873, he succeeded Captain Michael C. Hickey, 
resigned, receiving the unanimous confirmation of the Council, as 
captain of the first precinct. In April, 18S4, he was transferred 
to his present position, Fred. Ebersold succeeding him at the Har- 
rison-street station. As is natural, engaged as he has been for the 
past twenty years, Captain Buckley has had many narrow escapes 
from death, but he seems to have had a charmed life. He has 
been for many years a member of the Police Benevolent Associa- 
tion, holding the office of treasurer from 1S68 to 1877, inclusive. 
Captain Buckley was married in September, 185S. to Miss Catha- 
rine Cashin. Four children were born to them ; of these Thomas 
and Mary are deceased. The loving mother and wife died on 
January 12, 1882, leaving the family and a large circle of friends 
to deeply mourn her loss. Richard W. Buckley, a promising son, 
is a bookkeeper for E J. Lehman ; Catharine, Captain Buckley's 
only living daughter, was married on February 21, 1SS4, to Daniel 
F. Burke, of the firm of Burke Brothers. 

Amos W. Hathaway, captain of the fourth precinct station, 
headquarters on West Chicago Avenue, has, with the exception of 
a few months, been in the continual service of the police depart- 
ment for over twenty years. He first became a patrolman in the 
fall of 1S64, being assigned to the old North Market Hall. Con- 
tinuing in this position for three years, he resigned to engage in 
more remunerative occupations, but his love for his old life return- 
ing, he joined the force again in 1868, as sergeant of the Huron- 
street station. Under Superintendent Washburne's administration 
a change was made in the name of the office, and Sergeant Hath- 
away became Lieutenant Hathaway of the Huron-street station. 
He continued thus to act until August 1, 1S79, when he was pro- 
moted to the captaincy of the fourth precinct, whose headquarters 
were then at the North Chicago-avenue station. On April 22, 
1S84, he was transferred to his present position, the number of his 
former precinct being retained, but the headquarters and district 
being changed. Captain Hathaway was married in 1S62 to Miss 
Rosalie R. Russell. They have had nine children, of whom four 
girls and three boys are living. Captain Hathaway's early life was 
one of unremitting hardship, and one eminently calculated to build 
up a rugged character. Born on May 29, 1839, at Providence, R. 
I., his mother died when he was only five months of age, when his 
grandmother took him to her farm near Oswego, N. Y., where he- 
remained for some eight years. She then removed to Jefferson 
county in the same State, where the boy lived and worked until he 
was eleven years of age. Young as he was, he then made up his 
mind that if he was to work in this world it was far preferable i" 
be his own master, and determined to return to Oswego. But rat- 
fare was not easily obtained, and so " pitching into" a huckleberry 
swamp near home he earned enough money to carry him to the 
city, where he quickly found employment with Smith & Kind, 



machinists. For three years he labored with them at thi 
and then for a time operated a stationary engine for W. II. 
Wheeler. The facl that In- was quite proficient in his trade 
enabled him to obtain a position as a sailor on the v< ssrl " I-.. \\ . 
Cr..ss." plying between Oswego ami Chicago He followed the 
lakes until' the fall of 1855, when he determined to settle in Chi- 
cago. But first hi took a trip south and worked for some time on 
a farm near l.aSalle, III , and also found employment in driving a 
team. Then the western fever smirk him. and a portion of i>j; 
and 1S5S he spent in and around Lawrence, Kas , being a com- 
panion of Colonel James Lane, and a witness of many of the 
exciting episodes of those days. Returning to Chicago, he 
became employed on a farm in Palatine, and located permanently 
in this city during the year [860. He tirst obtained a position as 
foreman of the Mechanical Bakery, corner of Clinton and Lake 
streets, and whose proprietor. Henry C. Childs, obtained a large 
contract for supplying the army with " hard-tack." At one pel iod 
he manufactured as high as one hundred barrels of flour every 
twenty-four hours, the bakery being run night and day to meet the 
demand. Mr. Hathaway remained in this position for three - ars, 
but his health becoming impaired, in 1S63 he relinquished active 
business and spent a number of months in sailing the lakes, to 
regain it. As stated, during the fall of 1864 he joined the police 
department and entered into the life-work which he has made such 
a marked success. 

The Detective Force. — The Board of Police 
Commissioners instituted the first organized force of 
detectives in 1861. Prior to that time the City Mar- 
shals had occasionally detailed one or more of the regu- 
lar force for special detective service. 

The following officers were among the first who 
were regularly engaged in detective work : Asa Wil- 
liams, Isaac Williams, Henry A. Kauffman, Joseph H. 
Dixon, William Douglas and Horace M. Elliott. 

As a fitting termination to this mention of the secret 
service department an account of a man of cosmopoli- 
tan reputation is given. 

Allan PlNKERTON was a man by nature filled for the profes- 
sion to which he devoted his life, and in which he achieved a fame 
bounded only by the limitation of the habitable globe. In the 
grandeur of his work he made himself of such value to the law and 
order interests, that the whole country can, and does, justly claim 
. him as the greatest representative of the best interests of a com- 
monwealth, of either ancient or modern times. But the fact that 
he was a citizen of Chicago for over forty years, and that it was 
here that he laid the foundation of his subsequent splendid career, 
entitles him to a prominent place in the pages of her history and 
among those of her citizens whom it is her duty, as well as her 
delight, to pay this slight tribute of respect. It is no idle remark 
that a history of Chicago would not be complete without a mention 
of Allan Pinkerton and trje work he accomplished during his long 
and eventful life ; while the story simply told will interest even the 
most casual reader of these pages He was born in Muirhead 
Street, Ruglen Loan, in the city of Glasgow, Scotland, on the 25th 
day of August, 1S19. His parents were in humble circumstances, 
his father, William Pinkerton being employed as a police sergeant 
by the municipality. When Allan was but a small boy, In- fathei 
died from the effects of injuries received at the hands of a prisoner 
whom he was arresting, and the family were thus deprived oi their 
means of support. Notwithstanding his extreme youth, being 
then scarcely nine years of age, he sought and obtained employ- 
ment with a prominent print maker, Neil Murphy, win. is still 
living in Glasgow. After serving with Mr. Murphy for several 
years, he was apprenticed to John McCauley, with whom he learned 
the trade of a cooper. Before attaining his majority he became 
imbued with the sentiments of independence and reform, which 
were advocated by those who put forth tin People's < barter in 
Great Britain, and he soon became identified with the celebrated 
Chartist movement of the disaffected people. '1 he Government re- 
solved to crush this revolutionary uprising, and several of the lead- 
ers were arrested and transported. Fearful for his own safety, 
Allan Pinkerton resolved to leave the countrj and seek a refuge in 
America. He therefore, in 1S42, after being married to Mi 
Carfrae, sailed the following day. with his wife, for America, land- 
ing at Quebec after a perilous voyage, wherein their vessel was 
wrecked and the suffering passengers pi. ked up by a passing vessel 
and carried to that port From Quebei Mr. Pinkerton and his 
young wife made theii ' IgO by the lakes. The young 

couple, owing I., their misfortunes, were nearly destitute, but with 
a stout heart he applied himself to securing employment. Meeting 
George Anderson, win. was then engaged in the tobacco business, 
he enlisted the services of that gentleman in his behalf, and soon 



ss 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO 



succeeded in obtaining employment at his trade, that of a cooper, at 
Lilt's brewery, for meager wages, which, however, enabled him to 
live in a small house near to the present location of Rush-street 
bridge. He remained in Chicago but a short time, and then jour- 
neved to Dundee, in Kane County, where he began business for 
himself. He prospered rapidly, and his establishment increased to 
such a degree that he resolved to settle permanently in that local- 
itv. but circumstances interfered and opened up to him the possi- 
bilities of a new career which by nature and inclination he was so 
well qualified to adorn. Mr. Pinkerton will be pleasantly remem- 
bered bv manv of the old residents of Dundee now living. While 
emploved in his business as a cooper he had frequent occasion to 
visit some of the islands in Fox River, to procure materials for his 
stock, and while on one of these, he discovered the existence of a 
gang of counterfeiters, who made the island their retreat and there 
established their headquarters. Having a natural love for adven- 
ture, and being a stranger to fear, he determined to thoroughly in- 
vestigate the entire operations of these counterfeiters, which he 
eventually succeeded in doing, effectually breaking up the existence 
of the gang and securing the arrest and conviction of John Craig, 
the leader and prime mover, together with the most prominent and 
dangerous of his associates. This exploit gained for the young 
cooper considerable renown, and shortly afterward he was appointed 
a deputy sheriff of Kane County ; the duties of which position he 
filled in such an efficient manner that numerous bands of horse 
thieves and counterfeiters were either captured and punished or 
forced to leave the country, while wrongdoers were inspired with a 
wholesome fear of his vigilance and relentless pursuit. The repu- 
tation which he gained in this capacity soon spread to Chicago, 
and attracted the attention of William L Church, who was then 



sheriff of Cook County. This gentleman immediately offered Mr. 
Pinkerton the appointment of deputy sheriff, with increased powers 
of usefulness and added remuneration, which he at once accepted. 
He continued in this position during the term of Mr. Church, and 
also under his successor in office, Sheriff C. P. Bradley. When 
Mr. Boone was elected mayor of Chicago he appointed Allan Pink- 
erton as a detective of the city force. This was the first appoint- 
ment of a detective in Chicago, and was the initial step in the career 
of this greatest detective of the age. In the year 1S52 Mr. Pink- . 
erton became impressed with the importance of establishing a 
detective agencv which would be independent of political influence, 
and by whose efforts the criminal could be punished without fear 
or personal favor. He accordingly associated with him Edward L. 
Rucker, an attorney-at-law, and securing the patronage of several 
railroad companies', then in their infancy, they started the " Pink- 
erton Detective Agency," the first institution of its kind in the 
United States. Mr. Rucker continued with him only about a year, 
when Mr. Pinkerton undertook the entire management of the con- 
stantly increasing business. When the agency was first estab- 
lished, they employed some four or five men ; among the most 
prominent being George H. Bangs, afterward general superinten- 
dent, who remained with Mr. Pinkerton until his death, which 
occurred in 1SS4, and Timothy Webster, who, while in his employ, 
was taken as a Union spy, and executed at Richmond, Va. , during 
the war of the Rebellion. From that small beginning, the detect 
ive force, under Mr. Pinkerton's orders, increased steadily, until 
it now numbers nearly three hundred men. Mr. Pinkerton, from 
his boyhood, was an ardent lover of freedom and free institutions, 
and on coming to America was impressed with a deep-seated hatred 
of slavery. When the fugitive slave law was enacted, his opposi- 
tion to this barbarous measure was aroused, and he resolved to use 
his utmost efforts to defeat its operation. He immediately associ- 
ated himself with those old patriots, John Brown, James H.Collins, 
the Lovejoy brothers, and other prominent abolitionists, and ren- 
dered most heroic and important service in running what was then 
called the "underground railroad." By his efforts and energv. 
many a famished and hunted neg^o, who, guided only by the glim- 
mering light of the north star, had broken away from the bonds 
of slavery, and made his way to Chicago, on his terrible journey 
to the welcoming borders of Canada, has been fed and clothed and 
passed safely on his way, many times under the very eyes of the 
officers of the law who were ready and anxious to send him back 
to servitude and punishment. In those clays, it was not an uncom- 
mon thing to see Mr. Pinkerton's hows.-, which was then on Adams 
Street, besieged by numbers of prayerful negroes, seeking his aid 
in behalf of some trembling and hunted fugitive, whom the law was_ 
about to consign to a physical punishment worse than death ; and" 



it is needless to say that these appeals were never made in vain, 
in the year 1S60, Mr. Pinkerton increased his business by adding 
to it an important feature, consisting of a corps of night-watch- 
men, or Merchants' Police. This force, which was started with 
only six men, now numbers more than two hundred able-bodied 
watchmen. The first captain was Paul H. Dennis, and the next 
was the late James Fitzgerald. Mr. Pinkerton's detective business 
soon grew to gigantic proportions, and his reputation extended to 
all the leading cities of the East Among the first notable and 
important cases which came to him, was that of the robbery of the 
Adams Express Company at Montgomery, Ala., by one Nathan 
Maroney, the agent of the company at that point. Mr Pinkerton 
was engaged for this investigation by the late E. S. Sanford, vice- 
president of the Adams Express Company. At the time the rob- 
bery occurred, Mr Sanford was in New York, and he at once 
applied to Robert Boyer, an expert detective in that city. Mr. Boyer, 
on learning the particulars of the case, at once informed Mr. San- 
ford that there was only one man in the country who was possessed 
of the detective ability, the natural firmness and dogged persever- 
ance for the task. Mr. Sanford listened incredulously to these 
statements, and regarded with ridicule the idea of sending to Chi- 
cago for a detective, while New York City was full of them. 
However, he took the advice as offered, and placed the case in Mr. 
Pinkerton's hands. The result proved the wisdom of Mr. Boyer's 
recommendations, and although the operation extended over several 
months, and the suspected parties were followed from Alabama to 
New Jersey, thev were finally arrested, and nearly the entire amount 
of the money taken by the thieves — some S40,ooo — was secured, 
most of it in the original packages. This money was unearthed 
from a cellar in a frame house, and over a thousand miles from the 
scene of the robbery. A handsomely engrossed testimonial was 
presented to Mr. Pinkerton, by the company, for this exploit, and 
now adorns the walls of the office of the Chicago Agency. The 
success of this operation at once established Mr. Pinkerton's repu- 
tation with the various express companies throughout the country, 
and when the car on the New Haven Railroad was robbed, some 
time afterward, bya gang of the most expert and desperate thieves, 
Andy and William Roberts, and others, Mr. Pinkerton was again 
sent for, and in an incredibly short space of time the entire money 
— $30,000 — was recaptured, and the burglars in jail, waiting their 
trial. In 1861, being employed by Mr. Felton, and other officials 
of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad, to look out 
for incendiaries on their road, Mr. Pinkerton discovered, in Balti- 
more, a plot to assassinate President Lincoln, on the journey from 
his home to Washington to be inaugurated as president. Mr. 
Pinkerton at once took charge of affairs, and carried Mr. Lincoln 
safelv through Baltimore and the waiting conspirators, and deliv- 
ered him to his friends at Washington. When the war of the Re- 
bellion broke out, President Lincoln sent for Mr. Pinkerton to come 
to Washington, and authorized him to organize the secret-service 
division of the army, the first Government police force ever organ- 
ized in this country. This was done with Mr. Pinkerton at the 
head, under the nam deplume of E. J. Allen. In this capacity he 
served the country during the war, leaving his Chicago office in 
the charge of capable people, and, at the close of the war, came 
oack to take charge thereof himself. His first important case, on 
resuming his former duties, was the robbery of the Adams Express 
Company, near Baltimore, by throwing the safes from the train while 
it was in motion, and getting away with over $100,000. This case, 
with other cases of the same nature, was a success, the thieves, six 
in number, being arrested, tried and convicted, and the money all 
recovered. Some time later came the robbery of the Harnden 
Express Company, in Baltimore, by which $20,000 was secured. 
The thieves in this case were also convicted, and the money recov- 
ered. The next important case was the robbery of the Carbondale 
Bank, at Carbondale, Penn. , in which case the thieves were arrested, 
and the money — $40,000 — recovered. Following these came the 
robbery of the Adams Express Company on the New York & New- 
Haven Railroad, on January 6, 1S66. the thieves, six in number, 
including the brakeman, entered the express car by wrenching off 
the lock, and then bursting the safe. They secured about $700.- 
000 in this exploit. Through the efforts of Mr. Pinkerton and Mr. 
Frank Warner (the latter being, at the time, the superintendent of 
the New York office), the thieves were convicted, and the money 
all recovered but about $12,000, the most of which was afterward 
returned through a Catholic priest. The arrest and conviction of 
the robbers of Mylart's Bank, at Scranton, Penn., next followed, 
and about this time — 1S66 — Mr. Pinkerton determined to enlarge 
Ins business, and establish an office in New York, which he did 
that year, and afterward instituted another one in Philadelphia, 
both under competent superintendents. The next case of impor- 
tance- of which Mr. Pinkerton had charge, was the robbery, by 
Morton anil Thompson, of the express car of the Merchants' Union 
Express Company, on the Hudson River Railroad, whereby they 
secured $300,000. These men were tracked to Canada, and there 



THE POLICE DEPARTMENT. 



89 



arrested, and, in spite of all that man could do and the help winch 
they received from corrupt government officials, they were extra- 
dited to White Plains, New York. They afterward broke from 
prison, raided the Boylston Bank in Boston, and then fled to Eu- 
rope. In the same year came the death of the Reno brothers and 
Anderson, of Seymour, Indiana. These men were desperadoes "I 
the most pronounced type. They robbed stores ami express trains 
burglarized safes, and their very names became a terror along the 
railroad lines in that section of the country. Entire discontinuance 
of express service was seriously thought of by the companies. In 
1S6S, near Osgood Station, Indiana, they robbed the Adams Ex- 
press Company of $97,000, by boarding the train, throwing the 
messenger from the car, opening the safes, anil deliberately appro- 
priating their contents. This case was given to Mr. Pinkerton, 
and Simeon and Bill Reno were arrested by him at Indianapolis; 
Erank Reno and Charles Anderson fled to Canada, were pursued 
to Windsor, Ontario, and extradited, after a long siege of more 
than three months During the trial which followed, another por- 
tion of the gang, for the purpose of diverting suspicion from them, 
attempted another express robbery ; but of this Mr. Pinkerton was 
fullv advised, and prepared for them. After one of the men had 
been shot, the rest were captured ; but while awaiting the action 
of the law, the indignant and outraged populace of the country 
took them out, and hung them within full view of the jail. When 
Erank Reno and Charles Anderson were returned to the United 
States, they were put into jail at Xew Albany, Indiana, in company 
with Simeon and Pill Reno. About three weeks after their arrival 
there, one hundred masked men marched to the jail, having come 
in on the north-bound train, overpowered the sheriff and jailer, 
and hung the three Renos and Anderson, and that ended the ban- 
ditti in Southern Indiana. On May 7, iS6g, Mr. Pinkerton was 
stricken down with a severe stroke of paralysis, from which he 
never fully recovered, and since that time, has never been actively 
employed in his business, leaving the management of it to his two 
sons and other superintendents. One of the last cases he man- 
aged, was the work of breaking up the Molly Maguires in Penn- 
sylvania. By working his operatives into their secret organizations, 
and having them admitted to a full knowledge of their mysteries 
and plans, Mr. Pinkerton was enabled to, at least, bring their 
schemes to a full exposure, and to stop, effectually, their course of 
robbery and murder. Twenty-four of them were hung, after due 
trial, and more than fifty were sent to the penitentiary for long 
terms of imprisonment. Mr. Pinkerton was the author of fifteen 
volumes of detective experiences, which have had an extensive cir- 
culation throughout the country, and left several volumes in manu- 
script behind him, which will probably be given to the press at an 
early date. His last published volume, " Thirty Years a Detec- 
tive," recounts, with all the original force of his strong mind, the 
various devices resorted to, by criminals of every class, to effect 
success in their several branches of crime. Mr. Pinkerton's ruling 
idea, in the publication of these works, has been to show to the 
public how surely and inevitably detection and punishment follow 
the commission of crime. However skillful the criminal may be, 
however careful he may have planned to escape suspicion or pur- 
suit, and notwithstanding the precautions he may have taken, the 
cool, intelligent and skiliful detective will follow him relentlessly, 
until escape is impossible and arrest and punishment overtake 
him. The moral invariably sought to be inculcated by these works 
is, the beneficial enlightenment of society and the installation of 
a wholesome fear of the law, which will deter those tempted to crime 
from taking the fatal step which leads to dishonor and the prison 
cell. Mr. Pinkerton was a man of strong physique, which enabled 
him to rally several times when his physicians despaired of his re- 
covery. He was ever noted for his iron will and indomitable per- 
severance, and was remarkably strong in his affections and hatreds; 
his friends were tied to him with " hooks of steel," and his enemies 
were made to feel the full force of his anger when he was aroused. 
Of late years he took great pride in his stock farm at Onarga, 
Iroquois Co., 111., called " Larch Farm" which is said to lie one 
of the handsomest places in the country, and upon which Mr. Pin- 
kerton has expended many thousands of dollars. In prosecuting 
his business Mr. Pinkerton made it his inflexible rule never to 
operate for rewards, or on payments contingent upon success, and 
would never allow any of his operatives to receive any reward or 
gratuity for his services. He paid his employes liberally, and 
worked for those who engaged him at certain fixed per diem, which 
was all that was ever received. Another notable and praiseworthy 
feature of his immense business, and one of the strictest rules "1 
his institution was, that he never, under any circumstances, 1 ould be 
induced to operate in a divorce case or where family matters were 
in dispute. In following out this line of conduct he flatly refused 
many thousand dollars annually. It was also a principle of Mr. 
Pinkerton that the old maxim o'f " setting a thief t.. catch a thief " 
was morally wrong and unwise in action, and that taking two men 
of the same mental caliber, the one guilty and the other innocent, 



tin' latter would invariably prevail over the mental and moral 1 

of tin- former. Mr, Pinkerton leave- a widow. Mr-. Joan Pinker- 
Ion, the devoted wile who followed her young husband in his 

voluntary exile to America, and who has been I"- constant com- 
panion and wise counsellor through the many years and changing 
fortunes of their wedded life. To them were born eight children, 
only three oi whom are living: — William A., the eldest, in charge 
of the Chicago office and the western division; while Robert A 
is the general superintendent, and has, immediate charge, ol the 
Eastern office. Mr. Pinkerton has also a daughter living, who is 
now the wife of William J. Chalmers, of the firm ol I 1 
Chalmers, in Chicago Mr. Pinkerton ha- acquired a handsome 
competency, having an elegant home and much valuable real 

estate in the city, besides one of the most magnificent farms in the 
state. The following just analysis ol in- character and tribute 
to his worlii was spoken by Luther l.allin Mills, at the funeral 
services held over his remains in this city. July 3, i^"4: 

" When the intelligence of the death of Allan Pinkerton was 
sent throughout America ami across the sea, there was felt in every 
part of this continent and remote countries as well, a profound 
sorrow. From San Francisco to the busy river Clyde, from the 
Mexican Gulf to London, the hearts of thousands were made sad. 
The patriot soldiers of the Nation, whose comrade he had been, 
the freedmen whom he had helped to rescue from their slavery, 
and millions in many lands whom for a generation he had aided to 
guard in his battle against crime, were thrilled by the conscious- 
ness of their loss. And so, to-day, Chicago mourns him, and to 
his loved ones hand a laurel and a flower of grief to be placed upon 
his grave. How can a few words tell again the history of his life, 
so crowded with character and incidents. The school-boys know 
it by heart. Full of truth, it reads like a romance or a dream. 
The birth, amid surroundings of poverty, in the heart of Scotland; 
the child's brave struggle; the youth's fidelity to the rights of man 
in the historic agitation for suffrage and the recognition of equality 
in his native country ; the early journey across the sea; and the 
long, brave fight against circumstances he here conducted, until 
recognition rewarded him with better opportunities — of these facts 
we need no reminding. His thousands of successful assaults 
against organized and determined crime, in many countries; his 
patriotic deeds for this nation ; his work for the slave; and his 
myriad broad humanities, are facts familiar. But now they may 
constitute a foundation for a fair and just estimate of his life and 
the man's real character. Allan Pinkerton was shaped to a larger 
model than most men. Physically, he was provided by nature 
with strong flesh and blood, made stronger by his youthful 
toils. There was no storm at sea, there was no winter on the 
shore, too severe for this man's endurance No privations Were 
too great for his bodily resistance, until, at last, his Scottish 
strength, like the tree on Loch Leven's bank, yielded to the 
storms of time, and fell heavy with years." ****■• His 
courage was unwavering, as his will was indomitable. lie was 
never afraid. In his presence the outlaw was a coward, and before 
his eve the robber grew pale. In the old war-days, how Allan 
Pinkerton carried his life in his hands, and, with a few brave men 
around him, entered the lines of the enemy, the historian hereafter 
will gladly and fairly record. Allan Pinkerton's love of men was 
the deep and real inspiration of his greatest acts." * * * "Ik- 
was an intimate friend of John Brown, and not long before that 
martyr met his fate at Harper's Ferry, Allan Pinkerton protected 
him and his companions in this very city on their journey. There 
life to-day hundreds wdio owe their freedom from slavery to this 
man. The tears of the slave pay free tribute now to his fidelity 
to libertv. When rebellion threatened the Nation's life, and a 
mob stood between Lincoln and the Capital. Allan Pinkerton con- 
ducted him in safety to his inauguration. The country may well 
thank his fidelity ; his service was a pivotal (ait for its future. 
At Washington, conducting the secret service, he was an intimate 
friend of the President ami his cabinet, especiall) Stanton all. I 
Chase. For the great secretary of war. he was a right arm." * * 
" Strong, determined, brave, anion- hi- loved ones ami those who 

could enter the circle of his closer friendship he was gentle asa 

child. In his later years of rest his thoughts clustered round his 
home as always he had loved it. The fireside was his joy. lie 
loved nature ;' his favorite song was the sea, whit h seemed fitted to 
his broad and powerful spirit, lie sought the country, and of late 
found comfort in the fields. He took broad acres and made for 
himself and family a farm ; like the classic hero he found solace in 
the soil. There he saw the grain growing and breathed the balsam 
of the tiers ; ami placing himself thus close to nature's heart the 
great man felt and knew the power and goodness of God. How 

meagre are the word- ol man to -peak the worth of Allan Pinker- 
ton.' ' When that the poor have cried,' this man hath mad 
answer to their need; when I lie wronged sought help against power 
he bravebj bared his arm in theit defense; he reco( 

Unctions of society save those of merit among men ; he despised 



9° 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



all fraud and false pretense ; he fought for the good and against 
the bad ; he was not content with moral suasion, but met the social 
enemy with weapons. He was tender; he was strong; he was 
brave ; he was true. Take his mortality to-day, from faithful wife 
and loving children, and ten thousand friends and the millions who 
knew him; wrap him in your bosom, great Illinois — you can not 
claim him as your own. He belongs to his generation and the 
future ; no one state can claim him ; his memory is the right of 
countries, not of states. Hero and friend, farewell ! " 



THE PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Last of the Volunteers. — In the preceding 
volume it has been narrated how Northern Liberty 
Engine Company No. 15, Northern Hose Company 
No. 7, and Union Hose Company No. 8 were the last 
of the volunteer organizations. The engine company 
disbanded in the spring of 1862, and the hose com- 
panies were in service until the same year. The first 
foreman of Northern Liberty was Conrad Foiz. and its 
members A. Nieman, J. Schmidt, C. Folz, J. Berger, 
F. Gerbing, J. Rheinwald, J. Heinrich, J. Brunk, J. 
Williams, C. Sheime, J. H. Heller, O. Heine, E. Rasse- 
berg and J. Brosche. The Northern Hose Company 
was stationed on Clybourn Avenue, corner of Larrabee 
Street, its members being C. Charleston, A. Gabriel, 

O. Probst, Shiegler, C. Hettinger, foreman ; W. 

Shartz, T. Mixner, T. Reiser, J. Reiser, H. Mabus, 
T. Shirer, William Bowing, C. Glassner, S. Wolf, 
B. Lozier, M. Engle and E. Bitz. The foreman of 
Union Hose, Peter Weber, was most active in its organ- 
ization, its members being as follows : P. Weber, 
A. Roehrick, N. J. Gauer, William Dewald, J. Voght, 
N. Zimmer, John Weinand, John Gauer, P. Rlein, J. N. 
Weinand, M. Wachter, N. Conrad, Henry Brick, 
H. Hunneman, J. Long, N. Hand, N. Masson and 
John Mara. With the disbanding of the above organ- 
izations the last of the old Volunteer Department 
disappeared. There was no company, however, in 
which the boys took deeper pride, and for which they 
mourned more sincerely, when it died, than " Hope 
Hose." The following extract from the Press-Tribune 
of January 6, i860, is apropos : 

"A Long Farewell to Hope. — The boys of Hope Hose 
Company, in the palmy days of our Volunteer Fire Department, 
were a crack corps, and as fine a set of young men as ever handled 
a spanner or turned out to a lire. Their superb Philadelphia hose 
carriage, originally costing $5,000. was one of the finest pieces of 
workmanship in the United States, and at the New York Crystal Pal- 
ace drew warm encomiums. But the steam fire engine has tardily done 
to the volunteer force what the locomotive did to the stage coach. 
Firemen ride to fires now, and fire machines thunder through our 
streets to the scene of conflagration at the heels of steeds urged to 
a furious gailop. Human muscle, ever so gallant and willing, 
must toil far behind. The boys of Hope Hose Company, at a late 
meeting, voted to disband, and, in so doing, thev marked the era 
of the close of their gallant career with a deed of generosity fully 
in keeping with their fame, and the truth that 

1 The bravest are the tenderest ; 
The loving are the daring. 1 

" They arc to secure as early a sale as possible of their beautiful 
silver-mounted carriage, and all the accoutrements of the late corps, 
and devote the proceeds to the ' Home of the Friendless.' Well 
done, ' Hope.' " 

The Firs'] 01 rHE Paid Department. — After 
the great fire of October 17, 1857, the agitation for the 
establishment of a Paid Department < ommenced with 
vigor. In November of that year the Common Council 
ordered a steam engine, and, on February 5, 1858, the 
" Long John " arrived. D. J. Swenie had been elected 
chief of the department ; I,. Walters, first assistant, 
and M. W. Powell, second assistant, during the previous 
month, their election marking the entry of the Paid 



Department. The new engine was first tested on Feb- 
ruary 10. Since its arrival, the "Long John" had 
been left in the open air, and consequently there was 
some difficulty in getting it to work. All in all, how- 
ever, the test was satisfactory, steam being got up in 
ten minutes and two streams being thrown to a height 
of seventy feet, and horizontally over two hundred feet. 
In March, " Long John" was tested with one of Latta's 
Cincinnati engines, which had been constructed for the 
city of St. Louis. It had been named "John B. Weimer," 
in honor of the then mayor of that city, but when it 
came in competition with "Long John" its inferiority 
was at once evident. The trial was conducted under 
the direction of Chief Engineer Swenie and the Board 
of Underwriters. Mr. Latta was present, as was also 
Miles Greenwood, chief engineer of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
"Long John" was put into active service about the 
1st of May, being located at the old Armory Building, 
corner of Adams and Franklin streets. The horses 
were hired of Messrs. Ring & Barry, their barn being 
at first about a mile from the engine house. Nine 
persons were burned to death on the 19th of May, at 
the fire on South Wells Street, and so much delay was 
caused in getting the horses to their engine, that it was 
resolved to build a barn at the rear of the house. This 
reform in the workings of the department was there- 
fore brought about. " Long John " fulfilled its early 
promise, throwing two good streams, being manned by 
the volunteer hose companies, and by Joel A. Prescott, 
engineer, and William Horner, assistant engineer, paid 
members of the department. The volunteers were 
Thomas Barry, John McLean, Alexander McMonagle 
and Thomas O'Brien. The hose carriage was hitched 
behind the engine, with two men at the tongue, but 
most of the time it was drawn by John Brinnock, a 
drayman, living near the engine house. 

The ordinance providing for the Paid Fire Depart- 
ment was passed in June, 1858 The chief and assistant 
engineers were to have full charge of the department, 
its general supervision and "rule-making" power resid- 
ing in the Board of Control, consisting of the Mayor, 
Chairman of the Committee on Fire and Water, the 
Chief Engineer, and one Water Commissioner chosen 
by themselves. When approved, the rules made by the 
board were to have the force of ordinances. Except 
engineers, all members of the department were to be 
nominated by the board and confirmed by the Council. 
By section "four," the salaries were fixed as follows: 
Captains, $200 per annum; lieutenants, $100; engineers, 
$600 ; pipemen, drivers and stokers, $1 per day ; all 
others $25 per month. Every fireman, when on duty, 
was required to wear a badge, and no engine was to be 
used except such as belonged to the city. Rules were 
laid down as to the number of men apportioned to 
each steam engine, hand engine and hook and ladder 
and hose company. Consequently, after July, all the 
men of " Long John " engine company were paid, and, 
in December, a full company was commissioned and 
moved into their new quarters on LaSalle Street ; the 
company being commissioned on the 25th of that 
month. Their engine house was near the corner of 
LaSalle and Washington streets. The first members of 
" Long John " were as follows : Joel A. Rinney, fore- 




THE PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



9' 



man; Alexander McMonagle, John McLean, Thomas 
Barry, Thomas O'Brien, William Mullin, James Quirk, 
pipemen ; Joel A. Prescott, engineer ; Robert Ethridge, 
assistant engineer ; Alvin C. King and 1 tennis O'Connor, 
drivers ; John Farrell, watchman. 

In September, 1858, there was a trial of three steam 
engines at the foot of Washington Street, on the lake 
shore. The "Enterprise" was already owned by the 
city, and Messrs. Silsby & Wyndhurst, its builders, 
were anxious that the " Atlantic " and " Island Queen " 
should also be purchased. They were accordingly 
tested and subsequently became city property. By 
February, 1S60, the " U. P. Harris " and " Little Giant" 
were added to the list. Besides the above, the Depart- 
ment was now composed of Hand Engine No. 9, located 
at Carville; No. 13, on Third Street, near Milwaukee 
Avenue; No. 15, on North Avenue, corner of LaSalle; 
Hose Cart No. 7, Larrabee Street, near Clybourn 
Avenue; Hose Cart No. 8, Oak Street, near Wolcott; 
also having a hook and ladder and supply hose carriage. 

A change had also been made in the Chief of the 
Department. In February, 1859, great excitement and 
some alarm was occasioned in the minds of large prop- 
erty owners by the nomination of Silas McBride as 
Chief Engineer. He was not considered entirely com- 
petent, and was, moreover, opposed to any reform 
looking to the crowding out of the small hand engines. 
The progressive party was, therefore, alarmed, and the 
extent of the feeling may be inferred from the fact that 
immediately upon the nomination of Mr. McBride by 
the Firemen's Convention, a petition appeared in the 
Tribune, signed (but the names not published) by over 
three thousand citizens, among them being a majority 
of the old and experienced firemen, asking U. P. Har- 
ris to allow the use of his name for chief, with Darius 
Knights as first assistant and James J. Langdon as 
second assistant. Mr. Harris was triumphantly elected. 

U. P. Harris, one of the most popular chiefs of the Fire 
Department, died at noon on the 2d of June, 1871. In his last 
moments he was attended by Dr. J. S. Beach and other warm 
friends. His decease was occasioned by congestion of the brain, 
brought about by the severe labors which he bore while engaged in 
the discharge of his duties in former years. It was greatly due to 
Mr. Harris's energy and ability that, before his death, he was able 
to see the Fire Department brought to a state of efficiency placing 
it in the very front rank. He was born in New York City, Janu- 
ary 1, 1818, and was therefore only fifty-three years of age at the 
time of his death. Even while a boy of sixteen he evinced a de- 
cided bent of his disposition by becoming a member of the Volun- 
teer Fire Department of that city, and showing so much spirit anil 
judgment that he had hundreds of admirers who always knew him 
as the " Boy Fireman." Mr. Harris moved to the West when 
twenty-three years old, and finally to Chicago in 1845. He at once 
engaged in the clothing business, forming a partnership with a 
Mr. Ladd. His accommodating spirit, which worked his ruin, in- 
duced him to indorse the note of a friend for a much larger amount 
than all cautious dictates would warrant. His friend failed, and 
Mr. Harris failed himself. As a business man, his reckless gene- 
rosity ever stood in his way; but as a public man, as a man of the 
people, as a leader of men where the flames ranged and danger 
was at its height, he was — U. P. Harris — which is all that is neces- 
sary to say. His earliest work as a fireman was done with Engine 
Company No 3. He was elected Chief Engineer of the Depart- 
ment in 1852-53, serving also as City Treasurer during the latter 
year. In March, 1859. he commenced to serve his third term, as 
chief, and continued thus to act for a number of years, bringing 
the Department into splendid shape. In fact, if the boys ever had 
an idol to whom they bowed down and whom they worshiped, 
that idol was U. P. Harris. One secret of his popularity was his 
personal magnetism, by which he gained many friends and which 
he seemed to instil into the natures of those under him, so that, 
when his eye was upon them, they fought the flames like valiant 
soldiers. Although requiring faithful and unflinching servin from 
his men, while they were on duty, when he set out to amuse them 
he was a boy among them. Many of them will still look back with the 
pleasantest memories upon those " New Years" when Chief Hams 
kept open house and distributed oysters, turkey, beef and other 



"fixings" to liis friends, dispensing his feast with thai [enial 
heartiness which gave it an additional richness and savor. Mr. 
Harris was a simple man with a brave heart. Ill l868, bruised in 

body and shattered in health, he retired from active service to 
engage in some light business which would give him some employ- 
ment without fatigue, lie siill haunted the old engine hour's, 
however, and talked over the early times with the pioneers oi tin 
Department, but he was nol destined to retain that privilege toi 
longtime. As stated, his death occurred in June, 1871. The pall 
bearers at his funeral were D.oius Knights, C. x. Holden, Silas 
McBride, D. J. Swenie, William Mullin, fohn McLane, George 
1. foster. M. YV. Powell. Adam Ambcrg, I. A. Kinney, A. 
McMonagle and John C.Schmidt. His remains were buried in 
Rosehill Cemetery, being escorted by members of the Paid and 
Volunteer Departments, Common Council and Hoard of Public- 
Works. 

February 16, 1865, by the amended Charter the Fire 
Department was placed in the hands of a board of po- 
lice and fire commissioners. Under this ail, on Octo- 
ber 23, the Council passed an amended ordinance 
defining new fire limits and adopting regulations for 
the service. The Fire Commissioners appointed by 
the Council were: A. C. Coventry, John S. Newhouse 
and John Wentworth. In 1867, the underwriters of the 
city secured an amendment to the ordinance giving 
them a representation in the Board, and, under this 
amendment, in that year, William James was appointed 
Fire Commissioner, representing that interest. 

By 1866, the Department consisted of eleven steam- 
ers, two hand engines, thirteen hose carts, one hook 
and ladder truck, one hundred and twenty paid mem- 
bers, one hundred and twenty-five volunteers and fifty- 
three horses. Within the next five years the hand-en- 
gines had disappeared, the steam engines had increased 
to seventeen, the hose carts to twenty-three, the paid 
members to one hundred and ninety-four and the horses 
to ninety-one. The condition of the Department pre- 
vious to the great fire is set forth in the following ex- 
tracts: 

In 1871, the Fire Department was officered as fol- 
lows: Robert A. Williams, chief fire marshal; Mathias 
Benner, first assistant; Charles S. Petrie, second assist- 
ant; William Musham, third assistant; Hiram Amick, 
clerk; John McCauley, fire warden North Division; 
Benjamin F. McCarthy, fire warden South Division; 
Charles H. Chapin, fire warden West Division; E. B. 
Chandler, superintendent of fire alarm and police tele- 
graph; J. P. Barrett, chief operator. 

The fire limits of the city were as follows: Begin- 
ning at Thirty-ninth Street, west to State, north to 
Twenty-sixth, thence west to the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Railway tracks; then to Twenty- 
second Street; thence west to South Jefferson, north to 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Compa- 
ny's tracks, then west to Throop Street, then north to 
Twelfth, then west to Ashland Avenue, then north to 
Van Buren, west to Western Avenue, north to West 
Lake, east to Ashland Avenue, then north to West In- 
diana, east to North Carpenter, north to Chicago Ave- 
nue, east to North Wells, north to the intersection of 
North Wells Street with Lincoln Avenue, northwesterly 
to Fullerton Avenue, east to Lake Michigan; south, 
bounded by Lake Michigan. 

At the time of the great fire the following compa- 
nies were in service: Steamers — " Long John " No. 1, 
A. McMonagle, foreman; "Waubansia" No. -\ M. Sul- 
livan, foreman; "Jacob Rehm " No. 4, (i. Charleon, 
foreman; "Chicago" No. 5. < '. s« liimmals, foreman; 
"Little Giant" No. 6, James Enright, foreman; 
" Economy" No. 8, N. Dubach, foreman: " Prank Sher- 
man" No. 9, Joel A. Kinney, foreman; "J. P. Rice" 
No. 10, J. J. Walsh, foreman; "A. C. Coventry" No. 



92 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



ii, L. J. Walsh, foreman; "T. B. Brown" No. 12, F. 
W. Taplin, foreman; "Fred Gund " No. 14, Denis J. 
Swenie, foreman; "A. D. Titsworth" No. 13, Maurice 
W. Sliay, foreman; "Illinois" No. 15, William Mullen, 
foreman; "Winnebago" No. 16, John Dreher, fore- 
man; " R. A. Williams" No. 17, C. T. Brown, fore- 
man. It will be remembered that " Liberty " No. 7 
and "William James" No. 3 were destroyed in the re- 
pair shop, at the time of the fire, which accounts for 
their non-appearance in this list. 

The following additional apparatus was also engaged 
in fighting the flames: Hook and Ladder Companies 
— No. 2, M. Schuli, foreman; No. 3, J. H. Greene; 
No. 4, George Ernst. Hose Elevators — Nos. 1 and 2. 
Supply Hose Carts — No 1, Leo Myers; No. 2, John 
Horsey; No. 3, Matthew Schuh; No. 4, J. C. Schmidt; 
No. 5, J. J. Grant; No. 6, Thomas Barry. 

For full particulars as to the most prodigious con- 
flagration of modern times, the reader is referred to 
that portion of the history wherein it is treated as a 
separate topic. 

Robert A. Williams, chief marshal at the time of the 
great fire, was born on the Chateaugay River, thirty miles west of 
Montreal City, Canada, June 14, 1S2S. While a boy he learned the 
trade of blacksmith, after which he came to Chicago in March, 
1S43. In August. 1S49. he joined the Volunteer Fire Department, 
becoming a member of Engine Company No. 6. Mr. Williams 
served as foreman for five or six years, and then was appointed to 
the same position in the first steam engine company on the West 
Side, serving as captain until 1S60, when he went to Pike's Peak 
for his health. During all this time Mr. Williams had worked in- 
dustriously at his trade, serving in the Fire Department purely 
from love of a fireman's life. The next fall he returned from 
Pike's Peak and became foreman of a wagon factory, a position he 
filled for fifteen years. Mr. Williams next served in the Depart- 
ment as first assistant under U. P. Harris, and upon his resigna- 
tion in 1363, was appointed Chief of the Department. This posi- 
tion he held until 1S73, that responsibility resting upon him during 
the great fire of 1871. 

Fire Alarm Telegraph. — The Fire Alarm and 
Police Telegraph system which is now a portion of 
Chicago's wonderful municipal machinery, first origi- 
nated at the " Hub." Dr. Channing, of Boston, in 
June, 1845, when the science of electricity was in its 
infancy, published a general statement of his views 
upon applying the newly discovered agency to the pro- 
tection of his city from fires and crimes. From his 
suggestions, sprung the present wonderful plan which 
is now in vogue in the larger cities of the country. 
Hon. Josiah Quincy, Jr., mayor of Boston, seized upon 
the suggestions with enthusiasm, and, in 1848, recom- 
mended that the system be then adopted. At this time, 
Moses G. Farmer, telegraph engineer of Boston, also 
directed his attention to the subject, and to him, together 
with John X. (lame well and Dr. Channing, is princi- 
pally due the perfection of the system of fire alarm and 
police telegraphy, as it is now known. In 1851, Dr. 
Channing submitted a detailed plan to the corporation 
'.f Boston, and in April, 1852, the suggestion was put 
into practical operation In 1852, the seven fire bells 
of New York city were connected by an electric wire. 
This crude connection was subsequently replaced by 
the American lire Alarm and Police Telegraph. The 
system was put into operation in Philadelphia, April 19, 
1856; St. Louis, Baltimore, New Orleans, Charleston, 
Montreal, and Chicago, subsequently adopting the re- 
form. Mr. Gamewell constructed the apparatus in St. 
Louis, New Orleans, Charleston, and other places. In 
fact, if Dr. Channing maybe (ailed the father of the 
system, Mr. Gamewell may justly be accorded the honor 
of being its master builder. In May, 1858, he exhibited 
his apparatus to the aldermen of this city, it being 



placed in the council chamber, and thrown open to 
public inspection during certain hours of the day. He 
had just completed his telegraph in St. Louis, where it 
worked admirably. At this time, D. J. Swenie was 
Chief of the Department, and urged the immediate 
adoption of the system as something which the grow- 
ing, if not the immediate, demands of the city war- 
ranted. But many citizens, believing that " the time 
was not yet," threw doubts upon the propriety of estab- 
lishing it, and nothing definite was accomplished until 
1863. At a meeting of the Common Council, held 
May 18, 1863, a resolution passed, providing for the 
appointment of a committee of three (one from each 
division of the city) whose duty it should be to ascer- 
tain the cost of constructing a telegraph. In the spring 
of 1864, the authorities took hold of the subject with 
such earnestness that the contract was awarded to W. 
H. Mendell, of the firm of John F. Kinnard & Co , 
who had been interested with Mr. Gamewell in the con- 
struction of the system in other cities, and who were, 
a\ that time, the owners of sixteen patents connected 
with it. The contract price was $70,000, the system 
embracing the following apparatus ; One hundred and 
twenty-five miles of wire, one hundred and six boxes, 
fourteen engine-house gongs, six bell-strikers, six dial 
instruments for police purposes, and the necessary cen- 
tral-office fixtures. On the 2d of June, 1865, the sys- 
tem was formally turned over to the city, and pro- 
nounced to be in perfect working order. Its inaugura- 
tion took place in the presence of the Mayor and 
Common Council, Board of Police Commissioners, 
Board of Public Works, and members of the Press. 
The committee appointed to test the working of the 
apparatus consisted of Alderman Shimp for the South, 
Alderman Bond for the West, and Alderman Clark for 
the North Division. After a short time of preparation 
had elapsed, the call was sounded from Box No. 5, 
located at the corner of Lake Street and Michigan 
Avenue. Mr. Mendell, instantly, on noting the number 
of the box, turned to the repeater, and placed the 
pointer on the dial over the figure "5." The alarm 
bells and engine-house gongs instantly pealed forth the 
number of the box, and in less than one minute, the 
different engines were seen hurrying toward the spot 
indicated. At precisely eleven minutes after four 
o'clock, the first signal was given, and four minutes 
thereafter, the first engine arrived on the spot. The 
engines reached the ground in the following order : 
"Atlantic," in four minutes; "Long John," in six; 
" Island Queen," in eight ; " Tempest " (hose"), in nine ; 
" U. P. Harris," in thirteen ; " Economy," in thirteen 
— from a distance of a mile and a half ; "American " 
and "Little Giant,'' hose companies, in sixteen minutes; 
" Little Giant," steamer, also in sixteen ; " Northern 
Star" (hose), in nineteen minutes — from a distance of 
two miles and a half. The committee also tested several 
other signal boxes. In every case, the signal was 
promptly received by the operator, and the whole 
apparatus worked to perfection. Some of the engines 
failed to appear on the spot indicated, and, not fully 
understanding the working of the telegraph on the first 
trial, reported at the Court House. 

Since the introduction of the system, many improve 
ments in the apparatus have taken place.* At first, tin- 
street boxes were of the style known as " cranks," and 
were about as clumsy contrivances, compared with what 
now are used, as were the gongs then in use. In 187 1, 
these were replaced by improved apparatus, although 
the rest of the machinery, being of a better character, 

l'a Journal, 



THE PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



v.; 



was continued for many years later, and some of it is 
still in service. 

The central office was located, originally, in tin- 
dome of the old Court-house cupola. ( )ld citizens and 
firemen can remember the network of wires that radi- 
ated thence to the tops of the buildings that sur- 
rounded the Court-house square. The operating force 
consisted of E. B. Chandler, superintendent ; John P. 



y^\r^o^w~^\^ 



Barrett ('present superintendent , William J. Kirkman 
(afterward murdered in Texas, while agent of the 
Freedmen's Bureau , Alfred Ranous, operators, and 
Nathaniel W. Gray, repairer. Later, the force included 
John Donnelly, a well-known telegrapher ; W. D. S. 
Anderson, known by railroad and telegraph men 
from the lakes to the Gulf ; L. B. Firman, general 
manager of the American District Telegraph and Tele- 
phone Exchange of this city ; George E. Fuller, killed 
in 1873, on Engine No. 6, while responding to an alarm 
of fire ; William J. Brown, John Kennedy, and William 
R. Myers. Mr. Chandler, after managing the system 
with signal ability for eleven years, resigned the super- 
intendency, to take the general western agencv of 
Gamewell & Co., in the spring of 1876, and was suc- 
ceeded by John P. Barrett. 

At the time of the great fire the headquarters were 
located in the old Court House, and it is needless to 
say that they were suddenly abandoned on the morning 
of October 9th. The system suffered severely, losing 
sixty boxes, sixteen gongs, three bell- strikers, eight 
police dials, about forty miles of wire, and the entire 
central office apparatus. Nevertheless, the telegraph 
corps, under the direction of Superintendent Chandler, 
displayed such energy that, on the evening of the sec- 
ond day, with instruments borrowed and altered to suit 
their needs, the West Division lines, embracing nearly 
one-half of the entire system, were ready for service, 
and by the end of the week connection was completed 
with such of the system as had escaped the fire in the 
South 'Division. Everything was destroyed in the 
North Division, except two street boxes, and about a 
mile of wire, and no attempt was made to connect them 
for several weeks. 

The Fire Alarm Telegraph consists, primarily, of 
two parts, the signal apparatus and wires by which the 
presence of a fire or other cause of alarm is telegraphed 
to the central office, and the alarm apparatus by which 
the bells in different parts of the city are struck from 
the central office, by the operator there stationed. Dis- 
tributed over the city are signal boxes. These are 
cottage-shaped, of heavy cast-iron, and fastened to the 
side of a house, or post, being communicated by insu- 
lated wires with the signal circuit overhead, while a 
conductor conveys atmospheric electricity collected by 
the wires to the earth. At first all the boxes were pro- 
vided with signs stating where the keys could be found. 
Within the past few years, the Tooker Keyless Door 
has come more or less into use, which does away with 
the delay heretofore occasioned in times of fire, caused 
by the looking up of the key and properly using it. 
The handle or knob of the alarm protrudes so that it 
can be easily turned. The terrific noise which imme- 
diately ensues, however, is a sufficient guard against 
any undue meddling with the machine. Supposing the 



knob to have been turned, and the hook inside the box 
pulled, the number ol the box is registered at the cen- 
tral station. Ilie duty of the operator then is to release 
the mechanism of a repeater, and communicate the 
alarm to every bell in the city. The striking apparatus 
of the bells is under the action of an electro- magnet, 
and the number and frequency of the strokes are regu- 
lated at will by the operator at the central office. It is 
also in his power, when he considers it advis- 
able, to only signal a portion of the department. 
This is done by means of switches, whii li discon- 
nect any of the alarm circuits, and on these dis- 
connected circuits the bells will remain silent. 
By this means the direct location of the conflagra- 
tion can be given from every bell in the c itv 
within a few seconds after its discovery. 

EDWARD Bri I 1 Ch IND1 ER, first superintendent of the Kire 
Alarm Telegraph of Chicago, and, at present, the general agent of 
the Gamewell System fur the west and southwest, was horn in 
Hartford, Washington Co., N. Y., January 30, 1838. When lie 
was in his eighth year he removed with his parents to Romeo, Ma- 
comb Co , Mich., where he received a good primary education in 
the public schools. At sixteen years of age he entered Ann Arbor 
University, and graduated in the Literary Department in the sum- 
mer of 1S5S. His long career of usefulness and success in his 
chosen profession, dates from his arrival in Chicago on the 31st of 
January, 1859. He at once commenced to learn telegraphy under 
E. D. L Sweet, superintendent of the Western Division of the 
Illinois & Mississippi Company. Mr. Chandler was soon placed 
in service; first at Bureau Junction, then at Peru, Amboy, and 
Rock Island, 111., where he acquitted himself so creditably that 
during a ponion of the war period he was transferred to a more 
important point and post, being manager of the Springfield office. 
Returning to Chicago in May, 1S64, he was employed as a tele- 
graph operator and clerk in the office of the general superintend- 
ent of the Illinois Central Railroad Company. The Kire Alarm 
Telegraph System of Chicago had been finally completed, in the 
spring of 1S65, by John 1- . Kennard. the partner of John X. 
Gamewell in the construction of lines in the northern cities, and, on 
the 15th of April, Mr. Chandler was appointed superintendent. 
One of his brightest, most persevering operators at that time, was 
John P. Barrett, his successor as superintendent. The system 
went into operation June 2. 1SG5. and Mr. Chandler continued to 
manage it with marked ability for a period of eleven years. On 
the 1st of May, 1S76, he resigned the position to assume his 
present one. In 1SS2, he, in connection with others, established 
the Police Signal and Telephone Company, of which he was 
elected president, and still holds that office. Since 1S74. when it 
was organized, he has also been treasurer of the American Elec- 
trical Association. Mr. Chandler is a prominent Mason, being a 
member of Home Lodge, No. 50S, A. ]•'. \ A. M.J I 
Chapter, No. 127. R. A. M.; and Chevalier Bayard Commandery, 
No. 52, K. T. He was married in Princeton. III., Januarj [9, 
1S72, to Miss Emily C. Moseley, the youngest daughter of Roland 
Moseley, one of the earliest settlers of Bureau County. They 
have two children. 

John P. Barrett, superintendent of the Kire Alarm Tele- 
graph, was born in Auburn, N.V. While still a child his parents 
emigrated to Chicago, where the boy received a good common 
school education, and " ran " with " Niagara " No. 3. In 1853, he 
took to the sea, and while off the coast of South America, in the 
Pacific Ocean fell from the mast-head ami broke his arm and leg. 
In August, 1S62. he returned to Chicago and was appointed a 
member of the Kire Department, serving as watchman for No. 8 
and No. 3. In 1S64, he was given charge of the City-hall bell. 
which position he held until 1865, when the city adopted the Kire 
Alarm Telegraph System. Under E. B. Chandler, superintendent, 
Mr. Barrett became aw efficient operator, and upon the retirement 
of Mr. Chandler in May. 1876, became superintendent himself. 
Mr. Barrett has not rested satisfied with having acquired .1 well 
deserved reputation as an executive officer, but since he has been 
at the head of this Department has accomplished many important 
reforms and become quite an inventor. With his instrument called 
the " joker." the alarm is received in each engine-house the moment 
the box is pulled, thereby doing awaj with waiting for the alarm to 
strike on the gong from the general office. lb- was 
nator of the Polio' Patrol Sei ■ ■■ 

throughout the United States. Mr. Barrett was married Vpril 20, 
1868, .old has had nine children, seven of whom are living. Ib- 
is t life member of the Paid Fire Department Benevolent Associa- 
tion. 



9-i 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



DAVID M. Hvland, chief operator of the department of the 
Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph, is a native of Massachusetts, 
being born in Lowell thirty-five years ago, a son of Matthew W. 
Hvl.md. His parents removing to Channahon, 111., when he was 
about six years of age, he naturally followed them. Remaining 
there two years they came to Chicago in 1S50., and here cheir son 
received his education in the Kinzie school. In 1862, he went to 
South Bend, Ind., to attend Notre Dame University for three 
years, and in 1S67 managed to come to Chicago and learn the mys- 
teries of telegraphing. In 1S71, being then twenty-one years of 
age, he entered the office of Edward B. Chandler, superintendent 
of the Fire Alarm Telegraph system from its establishment in June, 
1865. By dint of hard work, untiring perseverance and decided 
ability in his profession, Mr. Hvland has risen from the humblest 
position to one only second to the superintendence', now held by 
John P. Barrett. He has been chief operator in the department 
since the centennial year. 

The Fire Insurance Patrol was organized a few 
days before the great fire, and under the superintend- 
ency of Benjamin B. Bulhvinkle has rendered valuable 
service in the saving of property. As it is not under 
corporate control, however, and is no portion of the 
Fire Department, the details of its organization and 
work will be given in the chapter on Fire Insurance in 
the ensuing volume. 

Benjamin B. Bcllwinkle, superintendent of the Fire Insur- 
ance Patrol, has become known throughout the country for the 
perfection to which he has brougnt this annex to the F'ire Depart- 
ment of Chicago. The appliances and improvements of the system 
which have been introduced, not only in the United States but in 
foreign lands, are many of them the children of Captain Bullwin- 
kle's fertile brain. Especially is this true with regard to the elec- 
trical automatic contrivances which render easy, safe and rapid the 
movements of men and horses when an alarm is sounded. The 
exhibition given in honor of ex-President and Mrs. Hayes, on 
September 12, 1S78, illustrates the efficiency and wonderful rapid- 
ity which mark the workings of the system under the superintend- 
ent's masterly management. At that time, to their unbounded 
astonishment, a large company of ladies and gentlemen saw the 
whole working force of men and horses in their places and out 
upon the street ready for business in just one and a half seconds 
from the sounding of the alarm. As reported by a local paper : 
" Mrs. Hayes good naturedly requested the superintendent to have 
it done slowar, so that she and the President could see how it was 
done, but Captain Ben gracefully declined, saying that while he 
and his men were willing to repeat the performance as often as 
desired, they should rather do it in a little less than in any longer 
time." The history of such a man must be of interest to any 
American, especially to one who is struggling to rise by hatd, 
honest work. He was born in New York City, March 18, 1S47, 
being the son of Charles T. and Eliza (Laughlin) Bulhvinkle. His 
mother died in 1S54, and soon afterward his father came to Chi- 
cago, where he, too. died in 1857. Benjamin, the oldest of three 
children, was thus left with a younger brother and sister, without 
money or relatives. Notwithstanding this responsibility, he bravely 
refused assistance from eastern relatives, and actually set to work 
to support his " little family " upon his earnings as an errand boy. 
Other openings presented themselves to the brave lad, as his 
friends commenced to take a hearly interest in his manly disposi- 
tion, and as the other children grew older all contributed to the 
household exchequer. Mr. Bulhvinkle thus continued to be the 
" father to his sister" until she was married, and the guardian of 
his brother until he learned the trade of jeweler and was able to 
shift for himself. When about fifteen years of age Mr. Bulhvinkle 
obtained a situation in the office of the American Express Com- 
pany, but soon afterward drifted into the charmed circle of the 
Fire Hepartment as driver of the chief's wagon. At this time, as 
the chief was expected to be present at all the fires himself, the 
fortunate driver had the advantage of having a living example 
Til, and was not slow to improve the opportunities afforded 
him of learning how to " light lire" himself. He soon mastered 
every branch of his profession and came into such general notice- 
that just before the great lire, when the insurance companies 
decided to organize a tin- patrol, as New York, Boston anil Phila 
dclphia had already done, they selected Captain Bullwinkle as the 
proper person to be placed at its head. Under the auspices of a 

committee of th impleted the organization on the 2d of 

1 -71. and although several eastern gentlemen wen urged 
for the position endent, his undisputed qualifications 

gained the day. The great lire annihilated so many of tin insur- 
ance companies who had supported the enterprise that it seemed 
probable that the patrol system would fall with them. But Cap- 



tain Bullwinkle kept his men together and temporary quarters 
were found for them on Blue Island Avenue until a frame build- 
ing could be erected on Michigan Avenue near Jackson, on the 
present site of the Exposition Building. After it was found that 
Chicago was by no means ruined, but that the destruction of her 
fire traps had taught her a lesson by which insurance companies 
were in future to profit, many of these organizations entered 
enthusiastically into the work of placing the patrol upon a more 
substantial basis. In April, 1S72, Captain Bullwinkle's force 
moved into a spacious brick building at No. 113 Franklin Street, 
built expressly for it by the Chicago Board of Underwriters. In 
1877-78, the brick building No. 176 Monroe Street was erected by 
L. Z. Leiter, but its interior was entirely finished by the members 
of the patrol under the direction of the superintendent. The 
building was formally opened by " Patrol No. 1 " on February 16, 
1S78. " Patrol No. 2" was organized on August 3, 1875, with a 
captain and four men, for duty on the West Side a brick building 
having been erected expressly for it on Peoria Street near Con- 
gress. On January 26, 1SS2, after the stock-yards fire the pack- 
ers furnished a building and entire equipment for a patrol, paying 
one-half the expense of maintaining the same. Both this patrol 
and No. 2 are under the personal supervision of Superintendent 
Bullwinkle, who seems omnipresent and is certainly omnipotent in 
his particular province. That his services are fully appreciated is 
evident from the comfortable and even elegant quarters which have 
been furnished him and his men. He has had many marks of per- 
sonal favor, such as the presentation by his employes, in December, 
1S75, of a gold badge costing $450, and a magnificent gold watch, 
chain and badge from the Underwriters, which testimonial was 
valued at $525, and received by the superintendent with unfeigned 
pride, in February, 187S. Among the Masons, Captain Bullwinkle 
is held in high esteem, and he is an officer in Apollo Commandery, 
No. 1, Knights Templar. He is a member of the Third Presby- 
terian Church. On November 5, 1S73, Mr. Bulhvinkle was mar- 
ried to Miss Angelica J. Moody, and has one son. 

Firemen's Benevolent Association. — The first 
act to incorporate the Firemen's Benevolent Associa- 
tion of the Volunteer Department was approved by 
Governor French, June 21, 1852. The association had, 
however, previously been organized in 1847. From 
1858, up to and including 187 1, the officers were as 
follows : 

Presidents.— John T. Edwards, 1858-64; U. P. Harris, 
1864-66 ; Peter L. Yoe, 1866-70 ; John L. Gerber, 1870-71. 

Vice-Presidents. — Darius Knights, 1S5S ; Cyrus P. Bradley, 
1858-62; Frederick Letz, 1862-63; Robert Letz, 1863-65; Robert 
A. Williams, 1S65-69; John L. Gerber, 1869-70 ; J, M. Johnston, 
1870-71. 

Secretaries. — P. P. Wood, 1858-62 ; Augustus H. Burley, 
1862-65; Thomas H. Buckley, 1865-70; D. J. Swenie, 1870-71. 
_ Treasurer. — Charles N. Holden, 1S58-71. 

The Benevolent Association of the Paid Depart- 
ment was organized in the fall of 1863. In answer to 
a call issued to all the companies in the Paid Fire De- 
partment, a meeting was held, September 12, 1863, at 
the engine house of the " Long John " Engine Com- 
pany, on LaSalle Street, near the old Chamber of 
Commerce. D. J. Swenie was chosen president of the 
meeting and Joel Prescott secretary. A committee 
was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws, 
which were adopted October 14th, and an association 
organized with the following officers : Francis Agnew, 
president ; Charles T. Brown, vice-president ; Thomas 
Barry, secretary; Joel Prescott, treasurer; J. J. Gilles- 
pie, D. J. Swenie and L. J. Walsh, finance committee. 
The initiation fee was fixed at $r and the annual dues 
at $5. Many who desired to be members were so con- 
fident that these fees would not be sufficient to maintain 
the association and also pay $8 per week for sick bene- 
fits and other expenses, that they refused to join the 
organization. But they were wrong in their prognosti- 
cations, as the subsequent prosperity of the association 
sufficiently indicated. For the first year of its exist- 
ence, the balance in the treasury was $486.83. At the 
time ( > f the great lire there was over $5,000 in the 
treasury. 

From the organization of the association, up to and 



THE PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



95 



including the time of the great fire, the officers were as 
follows : 

President, Frank Agnew, 1S64-71 ; Vice-Presidents, Charles 
T. Brown, 1864 ; J. J. Gillespie, 1864-67 ; M. W. Powell, [867 
bS ; 1. P. Barrett, 1868-71 ; Secretaries, Theodore Barry, [864 
66; Leo Myers, 1866-69; Hiram Amick (Recording), l86q 71 . 
Joel A. Kinney (Financial), 1S69-71 ; Treasurer, |oe] Prescott, 
1863-71. 

Company Sketches. — The following sketches of 
steam fire engine companies include those organized 
previous to 1871 : 

"Long John" Engine Company No. 1. As lias 
been stated, this company was first put under full pay in 
December, 1858, with Joel A. Kinney as its foreman. 
He held the position but a few months, being succeeded 
the next year by Thomas Barry. Mr. Barry remained 
in this position for two years, when he was transferred 
to Engine Company No 8. In 1868, Alexander 
McMonagle was appointed foreman of the company, 
the " Long John " engine having made its last appear- 
ance during the early portion of the year. On the 
28th of January, 1868, occurred the Lake-street fire, 
which was its final work, the steamer soon afterward 
going into the " scrap-heap." " Long John the Second" 
arrived from the Silsby works, on the 20th of June, and 
was immediately put into service. It remained intact, 
however, for only about eighteen months ; for, on Jan- 
uary 17, 1870, while going down the approach to Wash- 
ington-street tunnel, on its way to a South Canal-street 
fire, and indulging in a contest of speed with the 
"A. D. Titsworth " No. 13, it was overturned, and 
brought up, at the mouth of the tunnel, a total wreck. 
James Enright, engineer, now engineer of No. 16, was 
seriously injured. The third " Long John " arrived 
January 30, 1870, and was put into service on the 2d 
of February. Mr. McMonagle continued to act as 
foreman until after 1S71. 

" Enterprise " Engine Company No 2 was organ- 
ized December 26, 185S, and was located in the quar- 
ters vacated by the " Long John " in the old Armory 
Building, corner of Adams and Franklin streets. The 
first members were : Delos N. Chappel, foreman ; John 
Sloan, Maurice Walsh, Alexander Ross, John Lewis, 
Patrick Guilfoil, John Agnew, pipemen ; George 
Roberts, engineer ; Harry Roberts, assistant engineer ; 
John Heber and George Delemater, drivers ; Michael 
Powers, watchman. Mr. Chappel remained as foreman 
until the summer of 1859, when he was succeeded by 
P. P. Wood. Mr. Wood joined " Battery A," in 1862, 
and became captain because of meritorious service. 
James J. Walsh "Ginger") succeeded Captain Wood. 
Mr. Walsh is now captain of Engine Company No. 22, 
located at No. 460 Webster Avenue, and is the oldest 
foreman, of continuous service, in the department. He 
remained as acting foreman until No. 2 was reorgan- 
ized, as "J.B.Rice" No. 10, in February. 18O6, and 
the engine transferred to Bridgeport. Joel A. Kinney 
became foreman of No. 2 in April, 1866, remaining one 
year. Mathias Benner succeeded him in April, 1867, 
continuing thus to act until May 4, 1868. 

"Atlantic " Engine Company No. 3, the first com- 
pany put into commission under full pay, was prganized 
October 23, 1858, and was located on the North Side. 
No. 225 Michigan Street, where No. 8 now is. The 
following were the first members: George McCagg, 
foreman; L. T. Walsh, John O'Neil, William loner. 
Frank Agnew, Martin Dollard, James Maxwell, pipe- 
men; George Roberts, engineer; Harry Roberts, assist 
ant engineer; William Dexter and Francis T. Swenie, 
drivers: Robert Williams, watchman. Mr. McCagg was 



foreman until 1861, when Mr. Walsh succeeded him 

ami remained in that position until after 1871, 

"Island Queen" Engine Company No. 4 was or] 
ized January 5, 1859, and located at tin- comer ol 
Clinton and Washington streets. Afterwards its head- 
quarters were in No. 6's house, on West Lake Street. 
The original members of " Island Queen " were as fol- 
lows: Robert A. Williams, foreman; Leo Myers. Peter 
Schimmels, Adolph Wilkie, Nicholas Eckhardt, John 
Hocksfear, Anton Lawson aid Henry McBride, pipe- 
men; Fred Monday, engineer: William Johnson, assist- 
ant engineer; Patrick Garrity and Joseph Smith, 
drivers; John Myer, watchman. Mr. Williams remained 
foreman until the spring of i860, being succeeded, for 
a short time, by John Mel.ane. In 1861, came Charles 
T. Brown, who served until after the fire. 

" U. P. Harris" Engine Company No. 5 was put in 
commission January 26, i860, and was stationed on 
West Jackson Street, between Clinton and Jefferson 
streets. The original members were: Alfred F, Stod- 
dart, foreman; Leo Myers, John Harrington, John 
Drehr and John Scanlon, pipemen; Robert Etheridge, 
engineer; Frank Sowersby, assistant engineer; John 
Windheim and Charles Nolan, drivers; Michael Powers, 
watchman. Mr. Myers remained foreman until he was 
appointed first assistant of the Department in 1863. 
William Sodem served from 1863 until 1868, and Chris- 
tian Schimmels from that year until after the fire. 

M. W. CoNWAY, chief of the Third Battalion, was born in 
Ireland .in 1S42, settling in the city of Brooklyn, X. V, with bis 
parents when he was six years of age. Coming to Chicago in 1855, 
he obtained a good education, joining the "Garden City'* Hose 
Company No. 6, the next year, when fourteen years of age. He 
remained a member of the company until it disbanded in 1S59, and 
soon afterwards moved to Memphis. Term., where he remained 
until the breaking out of the war. He then returned to Chicago, 
and enlisted in Mulligan's llrigade (23d Illinois). At the conclu- 
sion of the war he again became a ci'.uen of Chicago and, in De- 
cember, 186S, was appointed pipenKin of Engine Company No. 5, 
which position he held during the great tire of 1S71. His engine 
put the first water on the front of the fire. In 1S72. he was trans- 
ferred to Tempest Hose Company, which was replaced in 1875 
the first chemical engine ever in service in Chicago, lie was cap- 
tain of No. 17, in 1S73, and of No. 7 during the following year, 
receiving the commendation of the Board of Police and lire Com- 
missioners for the courage he displayed in the fire of July, 1-74. 
Mr. Conway was promoted to the position of Chief of the Sev- 
enth Battalion in September. 1875, his headquarters being at No. 
ij's house; and in April, 1S77. was transferred to the Fourth, be- 
ing stationed at the house of Engine Company No. 12. In May, 
1SS0, he assumed command of the Fifth Battalion, being- trans- 
ferred to Hook and Ladder No. 5. on West Twelfth Street. In 
April, 1SS2, he was given charge of the Third Battalion, with 
headquarters at No. So West Erie Street. 

"Little Giant" Engine Company No. 6 was organ- 
ized on the 13th of February, i860, and stationed at 
No. 98 Dearborn Street. The original members were: 
Fred A. Bragg, foreman; William R. Hoisington, 
Samuel Cunningham, Nelson Edson, and Richard 
Stringer, pipemen; Samuel Furlong, engineer: William 
V. Durfee. assistant -engineer; John Callahan and 
William L Moore, drivers; J. R. George, watchman 
Upon the date of organization, given above, the engine 
arrived, via the Grand Trunk and Michigan Central 
Railroad, from the Amoskeag works. It was one of 
the three ordered by the city, weighed six thousand five 
hundred pounds, cost $3,500. and was located at the 
engine house of old "Fire Kin-" No. 1. Hie "Little 
Giant" was reorganized in 1S64. its headquarti rs 
on Maxwell Street, near Canal. John Harrington was 
the first foreman, being succeeded by Richard Brown, 
who held the position until 1868. William Mustaam 
then became foreman, serving until after the fire. 



9 6 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



William Mi/sham, first assistant fire marshal, was born in 
Chicago, February 9, 1S39. Having obtained a good common 
school education and learned the carot liter's trade, he joined the 
" Philadelphia " Hose Company when only sixteen years of age. 
Next he became a member of "Phoenix" Company No. S, which 
was then located at the present site of No. n's house. When 
Engine Company No. S was disbanded, in 1S5S, to give place to 
paid coniDany "Atlantic" No. 3, he left the Department and had 
no connection with it until 1S61, when he was appointed pipeman 
on " Little Giant " Engine Company No. o. In 1S65, he attended 
the grand firemen's review in Philadelphia, remaining in that city 
and becoming a member of the famous "Fairmount" Engine 
Companv. The next year he returned to Chicago connecting him- 
self with " T. B. Brown" Engine Company No. 12. In the fall 
of 1S6S, he left the company to become foreman of " Little Giant" 
No. 6. Whenthe great fire occurred Mr. Musham was acting as 
captain of the company, which did such noble service under him 
that, in March. 1S72, the Board of Fire Commissioners promoted 
him to the position of third assistant marshal, having charge of the 
entire West Division. In April, 1S77, he was transferred from the 
Fourth to the Second Battalion, his old comrades showing their 
sorrow at his departure by presenting him with a silver tea-set and 
an elegant fireman's hat. In May, 1880, Mr. Musham became 
first assistant fire marshal and inspector of the Department, which 
position he still fills in every good sense of the word. His early 
experience as a carpenter has served him well, as for the past 
quarter of a century he has had charge of all repairs and rebuilding 
of engine houses. Mr. Musham was married in September, 1873, 
to Miss Kate McFadden, daughter of Michael McFadden, who 
came to Chicago in 1S40 They have a family of six children. 
William Musham, his father, came to Chicago in 1S35 and resided 
here until his death, in 1S44. He was captain of one of the first 
vessels that came to Chicago, and had been a sailor from boyhood. 

" Liberty" Engine Company No. 7 was put in com- 
mission April 27,1861, and located at No. 180 Dearborn 
Avenue. Its original members were : D. J. ijwenie, 
foreman ; John O'Neil, Frank Agnew, and William 
Toner, pipemen ; William Horner, engineer; Frank 
Sowersby, assistant engineer ; Horace Ward and Wil- 
liam Mullen, drivers; John Farrell, watchman. Mr. 
Swenie was the first and only foreman, serving until 
No. 7's successor, " Fred. Gund " No. 14, was organ- 
ized, in 1867. 

Peter Schnur, marshal and chief of the Sixth Battalion, 
was born in the city of New York, September 2S, 1S42. When 
six months of age, his parents came to Chicago, where he received 
his education, and was apprenticed to a tinsmith. He never learned 
his trade, however, on account of the breaking out of the war. 
Mr. Schnur first enlisted in Taylor's Battery, passing through some 
of the bloodiest battles of the war, and receiving an honorable dis- 
charge July 24, 1864. Returning to Chicago, he commenced work- 
ing as a substitute in Engine Company No. 8, the captain of which 
was the late Thomas Barry. After serving three weeks, he was 
appointed a member, and given the position of driver of " Liberty" 
Company No. 7, under the command of Captain D. f. Swenie. 
In 1872, he was promoted to be assistant foreman of Engine Com- 
pany No. 13. serving as such until December 31, 1872, when he 
became captain of Hook and Ladder No. 2. There he remained 
until October, 1873, when he was transferred as captain to his old 
company I No. 14), succeeding Mr. Swenie, who had been made 
first assistant marshal. On the 21st of January, 1878. Mr. Schnur 
was appointed marshal and chief of the Third Battalion. In 
March, 1S82, he was placed in charge of the Sixth Battalion, his 
headquarters being at No. 322 East Twenty-second Street Mar- 
shal Schnur was married in January, 1878, to Miss Margaret 1*2. 
Fearon, a daughter of Bartholomew Fearon, an early settler of 
mty. lie ii a member of the Benevolent Association of 
the Paid Fire Department, both city and state; also, of Court 
Benevolent Lodge, No. 38, I. O. F. 

"Economy" Engine Company No. 8 was organ- 
ized November 2. 1861, and was located at No. 265 
Eighteenth Street, the following being the original list 
of members : Thomas Barry, foreman ; John Teahan, 
I', k. Jiurns, John Agnew, pipemen; Thomas Cooper, 
engineer; I-; S. Hammond, assistant engineer ; Edward 
Baggot and John Windheim, drivers ; John I'. Barrett, 
watchman. In September, 1871, Mr. Barry was trans- 
ferred to "Douglas" Hose No. 6, Nicholas Dubach 
being appointed foreman of No. 8. 



Thomas Barrv, ex-assistant fire marshal and chief of Sixth 
Battalion, was born in Ireland March 3, 1S32. When eleven years 
of age he emigrated to America, settling first in the city of Brook- 
lyn, N. V. For three years previous to 1S50, he, although but a 
boy, did good service with the Department, learning the trade of 
boiler maker. In the latter part of 1850, when he was eighteen 
years of age, he arrived in Chicago, resuming his trade, and, after 
resting five years, becoming a member of " Red Jacket" Engine 
Company No. 4. Mr. Barry remained with the company until the 
Paid Department was organized. He was appointed " Long 
John's" first pipeman, and in 1859 commenced to serve as its 
foreman In November, 1861, he was transferred to "Economy"' 
No. 8, as foreman; and remained in charge until June, 1865, when 
he was injured by the falling of a brick wall on South Water 
Street. His limbs were fractured in eleven different places, and 
he was picked up for dead, but skillful care, combined with his vig- 
orous constitution, brought him out of the shadow of death and 
made a hardy man of him. After his recovery he became watch- 
man of No. 6 for about a year, being again elected captain of the 
" Economy " in June, 1S67. In July he was again injured, and in 
January, 1871, at Armour's packing house. In September of that 
year he was transferred to the " Douglas " Hose No. 6, where he 
he served during the fire of October. In the following November, 
he took charge of Engine No. 19, and in November, 1874, he 
was promoted to the position which he held at the time of his 
death. 

" Frank Sherman " Engine Company No. 9 was 
organized March 15, 1864, with headquarters at No. 97 
Dearborn Street. The original members were: John 
J. Gillespie, foreman ; M. W. Shay, John R. George 
and Samuel Cunningham, pipemen; William Donlan, 
engineer; John Holm, assistant engineer; William J. 
Moore and Richard Stringer, drivers; John P. Fearns, 
watchman. Mr. Shay became foreman in 1865, Mr. 
Gillespie having been promoted to the assistant mar- 
shalship. In 1867, Joel A. Kinney became foreman of 
the Company, holding that position at the time of the 
great fire in 187 1. The headquarters of No. 9 were 
changed from Dearborn Street to No. 2527 Cottage 
Grove Avenue. 

Joel A. Kinney, assistant fire marshal and chief of the 
Fourth Battalion, is a native of Cattaraugus Co. , N Y. , where he was 
born July ig, 182S, being the son of Joel and Pamelia Kinney. 
In 1S33, he removed with his parents to Hamilton, Upper Canada, 
coming to Wheeling, Cook Co., 111., in 1S37. On the 28th of No- 
vember, 1840, he settled in Chicago. Soon afterward the lad 
received his first baptism by fire; for while plaxing among the ruins 
of a conflagration on the southwest corner of Lake and LaSalle 
streets, he was so badly burned as to be nearly crippled for life. 
When fourteen years of age he entered the printing office of the 
Democrat, and two years later became one of the original compos- 
itors on the Journal. Young Kinney was also one of the " crew " 
of two boys who carried that paper to its few patrons in 1S44. In 
addition to his other duties he acted as roller boy — in fact, was a 
youth of all work. During this year, in May, he commenced his 
long term of service as a fireman by joining "Neptune" Bucket 
Company No. 1, which in November, 1846, was reorganized as 
Engine Company No. 4 In 1S52, Mr. Kinney joined Engine 
Company No. I, becoming first assistant engineer of the Depart- 
ment in 1S55 and foreman of " Long John " Steam Engine Com- 
pany No. I, in December, 1858. Colorado and silver bonanzas 
claimed his attention in the spring of i860, he departing for the 
west in April of that year. On October 1, 1S62, he joined the 
Independent Battery of Colorado, being promoted to the second 
lieutenancy, May 24, 1865. Lieutenant Kinney saw considerable 
service up to the summer of 1864, being stationed a portion of the 
time at Fort Earned, western Kansas, and participating in the closing 
scenes of the war in Missouri. When he returned to Chicago, in 
the fall of 1865, he found it virtually impossible to avoid service in 
the Fire Department; since not only was he warmly urged to enter 
it, but all his leanings were that way. In April, 1866, he was 
appointed foreman of Engine Company No. 2. and a year later 
was transferred to the reorganized "Frank Sherman" Engine 
Company No. 9. Mr. Kinney and his company passed through 
the great lire with very much credit to all concerned. In February, 
1874, IVr. Kinney was promoted to his present position. He is a 
prominent member of the old Fireman's Benevolent Association; 
also of the Benevolent Association of the Paid Department, being 
its financial secretary for a number of years. 

"J. B.Rice" Engine Company No. 10 was organ- 



THE PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



97 



ized February 19, 1866, and located at No. 338 State 
Street. Following are the original members: fames 
J. Walsh, foreman; Jacob Held, Nicholas Barth, Thomas 
Dunigan, pipemen; George Roberts, engineer; Fred 
Allen, assistant engineer; Samuel Ripley, Archy Martin, 
drivers; Jacob Reis, watchman. The "J. I!. Rice" 
engine was first publicly tested in the Court-house 
square, September 26, 1865. Among the spectators 
were Enoch McGrue, chief engineer of the Cincinnati 
Fire Department ; A. B. Taylor, chief engineer of the 
Fond du Lac Department; J. F. Kinnard, patentee and 
proprietor of the Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph; 
and Commissioners John Wentworth and Brown. 
The engine was stationed at the northeast corner of the 
square, taking water from the fountain basin. At five 
o'clock the wood was ignited, and in eight minutes and 
a quarter the steamer began to throw water. With less 
than fifty pounds of steam, through a one and a quarter 
inch nozzle, a stream was thrown one hundred and 
seventy-five feet high. This was never before accom- 
plished in this city, except by the ''Neptune" in 1S58, 
when, through a nozzle of the same size, it threw a 
stream to an altitude of over two hundred feet. The 
horizontal stream, through four sections of hose, one 
and a quarter inch nozzle, " Siamese " connection, was 
thrown to a distance of two hundred and thirty feet. 
The " Neptune" threw a stream two hundred and sixty 
feet, but it must be remembered that this engine weighed 
four times as much as the " Rice." The " J. 15. Rice " 
was built at the Amoskeag works at Manchester, N. H , 
being similar to the " Frank Sherman." Mr. Walsh 
remained foreman of the "Rice" until 1872. 

Charles S. Petrie, assistant fire marshal, secretary of the 
Fire Department and superintendent of repair-shop, was born in 
Chicago, September 25, 1S40. He obtained his early education at 
St. Joseph's Catholic School in this city, and afterward at South 
Bend, Ind. When ir. his sixteenth year he both entered the employ 
of the McCormick Reaper Company and joined the Volunteer Fire 
Department as a runner. In 1S56, he was accepted as a regular 
member of Engine Company No. n. Between 185S and 1S62, Mr. 
Petrie was steamboat ing between New Orleans and Nashville, in 
" scrambling " for gold, for a short time, at Pike's Peak, Col., and 
in acting as assistant engineer on the Mississippi and Missouri 
rivers. On the 30th of January, 1S62, he returned to Chicago, and 
took charge of the tug boat " Union." He held the position of 
assistant of " Atlantic" Engine Company No. 3 for two years and a 
half from September 16, 1S62, and then returned to the McCormick 
Reaper Works. On Friday, February 1, 1S66, he was appointed to 
the position of assistant engineer of the "J. B. Rice" No. 10, and 
remained in that position until Edwin Roberts, the engineer, died. 
Mr. Petrie was promoted to the vacant position July 2, 1867. 
When the "William James" No. 3 was organized during the fol- 
lowing November, he was transferred to it as engineer. The 
steamer was destroyed at the repair-shop during the great fire of 

1871, but Captain John McLean. R. J. Harmon, Harry Anderson 
and Mr. Petrie did such excellent service as pipemen in the south- 
west lumber district that they were presented with a purse of $400 
by the business men of the community. On Friday, February 14, 

1872, he was promoted to the position of third assistant fire mar- 
shal in charge of the West Division, having his headquarters at 
Engine House No. 17. He became second assistant fire marshal, 
on Friday, March 1, being assigned to the North Division, with 
headquarters at Supply House No. 3. Marshal Petrie acquitted 
himself with his usual judgment and bravery at the fire of 1S74, 
being found, bv a friend, during the height of the excitement, with 
his boots burned completely from his feet. To return to his 
"lucky day." On Friday. April 11, 1877, he accepted the posi- 
tion of superintendent of the repair-shop, at the same time going 
to all fires upon second alarm, and taking the place of the marshals 
when the latter were absent. At the time of the burning of tin 
Academy of Music, on Halsted Street, October 12. 1880, Marshal 
Petrie had an extremely narrow escape from death. With other 
firemen he was on the roof when it suddenly gave way. carrying 
them all into a cauldron of fire. He received several bad bruises 
and a terrible shock. Mr. Petrie's position at extensive conflagra- 
tions is generally the one of the greatest danger, as he is consigned 
to direct operations from the roofs. Since Marshal Petrie has held 
the position of superintendent of the repair-shops he has invented 

7 



the heaters used in the Department, also the stand-pipe and water- 
tower combined, and numerous smallei devices attached t*> the 
apparatus, which an- generally admitted to l»- of great v. due. He 
has been secretary ol thi lit. Department since the death of Hans 
II. Kiting, January i-, [88i. lie is a great favorite among the 
men, and is much interested in benevolent and social objects. 11 
has held the office of president of tin- Mutual Aid Association "l 
the Paid Fire Department, and was treasurer for three years of the 
Benevolent Association. He joined the 1 "tut Garden < it\. No. 1. 
Order of Foresters. February -. 1876, and, with several 
organized ('our! Benevolence, No. 30, January 27, [880. From 
this Courl he was elected a represi ntativi to the High Court, which 
position he still holds. He served one term as high chief i.'ii 
and to his untiring efforts is greatly due the present prosperous 
condition of the order. He served as one of the delegates ol thi 
world, at London, in I S 79. lie was one of the originators of Illinois 
Council No. 615, Royal Arcanum, chartered September 7, 1S81, 
holding the offices of regent, past regent, and treasurer. Marshal 
Petrie became a member of I). C. Cregier lodge, No. 043, A. V. \ 
A. M., in September, 1879 ; Corinthian Chapter, No. 69, K. A M., 
February. tSio ; St. Bernard Commandery, No. 35, K. T., Novem- 
ber, 18S1. He is a charter member of Teutonia Maennerchor, and 
has been president of the N. W. B. Social Club lor two years. Mr. 
Petrie was married to Miss Martha A. Morton, of Nashville, Tenn., 
on January 30, 1862, shortly after his return to Chicago from his 
river service between that city and New Orleans. 

"A. C. Coventry " Engine Company No. 1 1 was 
organized in January, 1866, and was located at No. 225 
Michigan Street, the following being the original mem- 
bers: Lawrence J. Walsh, foreman; George L.Taylor, 
Thomas Maxwell, Fred Williams, pipemen ; James 
Furlong, engineer; Bart. Hardy, assistant engineer; Eu- 
gene Sullivan, John Kennedy, drivers; William Mcln- 
tyre, watchman. Mr. Walsh continued to act as fore- 
man of the company until 1872. 

" T. B. Brown" Engine Company No. 12 was organ- 
ized on February 19, 1866, and was located at No. 80 
West Lake Street, with the following roll of members: 
Charles T. Brown, foreman; Fred Taplen, Nicholas 
Eckhardt, Adolph Wilke, Charles Gagenheimer, pipe- 
men; Charles Noble, engineer; Thaddeus Haley, stoker; 
John Windheim and Jacob Ross, drivers; Daniel O'Con-^ 
nell, watchman. Mr. Brown remained foreman of the 
company, and its successor, the " R. A. Williams " No. 
17, until after the great fire. 

"A. D. Titsworth " Engine Company No. 13 was 
organized in January, 1867, and located at No. 97 Dear- 
born Street, with the following members: Maurice W. 
Shay, foreman; James E. Furlong, T Mognahan, S. 
Paine, A. Barber, John Fitzgerald, Chris. Goodwin. J. M. 
Reis, Charles Kramer, T. Sanderson. Mr. Shay 
remained foreman until October, 1873, when he was 
promoted to the position of assistant marshal. 

Maurice W. Shay, assistant lire marshal and chief of the 
First Battalion, was born in Nova Scotia, March 22, 1832. \\ hi " 
six years of age he removed with his parents to Fastport, Me., 
where, in 1839, he witnessed the great lire in that city. The 
casualty left a deep impression on his boyish mind, and prompted 
him to adopt the arduous and meritorious life of a fireman. In 
1S40, he removed to Charlestown, Mass., where he was reared, and 
seven years later, being then but .1 lad of fifteen, commenced running 
with "Warren" Engine Company No. 4, of the Volunteer Fire 
Department. On visiting thai city, in 1.SS4, he was made a member 
of the Volunteer Veteran Association ol Charlestown, Mass. He 
removed to Cleveland in 1849, and the next year joined " Phoenix" 
Engine Company No. 4. In 1852, Pittsburgh, Penn., claimed him 
as an efficient, brave an. I aspiring fireman, serving for three months 
as a member of "Eagle" Company. He returned to his former 
companv-the "Phcenix," of Cleveland — in 1855; he was elected 
second assistant foreman of the company, and the next ) 
advanced to the position of assistant engineer of the Fire Depart- 
ment. Mr. Shay came to Chicago in October, 1856 appearing 
first as a pipein.in of " 1 ibertj " Hose No o, in 1857. < in 
later he was elected assistant foreman, remaining in this position 
until the company was disbanded and the Paid Fire Department 
organized. In September, 1861, aftei being out ol the service for 
two years, he was appointed truckman on Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany No. r While mi assist. ,m of llosi- Company No. 6, in 



9 S 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



October, 1S57. at a large fire on Lake Street, he was working on 
the top of a" wall and fell down with it, many firemen being killed, 
among others being his gallant foreman, John 1!. Dickey. Mr. Shay 
had a narrow escape himself. Transferred to "Little Giant" Engine 
Company No. (•. in 1862, two years later he was promoted to be 
foreman, and given charge of " Frank Sherman" Engine Company 
No. 1). which was organized in March, 1S04. In January, 1867, 
the "A. D. Titsworth" Engine Company No. 13 was organized, 
and Mr. Shay was transferred from the "Frank Sherman" to 
oecome its first foreman. No. 13 ever stood in the front rank of 
the crack engine companies of Chicago, and Mr. Shay was mainly 
instrumental in bringing it to its splendid position. Although a 
strict disciplinarian, he was, and is, a great favorite with his men. 
As one evidence of this warm feeling of respect and admiration, 
it may be remarked that in February. 1S09, his personal friends in 
the department presented him with an elegant gold watch. In the 
great fire his company did noble service, taking position on Jeffer- 
son Street and stubbornly contesting the progress of the flames 
westward. On October 3, 1S73, Mr. Shay was promoted to be 
assistant lire marshal, having been detailed as such while foreman 
of his old company. His headquarters were, at first, the house 
of Hook and Ladder Company No. 4, on East Twenty-second 
Street, but when he was transferred to the First Battalion in 
November. 1S74. his headquarters were at Hook and Ladder No. 6, 
on Franklin Street, and subsequently at No. 13's house on Dearborn 
Street. Here he still is stationed, an efficient, faithful, and popu- 
lar officer of the Department. Notwithstanding which, Mr. Shay 
was never married — except in the columns of the daily press. On 
account of iii-health he was obliged to relinquish active duty in the 
department, but his services were demanded, and therefore was 
appointed inspector of the Fire Department, and since then has 
held that position. Three years ago he was invited by the Board 
of Fire Commissioners of St. Paul, Minn., to visit that city, and 
was tendered the position of chief of the Fire Department of that 
city : this honor he declined — preferring Chicago and his old 
associations. 

" Fred Gund " Engine Company No. 14 was organ- 
ized on April 7, 1867, and was stationed at No. 180 
North Dearborn Street. The following were the orig- 
inal members: Denis J. Swenie, foreman; J. Enright, 
J. Green, E. O'Xeil, pipemen; William Horner, engin- 
eer; J. Berry, assistant engineer; P. Schnur and D. 
Daley, drivers; John Farrell, watchman. Mr. Swenie 
was foreman at the time of the fire. 

D. J. Swenie, the first and last chief of the Paid Fire Depart- 
ment of Chicago, was born in Glasgow, July 29, 1834. He is 
therefore in his fifty-first year, a vigorous man in every sense of the 
word; and the position which he has held for five years — the head 
of one of the grandest tire departments in the world — is but the 
logical result of thirty-live years of arduous and faithful service. 
Mr. Swenie came to Chicago in July, 1S49, an honest industrious 
boy of fifteen, and engaged in the manufacture of leather hose, 
fire hats, etc., with C. F^. Peck, whose house was on Lake Street. 
In this way he became acquainted with the volunteer firemen, and 
before he was a year older had joined No. 3 Hose Company. Next 
he became a member of " Niagara" Company No. 3, and, in 1852, 
when only eighteen years of age, was elected assistant foreman of 
"Red Jacket" F^ngine Company No. 4. In September, 1854, 
after the disbandment of the " Red Jackets," he returned to No. 
3, where he remained until 1S56, when he was elected first assist- 
ant engineer of the Department. In March, 1858, he was chosen 
chief engineer, organizing the Paid Steam Fire Department. The 
opposition shown to him by the element of the volunteer service, 
would have can rageous man than Chief Swenie to have 

withdrawn from a life which brought so many hardships and per- 
plexities. In 1 , ' r Harris wa nominated for chief 
1 or two years he ran with "Ai- 
II'.-" Company No 3, as an exempt member. In 1861, 
enie was appointed foreman of "Liberty" Engine No. 7. 
67, the engine another house, and he 
Fred Gund" No, 1 1, still re- 
taining his old members and holding his position as foreman. On 
the tenth anniversary of his appointment as foreman, his many 
n the department gave a banquet in honor of the '.• 1 a lion 
at "No . lich was a grand affair. C, N. Ilolden pre- 
sented him with a gold watch and chain, with a miniature fire-hal 
and trumpet, a : pon the resignation of Chief Harris 
in February. 1868, P. A.Williams was appointed by the Fire Com- 
missioners to fill the va< incy. Mr. Swenie was tendered the posi- 
tion of first assistant, but preferring, forth 1 retain hi 
old position, ; • discharge th' ning there- 
to until ' ■ ipp linted firsl assi tanl fire 
marshal unde' I At the great fire he was the means 



of saving four squares on the North Side, bounded by Michigan 
and Market streets and the river. Mayor Harrison appointed him 
acting-chief July 3, 1S79, and upon the retirement of Mr Benner 
in November, he became the head of the Department, being con- 
firmed on the 10th of that month. 

"Illinois" Engine Company No. 15 was organized 
in December, 1867, its headquarters being on the cor- 
ner of May and Twenty-second streets. Its original 
members were: William Mullin, foreman; FVancis 
Berry, engineer; James Kingswell, stoker; Norman T. 
Ormsby and Mathias Shafer, drivers; Eugene Vallie 
and Hugh Ward, pipemen. Mr. Mullin continued as 
foreman up to the time of the fire. 

"Winnebago" Engine Company No. 16, with four 
call members, was organized at the same time as No. 
15, and located on the corner of State and Thirty-first 
streets. The following were its first members: John 
Dreher, foreman; James Enright, engineer; Patrick 
Crowley, stoker; Thomas Byrhes, driver; Oilman Pal- 
mer, watchman; Francis Butterfield, Frank Howard 
and Thomas McAuliffe, pipemen. Mr. Dreher contin- 
ued to act as foreman until after the fire. 

" R. A. Williams " Engine Company No. 1 7, the last 
engine company organized before the fire, was put in 
commission on the 16th of February, 1870, and was 
located at No. 80 West Lake Street. The original 
members were as follows : Charles T. Brown, foreman; 
John Cook, S. H. Scadin, A. J. Calder, and David Hy- 
land, pipemen ; John E. Ferguson, engineer ; Charles 
Schroeder, stoker; Adam S. Barber and Patrick Lamey, 
drivers; Daniel O'Connell, watchman. Mr. Brown was 
foreman at the time of the fire. 

" Pioneer " Hook and Ladder No. 1, organized 
August 13, 1859, was located at No. 121 LaSalle Street. 
George Ernst was its first foreman ; Charles T. Brown, 
William Kelch, Edward Fingerhutt and Aaron J. Slo- 
man, truckmen; John P. Ferns, driver. Mr. Ernst was 
succeeded by F. T. Swenie, who served from June, 1871, 
to April, 1872. 

" Protection " Hook and Ladder No. 2 was or- 
ganized in October, 1868, and was located at No. 83 
West Jackson Street, with the following list of mem- 
bers: James J. Grant, foreman ; Hugo Franzen, Fred. 
Reis, J. A. Cooke and Lewis Fiene, truckmen ; N. T. 
Ormsby, driver. Mr. Grant remained foreman until 
after the fire. 

" Rescue" Hook and Ladder No. 3 was organized 
January 24, 1871, being located at No. 36 Chicago 
Avenue. Its original members were John H. Green, 
foreman; William Friese, Thomas Maxwell, Charles M. 
Duffy and James Duff, truckmen ; Norman N. Holt, 
driver. Mr. Green continued as foreman until April 
10, 1877, when he was promoted to be assistant mar- 
shal, and was succeeded by Mr. Holt. 

Hook and Ladder Company No. 4, the last created 
before the fire of October, was organized on the nth of 
October, 187 1, and located on Sanger Street, near Mc- 
Gregor. The members were: George Ernst, foreman; 
Joseph O'Donohue, H. H. Breternetz and Francis 
Flanagan, truckmen; G. W. Weller, driver. Mr. Ernst 
was foreman at the time of the great fire. 

Hose Company No. 1 was organized September 15, 
1859, and was located on the corner of Clinton and 
Washington streets; Engine Company No. 4 removing' 
to No. 80 West Lake Street to accommodate the new 
organization. Following are the first members : Ed- 
ward Mendson, foreman; Frank Lily and John Fowler, 
pipemen; Charles Anderson, driver. Peter Schummels, 
.Matthew Schuh and I.eo Myers were successively fore- 
men of the company, until the close of 1871. 



THE PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



99 



Leo Myers was born in Chicago June 26, 1334, being the 
first child of French parents who had this city for his birthplace. 
Commencing, in 1847, as a torch-boy in Bucket Company No. 1. 
he helped, later, to organize the " Lawrence Engine Company 
No. 7, becoming a pipeman. He next joined the " Niagara " 
Engine Company No. 8, where he remained until the Paid Depart- 
ment was organized. In 1S59 he was chosen pipeman on the 
"Island Queen," was promoted to foreman of " U. 1'. Harris" 
No. 5, and, in 1863, to assistant fire marshal. Holding that posi- 
tion for one year he resigned, afterward serving as foreman of "Sup- 
ply " Hose No. 1, until 1872, after which he traveled for the 
Babcock Manufacturing Company for two years, and then returned 
to the Department. First, he acted for a short 'time as captain of 
No. 10, being transferred, in 1S74, to No. 23. He was promoted 
to the assistant marshalship in April. 1877, in charge of the Sev- 
enth Battalion. His territory covers the lumber district, one of the 
most dangerous localities in the city, and the selection of Mr. 
Myers for this position showed the high estimation in which he was 
held, and which he has merited. 

"American " Hose Compart}' No. 2 was organized 
in November, 1859, and located at No. 31 Blue Island 
Avenue. The list of first members was as follows: 
Edward Baggot, foreman; Frank Powell, pipeman; 
and John Kennedy, driver. Mr. Baggot was succeeded 
by John Dorsey, who was foreman at the time of the 
fire. 

"North Star" Hose Company No. 3 was organized 
during the month of October, 1863, and was stationed 
in the North Division, corner of Larrabee Street and 
North Avenue. John Reinwald, Matthew Mathias and 
John E. Schmidt were the first members. In 1864, this 
company was merged into " Island Queen " No. 4. 

"John A. Huck " Hose Company No. 3 was or- 
ganized in June, 1867, and located at the corner of Oak 
and Rush streets, with the following list of members: 
Foreman, Matthew Schuh; pipeman, Nicholas Wen- 
mand; driver, Peter Lawson. 

" Lincoln " Hose Company No. 4 was organized 
in July, 1870, and stationed at No. 454 Webster Ave- 
nue, with the following roll of members: John C. 
Schmidt, foreman; Edward Varges, hoseman; John 
Hardell, driver. 

In August, 1S70, a new apparatus, called a " Hose 
Elevator," was added to the Department, located at the 
corner of Washington and Franklin streets; and in Jan- 
uary, 1871, another machine for the same purpose (ele- 
vating hose to the top stories of high buildings), but of 
the Skinner patent, was put in use. Although seem- 
ingly unwieldly and impracticable, yet, when the fire- 
men became accustomed to its use, it proved very 
efficient, and saved vast amounts of property, which 
nothing but a similar apparatus could have accom- 
plished. 

In September, 1871, Hose Companies " Washing- 
ton " No. 5 and " Douglas " No. 6 were organized. 
No. 5 was located at No. 1004 West Madison Street, 
with the following members: J. J. Grant, foreman; 
James Young, hoseman; R. A. Bunnell, driver. No. 6 
was located at No. 603 Cottage Grove Avenue, with 
the following members: Thomas Barry, foreman; 
George H. Idell, hoseman; Eugene Sullivan, driver. 

Engine No. 14 was temporarily stationed at No. 39 
Rawson Street, at quarters built for Hose No. 7 after 
the fire. 

Losses by Fire. — From the time the Paid Depart- 
ment was fairly organized, and the last of the volunteer 
companies were disbanded — from 1863 up to and in- 
cluding the year 187 1, but excluding the damage done 
by the great fire — the total loss above insurance in the 
city of Chicago, amounted to $13,779,848; the insurance 
$10,851,952. Below will be found a short account of 
the most notable fires which occurred during the period 
covered by this volume. 



Because of a delaj ioned by the s ding of a 

wrong alarm. January 26, 1858, when tin- Fire Depart- 
ment reached the lumber yard of Messrs. Holt & Ma- 
son, on Market Street, the flames had gained the 
mastery. The half square between Vdams and Monroe 
streets presented a grand spectacle, as it was a 
with lumber and other combustible material, upon whii h 
the lire was feeding, and rearing itself into the air to a 
height of fifty or sixty feet. Aboul m\ o'clock in the 
morning the flames crossed Market Street, and lapped 
up a row of wooden buildings in the rear of the gas 
works. Much alarm was felt lest the latter should 
suffer ami the supply of gas be cut off, or a terrible 
explosion occur. A number of vessels also narrowly 
escaped destruction. The entire loss was $100,000, 
which, in those days, constituted a serious < onflagration. 
Many suspicious circumstances, brought up at the time, 
pointed to this fire as of incendiary origin, and a 
fireman, who enjoyed the soubriquet of •• Beast " Brown, 
was arrested for the crime and subsequently sentenced 
to the penitentiary. His confession was to the effect 
that Messrs. Holt & Mason refused to subscribe to a 
Firemen's ball, given by Company No. 4. In August, 
i860, one of the rogues whom Brown claimed as his 
confederates, was arrested in the interior of the State by 
Captain Bradley's detectives. This man Mike Kirbv, 
alias '" Shasky") was employed at the (las Company's 
yard, at the time of the fire, and throws the blame of 
the whole affair upon "Beast" Brown. One ferry 
McCormick assisted him. They failed twice in their 
attempt, but succeeded the third time. Kirby was held 
for trial, in $2,000 bail. McCormick was never cap- 
tured. 

A fire which broke out on the west side of South 
Wells Street, between Jackson and VanBuren, on May 
18, 1858, early in the morning, was not noteworthy 
because of great loss of property, but because three 
women, two men and four children perished in the flames. 
A row of four two-story wooden tenements was here 
situated, the lower portion being taken up with stores 
and the upper story with sleeping rooms. The inmates 
burned were taken unawares, the flames spreading 
rapidly, owing to the combustible nature of the material. 

On September 15, 1859, a fire broke out in a frame 
stable on Canal Street, near the corner of Lake, owned 
and occupied by F. Mehring & Co., ice dealers. At the 
time, a few minutes before nine o'clock,.! high wind was 
blowing from the southeast, and the tire was swept 
into the middle of the block, which was covered with 
lumber yards, wooden buildings, sheds, outhouses, work 
shops, etc. The flames were driven north and west, 
sweeping along Lake and Canal streets. First came a 
collection of two-story stores, saloons etc; next the 
Cleveland House, built of Milwaukee brick, and the 
Clifton House, on the corner; then the Cochran Housi . 
a magnificent six-story marble structure, owned by J. 
W. Cochran, but unoccupied, being ahead of the 
requirements of the times. All these structures were 
destroyed, the Hydraulic Mills were gutted, and E. W. 
Blatchford's lead works, the largest of the kind in the 
west, were also a total loss. The entire square, bounded 
by West Lake, North Jefferson, Fulton and Clinton 
streets, was burned over, except that portion from 
former Engine No. 6, on Lake Street, to the corner of 
North Jefferson; also on North Jefferson to Fulton, and 
on Fulton Street to the lead works, including Phillips' 
Packing house. "Hope" Hose Company ol Philadel- 
phia was present during the fire, being in attendani e at 
the State fair, and tlid splendid service. About four 
blocks were swept over, the total loss being .^500,000. 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



The district was substantially bounded by Canal Street 
on the east. Carroll on the north. Jefferson to Fulton 
and Clinton to Lake, except Blatch ford's lead works. 

The buildings of the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany, consisted of a magnificent stone round-house, 
with a huge dome and cupola, and a large machine shop, 
seventy by one hundred and sixty feet, three stories in 
height! The blacksmith shop was one story high. 
Unfortunately, when a tire broke out, April 17, i860, 
the buildings were so situated that the engines could 
not take suction from the lake, but were obliged to 
make long lines ami take water, through four- inch 
mains, on Wabash Avenue. " Little Giant " No. 6 
•• Island Queen " No. 4. and hand-engine No. 9 I " Car- 
ville " performed good service, but could not save the 
property from ruin. The large shops and round-house 
were burned, and such locomotives as could be saved 
were dragged out by hand and by a passenger locomo- 
tive, which was. fortunately, obtained. The total damage 
occasioned by this conflagration was $130,000. 

On the 1st of May. i860, the wholesale five-story 
warehouse of Messrs. Barrett, King & Co., on Lake 
Street, was burned, as to the two upper stories, and 
deluged with water as to the lower floors. 

During the remainder of 1S60, fires occurred as 
-: October 18, i860, the ice house of Messrs. Joy 
\- Frisbie, at Crystal Lake. Three houses, owned by 
the same firm, on the North Branch, were burned some 
weeks previously. Lill & Diversey's malt house, ad- 
joining the Water Works, was partially destroyed, on 
the 27th of October. On November 8th, the propeller 
"Hunter'' was burned, and two lives lost. 

On the 15th of March, 1862, the temporary depot of 
the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad Com- 
pany, on Canal, near Madison Street, was struck by 
lightning and destroyed by fire. The great Union 
Depot was then in course of construction. 

On the 2d of June, 1865, a fire broke out in the 
agricultural warehouse of Stoddard & Cook, near the 
corner of Lake and Clinton streets, within the district 
of the great conflagration of September, 1859. The 
building was situated in the center of the block, and the 
flames rapidly spread to the manufactory of John Hol- 
Hngsworth & Co. and also to the warehouse of Furst, 
Bradley & Co. The immense lumber yard of T. M. 
Avery also succumbed. Total damage, $325,000. The 
fir»t telegraph alarm 'sent through the new system, 
summoned the Department to this fire. 

\ . ,,,] |i ,ss of life is to be recorded at the fire of June 
;, which was located in Zea iV Zimmerman's and 
& Kenly's, on South Water Street. The 
flames spread to minor buildings. Several firemen were 
killed or seriously injured by falling walls. The unfor- 
L •/ Geis, of the steamer " Frank Sher- 
man," and John Straining, of No. 5, killed; John Agnewj 
Thomas Barry and Christian Goodwin, of the steamer 
■I. nomy, " injured: Augustus Hurr, assistant fire 
marshal of the South Division, badly injured', and 
William Musham, of the steamer "Frank Sherman," 
slightly injured. 

fire which broke oul on January 9, 1866. in the 
cellar occupied by Michalson & A pope w, as the sales- 
room of the National TobaCCO Works, on Randolph 
was, undoubtedly, the work of an incendiary. 
On the ground floor *as a saloon, while the upper stories 
comprised the* rendi nes broke out 

early in the morning, many of the inmates of tin- house 
.. means of ropes and other 
paraphernalia. I 'w- total loss was $140,000. 

On June 7, 1866, while dashing to I ceneol a fire 



in the Metropolitan Block, on LaSalle Street, the steam 
engine" Economy" came into collision with a locomo- 
tive. The engine was overturned; the driver, Daniel 
Heartt, was pitched to the ground with such violence 
as to receive fatal injuries. 

Flames were discovered issuing from the basement 
of the large building corner of Franklin and Market 
streets, occupied by the Pennsylvania Oil Company, 
June 9, 1 866. Four floors of the building were occupied 
by Kussel Brothers, wholesale grocers, and their stock 
destroyed was valued at $100,000. The building was 
owned by B. F. Sherman, cost $20,000. The loss to 
the Pennsylvania Company was $60,000. The inside of 
Hall, Kimbark & Co.'s hardware establishment also 
caved in, making the total damage by the fire aggregate 
$207,400. 

What were known as Ward's Rolling Mills, situated 
on the North Branch, were burned June 21, 1866, 
entailing a loss upon the owners of fully $200,000. The 
property was owned by a company, of which the princi- 
pal stockholder was Captain E. B. Ward, of Detroit. 
It was with great difficulty that the new works, then 
just completed, were saved. 

The conflagration of July 16, 1866, rendered sixty 
or seventy families homeless, and the suffering caused 
thereby developed a kindness which extended all over 
that part of the city. The fire commenced at the rear 
of a building on State Street, near Polk, and swept over 
to the east side of that thoroughfare, where thirty small 
buildings were burned to the ground. The district 
burned over extended from the alley between State 
Street and Third Avenue to the alley at the rear of 
Wabash Avenue. Everything was laid in ruins. " Long 
John" No. 1 was first at the scene of the fire; and in 
half an hour every steamer in the city was there. The 
fierceness of the flames is shown in the destruction of 
two large ice houses, owned, respectively, by Sanborn & 
Giles and Otto Schroeder. J. H. McVicker's residence 
narrowly escaped, his family having disposed of their 
goods in the most condensed form, looking to a speedy 
departure. When the extent of the casualty to the 
poor people of the district became known, every saloon 
was thrown open to them and many private residences, 
while from the corner of Third Avenue and Polk Street, 
a number of ladies dispensed lemonade and other re- 
freshments to the firemen and the sufferers. While the 
fire was at its height, a man was discovered in the 
upper portion of a carpenter shop, a few doors north of 
Polk Street, deliberately attempting to fire the building. 
The scoundrel offered the policeman $50 for his liberty, 
but his pleadings and his attempt at bribery were with- 
out effect, and he was taken to the Armory, where he 
did not attempt to deny the fact that he was taken with 
a box of matches in his hand. No casualty, which 
brought loss of life, occurred, but a number of firemen 
were sun-struck and one severely injured. The total 
damage was $140,000. 

On the 19th of August, 1866, a fire occurred on 
South Water Street, near Michigan Avenue, which 
destroyed property amounting to neatly one-half million 
of dollars. The tobacco factory of Van Horn, Murray 
& Coy, the wholesale grocery of G. & C. W. Church & 
( ady, and the wholesale drug-store of Tolman, Pinkham 
& Co., suffered more or less from the flames. The 
wholesale dry-goods store of Carson, Pirie & Co. nar- 
rowly escaped burning, the iron shutters being warped 
and twisted by the intense heat. 

At the lire in I). Lowenthal's tobacco warehouse, 
which occurred I Ictober 9, 1866, Chief Harris was badly 
burned by ;ui explosion which greeted him when he first 



THE PAID FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



entered the building - . The factory, with its contents, 
was destroyed, and a heavy stock of liquor in Mont- 
gomery & Blair's refinery, next door, was much dam- 
aged. A small panic took place among the guests of 
the Massasoit House, across the way, and at one time 
the Great Central Depot was considered to he in danger. 
The total loss was $100,000, upon which there was 
about twenty-five per cent, insurance. 

November 18, 1866, the tobacco warehouse of D. 
Bunker & Co., on South Water Street, was burned, and 
before the flames were extinguished they had swept 
away the entire center of the block extending on Lake 
from Wells to Franklin Street. Explosions were fre- 
quently heard, and many narrow escapes are recorded 
from falling walls. The property destroyed amounted 
in the aggregate to half a million dollars, the principal 
sufferers being as follows : On South Water Street : 
McMurphy, Boyle & Clark, Minchrod & Daniels, and 
Swazey, Smith & Co., commission merchants ; William 
B. Ogden, owner of several buildings ; and J. L. Booth, 
Rochester, N. Y., agricultural implements. On Lake 
Street : Sickels, Preston & Co., Rainbold & Magnus, 
and E. Ashley Mears, hardware ; Charles J. L. Meyer, 
sash, door and blinds ; Wheeler, Pierce & Co., commis- 
sion merchants ; Martin & Bros., show-case manufactur- 
ers ; John Sink estate, owner of building. The total 
loss occasioned by this fire was $450,000, upon which 
there was an insurance oi $300,000. 

The five-story brick structure on Lake Street, in 
which were W. B. Keen & Co., Dean & Ottaway, Rufus 
Blanchard and J. W. Goodspeed & Co., all engaged in 
the publishing or printing business, was the scene of a 
conflagration April 12, 1867. 

James S. Kirk & Co.'s soap and candle manufactory 
was burned May 7, 1867, with a loss of $105,000. 

On June 4, 1867, the Garden City fire-works factory, 
on Bremen Street, was the scene of a terrible explosion, 
which was the means of burning it to the ground and 
destroying half a dozen other buildings. It was owned 
by Charles Morris. Fortunately no lives were lost. 

David Henry, a wholesale liquor dealer, occupied 
all of a large store on State Street, except the base- 
ment, and his stock, and the building owned by the 
Butterfield estate, were burned August 30, 1867; loss 
$100,000. 

The main portion of the magnificent structure, 
known as Farwell Hall, was destroyed by fire January 
7, 1868. It had been completed only a few months. 
By almost superhuman exertions the two wings of the 
building were saved. 

On January 16, 1868, the five-story building on Lake 
Street, occupied by Starratt & Beatty with a heavy 
stock of hardware, the structure being owned by Samuel 
Thomas and John B. Rice, succumbed to Chicago's 
persistent enemy, suffering a damage of $200,000. 

A very destructive fire was that of January 28, 1868, 
which raged over the eastern terminus of Lake Street 
and vicinity. S. C. Griggs & Co.'s splendid publishing 
establishment was destroyed, the event being considered 
almost in the light of a public calamity. Telegrams 
of condolence were received by the firm from Harper 
& Brother, J. B. Lippincott, Ticknor & Fields, George 
W. Childs, Appleton & Co., and others. J. V. Farwell 
& Co., Fisk, Kirtland & Co., and R. G. Dun & Co., 
suffered, while the stock of McDougal, Nicholas & Co., 
dealers in boots and shoes, was a total loss. L. Schoen- 
feld & Co., and Rosenfeld Bros., in the same line of 
business, suffered a total loss. The building destroyed 
on the corner of Lake Street and Wabash Avenue 
entailed a loss upon J. H. Burch, its owner, of $400,000. 



The second fire, which became a portion of the same 
great conflagration, originated in the basement of Cai 
son, Pirie & Co.'s, on Lake Street, spreading to the 

west and east and leaping across the alley and laying 
the block (Nos. 4-14 in ruins. Xos. 16-22 was a five- 
Story marble block, owned by Henry B. Dixon, which 
was burned to the ground, the building being occupied 
by Burnhams& Van Schaack, wholesale druggists; Whit- 
ney Bros. & Yundt, boots and shoes; and Seymour, 
Carter &: Co., hosiery, gloves, etc. The block from 
No. 10 to No. 14 was owned by H. A. kolm & Bros., 
and leased to Keith, Wood i\: Co., dry goods ami 
notions, and to Fitch, Williams & Co., hats and caps. 
Nos. 4-8 was a building owned by C. H. McCormick & 
Brother, and occupied by C. M. Henderson & Co., boots 
and shoes, and S. Harris, wholesale clothier. No. 20 
was owned by W. Butterfield; No r8, occupied by 
Foreman, Harris, Nahm & Co., wholesale clothing mer- 
chants; No. 24 by Carson, Pirie & Co., dry goods 
dealers, Merrill & Hopkins, crockery, and M. W. Welsh, 
wholesale dealer in gloves. The damage occasioned 
by this conflagration was over $2,000,000; insurance, 
$1,486,000. 

February 24, 1868, the Northwestern Hotel, formerly 
the Eagle, one of Chicago's landmarks, was destroyed 
by fire. It was erected by E. Moore, in 1858. 

March 29, 1868, Gould Brothers' linseed oil works, 
on Canal, between Van Buren and Harrison streets, at 
the rear of the Alton & St. Louis freight house, was 
burned; loss, $400,000. 

The old North Side Market Hall was burned April 
18, 1868. 

Two immense freight houses of the Milwaukee 
division of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 
Company were burned September 13, 1868. They ex- 
tended from the corner of Indiana and Jefferson streets 
to the northwest, beyond the corner of Fourth and 
Desplaines streets, about four hundred feet of the 
larger house being laid in ashes before water was turned 
on. The cost of the property destroyed, comprising 
valuable freight, reached $100,000. 

S. I. Russell's planing mill, on Fulton Street, was 
destroyed by fire December 11, 1868. 

The Union Park Congregational Church was burned 
February 22, 1869. 

At the Canal-street fire, which occurred March 5, 
Thomas O'Brien, Peter Moretta, George Bergh anil 
Charles Wilt, firemen, were smothered to death. The 
fire originated on the corner of Washington and Canal 
streets. 

By the destruction of Burkhart, Van Slyck & Schot- 
sal's wood-cutting machine manufactory, on West Water 
Street, near the Excelsior Iron Works, on May 19, 
nearly $150,000 went up in fire and smoke. 

The great oil, paint and glass establishment of 
Messrs. Heath & Milligan, Xos. 170-2 East Randolph 
Street, was burned to the ground August 12, 1870. 
Many firemen narrowly escaped injury when the huge 
wall of the building fell in Court Place. 

The most destructive fire of this period, however, 
with the exception, of the great conflagration, occurred 
September 4, 1870. In the spring of 1870, a massive 
building, seven stories high, was completed, and known 
as the Drake Block. It was situated on the southeast 
corner of Wabash Avenue and Washington Street, and 
at the time was one of the most imposing buildings of 
the kind in the United States. At about five o'clock in 
the afternoon, smoke was seen issuing from the sixth 
story. The structure was capped by a finely orna- 
mented and highly combustible Mansard roof, which, 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



when the flames commenced the attack, could not be 
reached by the firemen. Between five o'clock p.m. and 
midnight this magnificent block was transformed into a 
mass of ruins, and nearly three million dollars' worth of 
property had vanished into air. The fire is supposed 
to have originated in Laflin, Butler & Co.'s paper store, 
on the east side of Wabash Avenue, between Washing- 
ton and Madison streets. It was still the custom of the 
•• boys," when called upon to throw a stream to a great 
height, to have their pipemen raised in "buckets" by 
the machine hose elevators , from which vantage ground 
they sometimes successfully accomplished their work. 
But at the Drake-block fire, as at others, the "bucket 
machine " would not work, hence the helplessness of 
the Department. Even in three-quarters of an hour 
after the fire was discovered, two buildings were de- 
stroyed, and only three streams of water had been 
brought to play upon the burning mass. Within less 
than two hours the entire block was ablaze, and the St. 
Mary's Catholic Church, corner of Madison, was 
threatened with destruction. As fast as goods were 
removed from the burning building they were carried 
across the street to the old Presbyterian Church. The 
principal sufferers were J. V. Farwell & Co., who lost 
$1,500,000, and J. V. Farwell, individually, who owned 
his building, valued at $165,000 ; Laflin, Butler & Co., 
$225,000 ; Kirkland. Ordway & Co., boots and shoes, 
$150,000 ; John B. Drake, $160,000 ; and Field, Leiter 
..Y Co., who occupied the third and fourth floors of the 
Drake Building, $180,000. The total insurance upon 
the property destroyed was $1,554,500. 

Armour & Co.'s packing house, corner of Salt 
Street and Archer Avenue, was burned January 14, 
[871. In pens adjoining were four thousand live hogs, 
which narrowly escaped being roasted and being made 
edible according to Charles Lamb's recipe. They were 
driven out before being singed, however, so that the 

- as confined to the packing house. It was the 
■ in the city, one hundred and forty by two hun- 
dred feet, two stories in height, and the loss on building 
and stock was $125,000; insurance, $85,000. 

On January 13, 187 1, the cutlery establishment of 
Messrs Simons & Ruble, on Ewing Street, between 
Halsted and Blue Island Avenue, was burned. It was 
the only establishment of the kind in the W r est. The 
proprietors suffered a damage of $100,000; insurance, 
>'"-■■ 

On the 30th of September, 1871, the Burlington 
wareho ■ 1 — «r "A" . on sixteenth Street, near the corner 
of State, was discovered to be in flames and was de- 
stroyed. It was constructed of brick, being one hun- 
dred and sixty-five feet on Sixteenth Street and running 
one hundred and thirty-three feet to the Chicago, 
Burlington iv. Quincy tracks. The warehouse was built 
by R. McCabe in 1864, and purchased from him by 
1. for a wool and general warehouse. In 
1 by Samuel Nickerson, president of 
the First National Bank, who owned it at the time of 
the fire. Large quantities of whiskies, highwines, 
syrups, empty barrels, etc., wen: stored in the base- 
ment; the first floor being given up to sugars, machine- 
ry, groceries and general goods; the second being 
'. with broom com, machinery, agricultural imple- 
ments, empt) old goods; and the 

third with sto 1 tings. Warehouse "B," sepa- 

rated from the doomed building by only an eight-inch 
tire-wall, had a narrow e cape from burning, In it 
itored over $2,000,000 worth offees, su- 

etc. The damage to rt i" amounted 

: insurant • - 



As will be remembered, the Department became 
■• thoroughly " Paid by about the year 1863. Since that 
time upto and including 1871-72, the losses and number 
of fires have been as below, the figures for the latter 
year, however, not including the conflagration of Octo- 
ber, 1S7 1 : 



YEARS. 


No. OF 
Fires. 


Amount of 
1nsi:ran'CE. 


Total Loss. 


1S63-64 . 

1S64-65 . 

1865-66 

1866-67 

1S67-6S 

1S6S-69 

1869-70 

1S70-71 .-_ -. 


186 
193 
243 
315 
515 
5°5 
600 
660 
480 


S 272 500 

585,3O0 

941,602 

1.643 445 

3 4I7.2S8 

463,24s 

600,061 

2,183,49s 

745,000 


S 355.560 

651,798 
1,216,466 

2 487t973 

4 215,332 
560,169 
871,905 

2,447,845 


1871-72 


972,800 


Total 


3 697 


$10 851,942 


$13 779. 8 48 



THE SCHOOLS. 

General Changes in School Organization. — 
By act of February 16, 1857, the Board of School In- 
spectors, which, since its organization, had consisted of 
seven members, was increased to fifteen. The office of 
School Trustees was also abolished by this act. The 
fifteen inspectors were denominated the Board of Edu- 
cation, and divided into three classes. They were to 
be elected by the Board of Aldermen, for terms of one, 
two and three years. In February, 1858, the power to 
fix the boundaries of school districts was delegated by 
the Common Council to the Board of School Inspectors. 
During the same month the school buildings, heretofore 
designated by numbers, were named at follows: School 
No. 1, "Dearborn"; School No. 2, " Jones "; School 
No. 3, " Scammon "; School No. 4, " Kinzie "; School 
No. 5, "Franklin"; School No. 6, "Washington"; 
School No. 7, "Moseley"; School No. 8, "Brown"; 
School No. 9, "Foster"; School No. 10, " Ogden." In 
April, the Common Council ordered that all bills against 
the School Tax Fund, for improvements, repairs and 
school supplies, should pass under the supervision of 
the Board. During the year 1859, a clerk was first em- 
ployed in the office of the Superintendent of Schools, 
and Samuel Hall served in this capacity until February, 
i860, when he was succeeded by Shepherd Johnston, 
the present incumbent. In the winter of 1S67, provision 
was made by the Legislature for a regular clerk, and, 
on April 2, Mr. Johnston was elected to the position. 
March 6, 1861, the Board of Education adopted a 
graded course of instruction which had been prepared 
by Superintendent William H. Wells. Chicago was a 
pioneer, as usual, among the western cities in taking 
this step, and the material features of the course were 
extensively copied by other cities. The City Charter, 
adopted February 13, 1863, contained a provision for 
the establishment of a separate school for colored child- 
ren, and in March the Common Council took the 
necessary steps to carry it out. This school was opened 
June 15, 1863, in a rented building, located corner of 
Fourth Avenue and Taylor Street, and was continued 
until April, 1865, when it was closed — the provision 
having been repealed by the City Charter of that year, 
in di ference to the prevailing sentiment of the country. 
The office of Building and Supply Agent was established 
during the summer of 1863, and James Ward, who had 
served as a member of the Board of Education since 



THE SCHOOLS. 



i°3 



1857, was appointed to the position, and held it up 
to the time of his death in July, 1881. In February, 
1865, an act of the Legislature made the minimum age 
at which children would be received into the public 
schools six years instead of five. Also by legislative 
enactment, the Board was made to consist of sixteen 
members, who were divided into four classes. The 
same act made provision for the appointment of a school 
agent by the Board — the appointment, up to the year 
i860, having been made by the Common Council. 
From i860 to 1865, the city comptroller was, ex officio, 
School Agent. In May of the latter year, Charles C. 
Chase, the comptroller's chief clerk, who had been at- 
tending to the business connected with the School 
Fund, was elected school agent, and has since dis- 
charged the duties of the position. By legislative act 
of February, 15, 1865, $100,000 of "school construc- 
tion " bonds were authorized to be issued. Within the 
next two years the Council, by ordinance, ordered 
$75, 000 of this amount issued In June, 1866, the 
Council authorized a loan of not exceeding $So,ooo to 
be used. Previous to 1865, the money for erecting 
school-houses came from the School Tax Fund. Even 
the Charter amendments, approved that year, allowed 
no higher school tax than three mills on a dollar, 
to meet the expenses of purchasing grounds for school- 
houses, erecting and repairing buildings and supporting 
the schools. Appreciating the wants of the city, the 
Legislature passed the act of 1867, authorizing the 
Council to issue a half million dollars of bonds. For 
this liberal provision the Board of Education was chiefly 
indebted to Moses W. Leavitt, deceased, then a member 
of the Lower House of the Legislature, and whose 
efforts were ably seconded by Lester L. Bond in the 
senate. An act of March 10, 1869, made provision for 
the issue of $700,000 additional bonds. The bonds 
authorized by the acts of 1867 and 1869, were issued 
and negotiated by the city comptroller, in compliance 
with ordinances passed by the Council, upon the re- 
quest of the Board of Education — $350,000 in 1867; 
$150,000 in 1868; $200,000 in 1869; and $500,000 in 
1870. 

Presidents of the Board. — The first annual re- 
port of the superintendent of public schools of Chicago 
was made by John C. Dore, for the year ending Decern- 




*~^^- ^. Q^i. 



ber, 1854. Flavel Moseley was chairman of the Board 
of School Inspectors from that time until 1857, when 
that body became transmuted into the Board of Edu- 
cation. This change was made by the amended city 
charter of February 16, 1857, which also increased the 
members from seven to fifteen. Under the new organ- 
ization, Luther Haven became president, and continued 
in that position for three years In i860, John C. Dore 
was chosen president, serving until the close of the 
year ending February 1, 1861. Dr. John H. Foster 
served from that time to December 31, 1861, when he 
was succeeded by Mr. Haven, who held the position 
for the next year, and was followed by Walter L. New- 
berry, in 1863. C. N. Holden acted as president from 
January 1, 1864, to September 1, 1866 ; George C. 
Clarke, for the succeeding year ; L. Brentano, for the 
year ending July, 1868 ; John Wentworth, for 1869 ; 
William H. King, 1870; and Eben F. Runyan, for the 



year 1871. Mr. Runyan held the position at the time 

of the great fire. From 1857 until [862, the office ol 
the Board of Education was at No. 119 South Clark 
Street, up-stairs, anil from that time until May, 1871, 
at No. 76 LaSalle Street, opposite the Court House. 
In May, 1871, the Hoard removed into its new quarters, 
on the southwest corner of Randolph and LaSalle 
streets, occupying a portion of the second and third 
floors of the building, where they remained until the 
great fire. 

Statistical. — The School Report for the year 
ending February 1, 1858, shows that the estimated 
value of real estate belonging to the School Fund, 
within the city limits, was $900,000 ; outside country 
property, at $25,000. The High, " Scammon," "Jones" 
and "Franklin" school-buildings were situated upon 
lots belong to the School Fund. These lots could not 
be used by the city for school purposes, except upon the 
payment of ground rent, the same as paid by private 
individuals, as the avails of the School Fund could not 
be diverted to any other purpose than the payment of 
teachers. The income of the School Fund for the 
year, including the dividend of interest on the State 
Fund, was $36,144.10. The expenditures for the sup- 
port of the schools amounted to $62,701. For the next 
year, the income was $37,341.44 ; expenditures, $70,- 
341.10. The report for the year ending December 31, 
1861, exhibits the following: 

Real estate belonging to the fund, $1,006,180; income, $45,- 
834.72 ; expenditures, $106,486.78. By the end of the following 
year, the income had increased to $38,328.68, and the expenditures 
to $1 12,110.32. By the year ending September I, 1S66, the re- 
ceipts had increased to $182,311, and expenditures, $176,966. For 
the year ending July 3, 1S68, the financial situation was as follows: 
Expenditures from school building-fund — the proceeds of bonds 
previously alluded to — S2g7.19S.05; receipts from school fund, 
$275,234.20, and expenditures, $273,307.34 ; real estate belonging 
to the fund inside the city, $651,206.67 ; two-mill tax levied, $387,- 
4S6.og. 

Members of the Board. — The following were 
the members of the Board of Education from 1857-58 
to 1S71-72, inclusive: 

*iS57— 58 — Flavel Moseley, president ; Luther Haven, John 
H. Foster, George M. Higginson, Philo Carpenter, Samuel Hoard, 



John C. Dore, Frederick Baumann, Michael Tiernan, Joseph P. 
Brooks, Henry G. Miller, Daniel Mcllroy, Edward \Y. Brewster, 
James Ward and Perkins Bass. 

*i8s8-59 — Luther Haven, president ; Flavel Moseley. John 
H. Foster. George M. Higginson. Philo Carpenter, Samuel Hoard, 
John C. Dore, Frederick Baumann, Benjamin F. Adams, Joseph 
P. Brooks, William A. Porter. Samuel S. Hayes, Levi B. Taft. 
James Ward and Perkins Bass. 

*l85g-6o — Luther Haven, president ; Flavel Moseley, John 
H. Foster, George M . Higginson, Philo Carpenter, William A. 
Porter, Samuel S. Hayes, Levi B. rati, Janus Ward. Perkins 
Bass, John C. Dore, Samuel Hoard, Walter L. Newberry, James 
\V. Sheahan, Austin D. Sturtevant. 

*l86o-6i — John C. Dore. president; Henry T. Steele, Samuel 
S. Hayes, Levi B. Taft. James Ward. Perkins Bass, Samuel 
Hoard, Walter L. Newberry, Janus W. Sheahan, Austin 1 1. 
Sturtevant, Luther Haven, Flavel Moseley, John II. Foster, 
George M. Higginson and Philo Carpenter. 

J1S60-61 — John II. Foster, president; John C. Dore. Charles 
X. Plolden, Walter I.. Newberry. James W. Sheahan. Austin 1 1. 
Sturtevant. Luther Haven, Flavel Moseley, George M. Higginson, 
Philo Carpenter, Henry T. Steele, John Wentworth, Levi B. Taft, 
James Ward and Christian Wahl. 



nding February. 



t V. 



ending December ji 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



*i?o2 — Luther Haven, president; Flavel Moseley, John II. 
J. Coiiins Wicker. Philo Carpenter. Henry T. Steele, John 




Wentworth, Levi B. Taft, lames Ward, Christian Wahl, William 
H. K\,kr. Charles N. Holden. Walter L. Newberry, James W. 
Sheahan and R. PrindiviUe. 

•1863 — Walter L. Newberry, president ; Philo Carpenter, 

lames W. Sheahan, Lorenz Brentano, John H. Foster, Charles N. 

1, Henry T. Steele, William J. Onahan, R. PrindiviUe. J. 

Collins Wicker. Levi B. l'.ift. John Wentworth, Flavel Moseley, 

am II. Rvder and Christian Wahl. 

tl864-65— Charles X. Holden. president; J. H. Foster, vice- 
president ; foseph Bonfield, L). S. Wentworth, Henry T. Steele, 
>. S. Haves' E. Blackm.m, M. W. Leavitt, R. M. Guilford, John 
11. Foster, W. H. Rvder. L. Brentano, George C.Clarke, David 
H. Felsenthai. A. W. Tinkham and J. F. Ballantyne. 
*is6;-66 — Charles N. Holden, president; G. C. Clarke, 
vice-president ; E. Blackman. M. W. Leavitt, R. M. Guilford, John 
11. Foster. W. H. Rvder. L. Brentano, David Walsh, lohn VanHorn, 
A W. Tinkham. J. F. Ballantyne, Joseph F. Bonfield, D. S. Went- 
worth, S. A. Briggs, and E F. Runyan. 

{1866-67 — George C. Clarke, president: Samuel A. Briggs, 

vice-president ; Tohn H. Foster, W. H. Ryder, L. Brentano, 

David Walsh, Emil Dreier, A. W. Tinkham,' J. F. Ballantyne, 

F. Bonfield, L. L. Bond, E. F. Runyan, M. W. Leavitt, 

R. M. Guilford, T. M. Avery, and F. A. Eastman. 

S 1867-68 — L. Brentano, president; Samuel A. Briggs, 
vice-president; David Walsh, Emil Dreier. A. W. Tinkham, T- 
F. Ballantyne, J. F. Bonfield, L L. Bond, E F. Runyan, W. H. 
Carter, R. M. Guilford, T. M. Avery, F. A. Eastman, John 
Wentworth, W. H. King and C. C. Meserve. 

.; i-6s-6ij — S. A. Briggs, president; Ransom M. Guilford, 
vice-president ; John Wentworth, William H. Carter, William H. 
King. Joseph F. Bonfield, James T. Healy, John D. Tully, 
David Walsh, John Macalister, Charles N. Holden, Lester L. 
Bond, Jeremiah B. Briggs, Eben F. Runyan, Charles Wuensche, 
Curtis C. Meserve, Theodore Schintz, Robert Clark, Samuel Shack- 
ford, and Chalkley J. Hambleton. 

i ; -'y)-~o — William H. King, president ; Eben F. Runyan, 
vice-president; John Wentworth, William H. Carter Joseph N. 
Barker, Leander Stone, Jonathan B. Stephens, John D. Tully, 
David Walsh, John Macalister, Charles N. Holden, John C. Rich- 
- :miah B. Briggs, Avery Moore, Charles Wuensche, Curtis 
C. Meserve. Theodore Schintz, Robert Clark, Samuel Shackford, 
and Chalkley J. Hambleton. 

§1870—71 — Eben T. Runyan, president; John Macalister, 
vice-president ; John Wentworth, Robert F. Queal, William H. 
King, Joseph N. Barker. Leander Stone, Jonathan B. Stephens, 
John D. Tully. David Walsh, Joseph S. Reynolds, John C. Rich- 
berg. Jeremiah I'.. Briggs, Avery Moore. Charles Wuensche, Curtis 
rve, Theodore schintz, Robert Clark, Samuel Shackford, 
and Chalkley J. Hambleton. 

John II. FOSTER, deceased, one of Chicago's most prominent 
educational patrons, was born in the town of Hillsborough, N.H., 
March s, 17'/) ; being the second son of Aaron and Mehetable 
(Nichols) Foster, who were simple, Christian and steadfast per- 
sons. Work upon the farm in summer and study in the district 
school in winter, occupied his time until he had reached the age of 
(teen, when he entered Kimball Union Academy at Meriden, 
N.H. / Foster taught hi in 1 chool at Schoharie, 

brother, Rev. Aaron I oster, of Charlemont, 
hing. Tor a time he continui d to assist his father 
- studies in the autumn and teaching during 
the win' ■. Hampshire villages. UK mother, who 

■ f more than common intellectual ability, died in 
ter studied medicine at Dartmouth College from 
1 by 1S32 had accumulated some thousand 
on and by the strictest economy. 
led his money in Morgan County, 111., lands, 
home. While here he was appointed 
a (orgeon in the army and served during the Black Hawk War. 
lie had . lieutenant in the army 

■ad bad been I ned ;it Tort Dearborn. Lieutenant 

Foster pari of the original town lots of Chicago, but 

•Year rmim^ U 
t January t, 1 

■ K i.t 31, iV/j. 

I Year ending July. 



was afterward ordered to Fort Howard, Wis., and while there was 
shot and killed by an insubordinate soldier, whom he had repri- 
manded for drunkenness. This occurred in 1832, and Dr. Foster 
came to Chicago, as one of the heirs, to look after the estate. 
Having confidence in the future of the unprepossessing town, he 
boughT the interests of the others, and thus laid the foundation for 
the considerable fortune which he accumulated. Dr. Foster re- 
mained in Chicago until 1S36, when he left his property, then a 
drug upon the market, in the hands of his attorney, and spent 
some two years in New England. On September 21, 1S40, Dr. 
Foster married Miss Nancy Smith, of Peterborough, N.H. They 
immediately removed to Chicago, where their real estate was again 
assuming a positive value. Three daughters were born to them, to 
whom in iS6cjhegave nearly one-half of his entire real property, with 
the design of lightening his shoulders of many business cares. This 
wise step no doubt would have had the desired effect of lengthen- 
ing his life many years, had it not been for the unfortunate accident 
which caused his death. On Saturday, May 9, 1S74, he was 
violently thrown from his carriage, in consequence of a sudden 
start of his horse. He was immediately taken home, and, after a 
short season of insensibility, his wonderful constitution seemed to 
rally and confident hopes of his recovery were entertained; but on Sun- 
day, the 17th, fatal symptoms suddenly appeared, and on Monday, 
the iSth, he fell asleep so quietly that those about him hardly knew 
the moment of his departure. His funeral took place on Wednesday, 
the 20th, from Unity Church, of which he had been for many years 
a quiet and unassuming member. The sermon, preached by Rev. 
Robert Collyer, was a touching tribute to the great heart and wise 
mind of the departed. As a public man, Dr. Foster was best 
known in the departments of the city and state education, and the 
Chicago Board of Education justly placed him beside those other 
corner stones in the upbuilding of the system, Flavel Moseley and 
Luther Haven. Resolutions in memory of the deceased were not 
only passed by this Board, but the Half-Orphan Asylum and Hu- 
mane Society added the mite of their contribution to the general 
offering which was placed upon his grand character by the whole 
city. Dr. Foster left a wife and three daughters, Mrs Perkins 
Bass, Mrs. E. C. Porter and Mrs. George E. Adams. 

Luther Haven, deceased, never brought his ability and 
energy more effectively to bear, than while he was identified with 
the public schools of Chicago. He has left his impress upon her 
system and his name to adorn one of her most magnificent insti- 
tutions. Born upon a farm, near Framingham Mass., in 1807, he 
obtained sufficient schooling, by the time he was seventeen years of 
age, to be able to teach. From 1S31 to 1S34 he spent in a private 
academy at Ellington, Conn., after which he was engaged as a 
teacher in the English and mathematical department of the Leices 
ter Academy, then one of the leading institutions of learning in 
the United States. He afterward was principal of the department 
for eleven years. The four years following he spent in various 
mercantile pursuits in Massachusetts, coming to Chicago in 1849. 
Shortly after his arrival, he engaged in the manufacture of linseed 
oil with Dr. F. Scammon, brother of J. Young Scammon, and a 
year later formed a partnership with B. F. Adams, the father of 
George E. Adams, in the real estate business. For a number of 
years the firm was among the most prominent in the city. In 
various capacities Mr. Haven was connected with the public school 
system of Chicago for ten years, or, to be more particular, from 
January, 1853, to October, 1863. During the last four years he 
was president of the Board of Education, and made for himself a 
name which, as stated in the resolutions of that body, passed at 
the time of his death, " will be handed down to posterity as one 
of the fathers and founders of our liberal system of education." 
When John Wentworth ran for mayor, in 1S60, Mr. Haven was 
named as city comptroller, but he declined the honor. In October, 
1861, he was appointed by President Lincoln as collector of the 
port and, ex officio, United States depositary. He was re-appointed 
by President Johnson in February, 1S66, and unanimously con- 
firmed by the senate, being an incumbent of this position at the 
lime of his death on March 9th of that year. After an illness of 
five weeks, superinduced by congestion of the lungs, he breathed 
his last, a public man and private citizen of sterling honesty and 
faithfulness, a prudent counsellor, a generous friend and a devoted 
husband and father. He left at his death four children and a 
widow. Mrs. Haven was formerly Ann Elizabeth Wheaton, the 
eldest daughter of John R. Wheaton, of Warren, R. I. Mr. 
Haven's death was the occasion of special action by the Board of 
on, the Board of Trade and the officers of the Custom 
11 ■•: . his funeral being attended by the substantial and public- 
spirited citizens of Chicago, all of whom mourned him as one of the 
besl citizens of Chicago. 

FLAVEL MOSELEY was born in the year 1798. In company 
with Jason Met lord, whom he had met in Cincinnati, and with 
whom he formed a partnership, Mr. Moseley came to Chicago in 
1834, and opened a general country store, near the corner of Wells 



THE SCHOOLS. 



'OS 



and South Water streets. The partnership was dissolved about 
1S50, Mr. Moseley retiring, having in the meantime made judicious 
investments in real estate, lie thus continued to actively employ 
himself until failing health, three years before his death, forced 
him to withdraw from business. From the time of the first organ- 
ization of the public school system of Chicago, until the winter of 
1862-63, Mr. Moseley labored for its welfare, as no man ever did 
before, or has since. He served on the Hoard of Education a 
greater length of time than any other citizen. He was the first to 
contribute §1,000 for an " Indigent Children's Fund," and also 
gave the High School, then struggling into life, liberal assistance. 
Never having married, Mr. Moseley seems to have devoted his 
warmest affections to the cause of public education in his adopted 
city, and the high standard reached by the common school is largely, 
if not mostly, the result of his labors. As stated, he resigned in 
the winter of 1S62-63, and sailed for Cuba, in a vain effort to up- 
build his failing health. He spent three winters in that milder 
clime, but during the fall of 1S65, realizing that he could not sur- 
vive a fourth season even there, he started for Chicago ; but he 
never reached the city alive, expiring on the 30th of October, at 
Williamsburg, X. V. His estate was valued at about $200,000, 
and, as was to have been expected, in his will he remembered the 
public schools of Chicago in a liberal way, giving them $10, °°° in 
addition to the previous donation of Si ,000 to assist the poor children 
of the city to obtain an education. This has since been known as the 
" Moseley Public School Book Fund " Mr. Moseley was a faith- 
ful member of the Second Presbyterian Church, and upon his death 
$50,000 went toward establishing and maintaining its Sabbath 
School ; $10,000 to the Home Missionary Society of Xew York 
City (Congregational I; $10,000 to the Chicago Home for the 
Friendless, and a like amount to the Orphan Asylum. The de- 
ceased has a sister living in North Windham, Conn., and one at 
Hampton, in the same county, and a half-brother. Edward Mose- 
ley, at Ellington, Conn. Two brothers, Elnathan and Anson C, 
reside in Penobscot Co , Me ; Eben is a resident of Palos, Miami 
Co., Ind., and Harvey, of Columbus, Ga. 

Samuel Snowden Hayes, deceased, was born at Nashville, 
Tenn., December 25, 1820, and is a son of Dr R. P. Haves and 
Mary C. (Snowden) Hayes, whose father was an influential Pres- 
byterian minister and one of the founders of Princeton College. 
Dr. Hayes and his wife had removed to Nashville soon after the 
close of the war of 1S12, during which he had been a surgeon of 
a New York regiment. In 1S2S, his wife died, and, in 1S37, Dr. 
Hayes followed her. Having obtained a good academic and class- 
ical education, Mr. Hayes learned the drug business, and, in Au- 
gust, 1S38, bought a stock and settled in Shawneetown, 111. After 
carrying on the business two vears, he sold out and began the study 
of law in the office of Henry Eddy. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1S42, and at once settled at Mount Vernon, 111. After a brief 
residence there, he removed to Carmi, White County, where he 
remained in the practice of his profession until the winter of 
1850-51, when he removed to Chicago. This was soon after his 
marriage to Lizzie J., eldest daughter of Colonel E D. Taylor, 
then of Michigan City, afterward one of the prominent men of 
the city and state. Before removing to Chicago, Mr. Hayes 
had acquired quite a position as a political leader, being a ready 
speaker and a stalwart Democrat from youth. In 1845, he was a 
delegate to the Memphis Convention, called to promote western 
and southern commercial interests and internal improvements and, 
in 1846, was elected to the State Legislature by a handsome majority 
over the Whig candidate. In the spring of 1S47, he raised a com- 
pany for the Mexican War, being the first to volun- 
teer; but owing to the distance from the seat of 
government, the muster-rolls were not received there 
until the quota of the state had been filled. The 
same season, also, he served as a delegate to a con- 
vention for the revision of the constitution, taking 
a prominent part in its deliberations as chairman of 
the Committee on Law Reform. In the autumn of 
1848, he was a successful candidate for Presidential 
Elector on the Cass-Butler ticket; also for reelection 
to the State Legislature. During the session of 
the Legislature for 1S4S-49, he acted as chairman 
of the Committee on Education. Soon after his removal to 
Chicago he was employed by the city authorities as counsellor 
and city solicitor. Although a warm personal friend of Senator 
Douglas, when that gentleman supported the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise he found one of his strongest opponents in Mr. 
Hayes. He did not abandon the Democratic party, however, 
believing in its distinctive principles. In, 1856, he supported 
Buchanan, but sided with Senator Douglas in opposing his course 
in attempting to bring Kansas into the Union as a slave state, con- 
tinuing to be his warm friend, as he had ever been, and his firm 
ally until his death. Although at times severely criticizing the 
acts of the administration, Mr. Hayes was uniformly in favor of 



crushing the Rebellion by force of arms; realizing at the same time, 
as few did at the commencement of the war, the grave nature of 
the opposition to be encountered, lie did not, in short, believe 
that the existence <>i the Democratic party was dependent upon 
the institution of shivery. Mr. Hayes was often honored by the 
public, being several times elected to a seat in national conven- 
tions and acted once as president of a state convention. In 1S62, 
he was called to assume the responsible office of city comptroller. 



Among his other acts to raise and sustain the public credit, was 
the creation of a sinking fund for the liquidation of the bonded 
debt of the city by procuring an act of the Legislature requiring 
an annual tax of one mill on all its taxable property. For two 
terms he was member of the Boarel of Education, and made so 
enviable a record for himself that the public school building on 
Leavitt Street was named in his honor. He resigned his position 
as comptroller in May, 1S65, and soon afterward was appointed 
one of the three members of the United States Revenue Commis- 
sion, to inquire into the sources of national revenue and revise and 
recommend improvements in the tax system of the United States. 
The choice for the Democratic Commissioner lay between George 
H. Pendleton and Mr. Hayes. The report which he made was 
especially original and comprehensive, bringing him into national 
prominence. In February, 1S67, the law was passed for the estab- 
lishment of the State Industrial University, and Governor Oglesby 
appointed Mr. Hayes a member of the Board of Trustees. He 
served until the expiration of his term in 1S73. He was a promi- 
nent member of the Constitutional Convention of 1S70-71, and 
during the great fire in Chicago took an active part in the work of 
relief. He became city comptroller again, under Mayor Colvin, 
in 1873, and at a time when the city's finances were under the 
cloud which darkened the country. His management of this re- 
sponsible trust was all that could be desired. And not only did 
Mr. Hayes show his great ability in the management of public 
trusts, but also of his own affairs. He was a large land owner in 
and around Chicago, and annually expended large sums of money 
in the erection of buildings and the improvement of real estate. 

Abner Wells Henderson was born in Bridgewater, Oneida 
Co., N. Y., in the year 1S12. He was the son of Solomon and 
Eliza (Wellsl Henderson. Almost from childhood he won the 
reputation, which he held to old age, of being an earnest student 
and an accurate scholar. At the very early age of thirteen he was 
prepared to enter Union College, Schenectady. There he held 
foremost rank in his studies, and graduated when seventeen years 
old, under President Nott, with whom he was a special favorite. 
Later he pursued theological studies, and entered the Presbyterian 
ministry. He married, in 1S42, Miss Helen Eddy, daughter of 
Seth Eddy, a wealthy and widely known merchant of Stillwater, 
Saratoga Co., N. Y. In all their after life Mrs. Henderson was a 
faithful, efficient and helpful co-worker in his labors, both for the 
cause of the church and education. Owing to a throat disease, Mr. 
Flenderson was forced to abandon preaching temporarily, and 
devoted his time to teaching. At an early day he lei t his home in 
Utica, N. Y., and removed to Chicago in 1843, and in that year 




opened the first seminary for young ladies. The daughters of 
prominent men among the'early settlers who were then his pupils, 
and who now grace homes of their own, refer often to the lasting 
influence of Mr. and Mrs. Henderson, not only in their educational 
attainments, but in the molding and strengthening of their charac- 
ters as well. When health was restored, he immediately resumed 
his pastoral duties, having charge of a church in Morris, and lat- 
terly in Elgin, 111 He was the first to suggest and establish the 
daily noon service in the Chicago Bridewell. After the commence- 
ment of the war he accepted, in 1S61, the appointment of Chaplain 
to the 13th Illinois Cavalry. He discharged his duties in the 
camp, the field and the hospitals with such spc.'ial fidelity as to 



io6 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



win the approbation of officers and men of every class and charac- 
ter. For more than three years he persevered in these arduous 
labors, not even taking a furlough, until ordered north by his phy- 
sicians to save his life. He suffered a long illness, from which he 
was never fully restored. For the benefit of his health he spent 
four years traveling with his family in Europe and the Holy Land. 
He returned to Chicago in 1S69, and immediately resumed work 
in the interests of the church. A return of his disease was the 
cause of his death, which occurred in Chicago, October tS. 1S72. 
He left surviving him a wife, son and daughter. He is described 
by those who were his co-workers and knew him intimately, to have 
been one of the best scholars in the Chicago Presbytery 

John Clark Dork, son of Ezekiel and Abigail Dore, was 
born" in Ossipee, Carroll Co., X. H.. March 22, 1S22. Early in 
life, he showed such aptness as a scholar that he was, on examina- 
tion, deemed well qualified to teach when seventeen years of age. 
By teaching he was enabled to pursue his studies, and to enter 
Dartmouth College when twenty-one, from which he graduated 
with honor in 1847. Just before graduating, Mr. Dore received an 
appointment as assistant teacher in a public school in Boston, and 
- - :i after elected principal of the Boylston school. His suc- 
cess as a teacher and organizer in Boston became known to the 
Board of Education of Chicago, and in March, 1S54, he was 
elected first superintendent of the public schools of Chicago. He 
entered immediately upon the duties of his office, and classified the 
pupils in all the schools upon the Boston plan. The present 
public school system of Chicago was inaugurated by him. Mr. 
Dore resigned his office of superintendent in the spring of 1856, 
having served two years, to engage in mercantile pursuits, but was 
soon after elected a member of the Board of Education. He con- 
tinued a member of the Board for several years, and was at one 
time its president. In recognition of the valuable services of Mr. 
Dore in the cause of public education in Chicago, one of the largest 
school buildings of the city was named the Dore School. As a 
merchant, Mr. Dore was successful, and honored by his associates 
in trade. He was made vice-president of the Board of Trade in 
1865, and president in 1S66. Mr. Dore was president of the 
Commercial Insurance Companv for several years, and, in 1S69, 
was president of the local Board of Underwriters. He was also 
elected president of the State Savings Institution soon after the 
great fire, but resigned and sold out his stock in 1S73, leaving the 
bank not only solvent but with a large surplus (over a quarter of a 
million of dollars), as an examination of the books of the bank 
clearly showed, after the failure of the bank under a far different 
management, in 1S77, four years later. Mr. Dore was State Sen- 
ator four years, from 1S68 to 1S73, during which time he drew the 
bills for the Humane Laws of the State, and for the charter for the 
Illinois Humane Society, procuring their passage by the General 
Assembly. The Illinois Humane Society was organized through 
his instrumentality. He was president of the Society for several 
years, and still continues (1S84) a director. In politics, Mr. Dore 
is a Republican. He was formerly president of the Newsboys' 
and Bootblacks' Home. The deed of the lot on which the Home 
stands is now (1S84) in his name. Mr. Dore was married January 

to Mi" Annie I'.. Moulton, daughter of Dr. Alvah Moul- 
ton, a distinguished physician of Ossipee, N. H. Their only 
child, a son, died in infancy, 

WlIXARD WoODARD was born in Sandwich, Mass., Decem- 
ber 12. 1924, and when only six weeks old his parents, Joseph and 
Esther (Pike) Woodard, moved to Ilopkinton, Mass., where they 
made their permanent home. It was at the latter-named place 
that he received his education, spending the summer on the farm 
with his parents, and attending the public school, and finally the 
He regularly learned the trade of boot-maker, working 
in the summer at his trade, while in the winter he taught school, 
sometimes teaching through the entire year. When he was twenty- 
five years of I into merchandising, opening a drug, 
book and jewelry store af Ilopkinton, and in 1856 he came Chi- 
lle was employed here as the prim ipal ol the Jones Si hool, 
-it that time at the corner of '.'lark and Harrison streets, 
which v. th school of the city, taking all the scholars 
south of Harrison Street, on the South Side. Flavel Moseley was 
then president of the School Board. At a Teachers' Institute, the 
first one Mr. "■ nded, forty.-seven teachers win- pres- 
ent, thai being the entire number then employed, the president of 
the Board having informed the teachers that absence from m 
institute, without excuse, would be regarded as a resignation, 
Mr. Woe* • lit year-,, and resigned 
with George Sherwood in the publication of 
school bool nected with this house. In 

from the old Ninth Ward, 
Republican ward in the city at that time, to the Council, and held 
the position until 1871, 'hen he was elected to thi 

a member during the first session after the new constitu- 
tion was adopted. He was a member of he first City Library 



Board, appointed during the Medill administration, and was ap- 
pointed by Governor Cullom a member of the West Park Commis- 
sioners, and was president of the Board three years. Mr. Wood- 
aid was married in Ilopkinton, Mass., in 1851, to Miss Levina J. 
Ellery, and has three children — Charles Sumner; Flora A., wife 
of William H. Garrison, an attorney of the city, and Jennie E , 
wife of Edward Dicker, of the firm of Mathews & Ticker, attor- 
neys, also of Chicago. 

James Ward, deceased, building and supply agent for eight- 
een years, was born near Antrim, North Ireland, August 1, 1814. 
When twenty years of age, he left home, settling first at Auburn, 
N. V., where he managed a farm and stone quarryuntil 1S41, when 
he decided to emigrate to the West. His destination was Dubuque, 
Iowa, but arriving in Chicago, he concluded to remain here. He 
soon made the acquaintance of Philo Carpenter, and removed from 
the business portion of the city out into the country, to the south- 
east corner of Sangamon and Randolph streets, where he pur- 
chased a one-third block from his new-found friend. Having 
engaged in the grain and pork business, he soon was able to build 
a residence, which was done, being the fourth house erected upon 
Carpenter's Addition. About this time, he and his brother Hugh 
commenced to obtain a wide reputation a: builders, which resulted 
in their erecting many substantial edifices between Halsted Street 
and the river. After continuing a successful partnership for eight 
years, his brother died. Mr. Ward served as a member of the 
Board of Education from 1S57 until 1S63, when he retired, and 
was appointed building and supply agent, which office he held 
until the time of his death, July 6, 1S81 In appreciation of his 
valuable services rendered to the cause of education in Chicago, 
the "Ward School," located on Shields Avenue and Twenty- 
seventh Street-, was named after him. Mr. Ward was three times 
married, his first, wife being Mary E. Hickson, of Auburn N. Y. 
She died in Chicago in 1855. He next married Orchestra Pier, of 
Syracuse, N. Y., who lived only about two years after the mar- 
riage. His third wife was Mary E Smith, of Chicago. He had 
nine children — Sarah Agnes (wife of William A. Amberg, of Chi- 
cago) and Mary Etta (wife of Edward J. Gannon, of Dallas, 
Texas), daughters of his first wife ; Frank Carpenter, Albert James, 
Anna Rebecca, Charles Stewart, Walter Moses, Klla C, and James 
Amberg, children by his last wife. 

Music, Drawing and German. — At a meeting of 
the Inspectors and Trustees of Common Schools held 
December 10, 1S41, at the office of William Jones, it 
was agreed to introduce vocal music into the public 
school system. N. Gilbert, the first teacher, was soon 
afterward employed. After the first quarter in the year 
1843, vocal music was discontinued, but was re-intro- 
duced in the fall of 1846, although not as a permanent 
branch. In January, 1848, Frank Lumbard was ap- 
pointed teacher of vocal music, continuing in that 
position until December, 1853, when he was succeeded 
by Christopher Plagge, who resigned in March, 1854, 
being succeeded by J. L. Slayton, who served until 
July, 1856. In September of that year William Tilling- 
hast was elected teacher of vocal music, serving until 
the middle of October, i860, when the board deemed it 
inexpedient to continue this branch of instruction. 
Charles Ansorge served from November, 1863, to Janu- 
ary, 1865, as teacher of music in the High School, and 
Orlando Blackman was appointed teacher for the gram- 
mar and primary schools in November, 1863, and still 
continues his connection with the schools in this capac- 
ity. E. E. Whittemore was appointed, in 1867, as 
additional teacher of vocal music. Messrs. Whittemore 
and blackman graded the instruction in vocal music 
and brought the system into its present shape. 

In 1865, the attention of the Board of Education 
was first called to the importance of teaching drawing 
in the primary grades. A trial was first made in the 
Brown School, and in 1867, Miss A. E. Trimingham, 
teacher of drawing in the High School, commenced to 
give instruction to teachers at the Teachers' Institute. 
The superintendent, in his report for that year, pointed 
out the importance of employing a teacher for the 
grammar and primary schools. In 1869, Bartholomew's 
Drawing liooks were adopted as text books, but in 



THE SCHOOLS. 



107 



November, 1870, the study of drawing as now taught in 
the public schools was discontinued. In December, 
however, Misses Clara F. Currier and Mary Starr were 
employed to give two lessons a week in each of the first 
six grades, the time and length of the lessons to be reg- 
ulated by a programme to be drawn up under the direc- 
tion of the principals of the several schools. They 
continued in these positions until the summer of 1872. 



attendance during the session being one hundred and 
fifty. In January, 1863, a school was opened in the 
Dearborn Building, and continued until March, the 
average attendance of both sexes being two hundred 
and twenty. The school was re-opened in November, 
1863, and remained in session until March, 1864. An 
appropriation of $5,000, made during the fiscal Year 
1864-65, enabled the Hoard of Education to enlarge the 







\YI N-SCHOOL BUILDING. 



The first experiment of introducing German into the 
public schools below the High School, was made in the 
Washington School, West Division, in October, 1865. 
A class was then formed, under the charge of Mrs. Pau- 
line M. Reed. In April, 1866, she was transferred to 
the High School, and was succeeded by Mrs. Caroline 
McFee. In July, 1866, so successful had been the 
experiment, that the board resolved to introduce the 
study into the Franklin and Newberry schools, for the 
benefit of scholars in the North Division ; into the 
Moseley School, for the South Division; and the Wells 
School, for the West. By the close of the year, seven 
hundred pupils were pursuing the study. It was intro- 
duced into the Cottage Grove School in May, 1868 ; 
into the Kinzie School in September, 1868; Carpenter 
School, January, 1869 ; LaSalle-street Primary School, 
January, 1870; into the Haven School in May, 1870; 
the Skinner School in September, 1870; the Scammon 
School, October, 1870 ; the Lincoln School, January, 
187 1 ; and into the Ogden School in September, 187 1. 
At the time of the great fire, which caused a suspension 
of the study until the following January, there were over 
four thousand pupils studying German in the district 
schools. 

Evening Schools. — The main facts in regard to 
the evening schools of Chicago are gathered from the 
historical sketch prepared by Shepherd Johnston in 
1880. The first experiment of organizing free evening 
schools was made during the winter of 1856, the sessions 
being held in West Market-Hall, on West Randolph 
Street, between Desplaines and Union streets, three 
evenings each week, under charge of Daniel S. Went- 
worth. The use of the hall was furnished by the city, 
and the services of the teachers were gratuitous. The 
school was opened with sixty scholars, the average 



system of public evening schools, and in the fall of 1864 
institutions of this character were opened in the Frank- 
lin school-building, in the North Division ; in the Dear- 
born and Haven school-buildings, in the South Division ; 
and in the Washington and Foster school-buildings in 
the West Division. The evening schools were contin- 
ued each year from 1863 to 187 1, when owing to the 
great fire they were broken up, and no appropriation 
was made by the Council until 1873. 

Special Funds. — The condition of the special 
funds in the summer of 187 1, with an account of their 
formation, is thus given in the report for the year end- 
ing June of that year : 

Moseley Book Fund. — In 1856, a fund of §1.000 was 
established by the late Flavel Moseley. the interest of 
which is expended in purchasing text books for indigent 
children attending the public schools. During the year 
1867, a bequest of $10,000 made by Mr. Moseley, less a 
revenue tax of $600, was added to this fund, so that 
the total fund now amounts to $10,400. 

Foster Medal Fund.— In 1857, Dr. John H. Foster 
established a fund of $1,000, the avails of which are 
expended in procuring medals and other awards of 
merit for the most deserving pupils attending the gram- 
mar departments of the district schools. 

Jones Fund. — In 1858, William Jones established a 
fund of $1,000, the interest of whii h is applied for the 
benefit of the Jones School, in procuring text books 
for indigent children, books of reference, maps, 
globes, etc. 

Newberry Fund. — In 1862. Walter I.. Newberry 
established a fund of $1,000, the interest of which is 
applied for the benefit of the Newberry School, in 
procuring text books for indigent children, school 
apparatus, books for reference, etc. 



lo8 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



Porter Telegraph College Scholarship.— -In 1867, E. 
Payson Porter donated one life-scholarship to the grad- 
uating; class of each department of the High School, 
annually for the period of ten years, to be awarded 
to the pupil in each class whose average for the year is 
the highest among those who have been neither absent 
nor tardy during the year. 

tenter Fund. — In 1S0S. Philo Carpenter estab- 
lished a fund of Si. 000. the interest of which is to be 
applied for the benefit of the Carpenter School. 

Holden Fund.— In 1868, Charles N. Holden placed 
in the hands of the secretary $100, with instructions to 
draw on him annually for a similar amount, until $1,000 
are placed at the disposal of the Board, to be expended 
for the benefit of the Holden School as follows: Eight- 
tenths of the amount to be used in the purchase of text 
books, for deserving and needy children attending the 
school who are not able to supply themselves; the 
remaining two-tenths, together with all not expended 
for text books for needy children, to be used in the 
purchase of books for prizes. 

Burr Fund. — In 1868, Jonathan Burr, in his last 
will and testament, proved in Probate Court February 
25, 1869, after certain specific bequests to various rela- 
tives and public institutions, bequeathed one-eleventh of 
the balance of his property and estate to the City of 
Chicago, in trust, the annual income of the same to be 
paid over to the Board of Education, to be expended 
in procuring books of reference, maps, charts, illus- 
trative apparatus and works of taste and art; and in 
case the City of Chicago fails to provide the necessary 
text books and slates for indigent children attending 
the public schools of the city, then the Board of Edu- 
cation is authorized and directed, at its discretion, to 
use and expend the whole or any part of said income 
for such purpose. 

School Finances. — The following comparative 
tables show the status of school finances for the years 
ending June, 1S71, and June, 1872 : 



From School Tax Fund ...$366,024 89 $303,802 53 

From State Fund 41 ,758 19 30,484 "17 

From kcnts and Interest 69,299 22 61,002 71 



The following table explains itself : 



$477,082 30 $395, 2 Sg 41 



EXPENDITURES, 

From School Tax Fund : 

1870-71. 

F'or Salaries of Teachers $444,634 53. 

For Rents of Buildings 9.9H 1" 

For Janitors, Fuel an>: 

... 102,827 i\ . 

rmanent Improve- 
ments 39. '"4 53- 



16,388 25 

lilding Fund : 

• 70 .973 ^4. 
Build- 
tag* - 154.036 



187.-72. 
-$359,588 07 

- 6,157 9° 

. 101,072 15 

- 12.531 77 
$479,349 95 

-$ 78, <xx) 00 
16 386 79 







Total 


No. 


Paid for 


Current 




Ending 


Enrollment. 


•teachers. 


Tuition. 


Expenses. 


Feb. I, 


1S5S.. 


IC7S6 


Si 


$ 36,079 OO 


$ 45,701 OO 


Feb. 1, 


1S59-- 


12,873 


lOI 


43,009 89 


^S.686 80 


Feb. 1, 


1S60.. 


M.I99 


123 


49.612 43 


69,630 53 


Feb. 1, 


1861.. 


16,547 


139 


60,994 46 


8i,533 75 


Dec. 31, 


1861.. 


16,441 


160 


6S,6o7 97 


S6.755 32 


Dec. 31, 


1862- . 


17.521 


IS 7 


75.326 18 


92,378 86 


Dec. 31, 


1S63.. 


21,188 


212 


SS.III 56 


113,305 24 


Aug. 31, 


1S65*- 


29,080 


24O 


131,034 91 


176,003 12 


Aug. 31, 


1866.. 


24,851 


265 


162 383 79 


219,198 66 


Aug. 31, 


1867.. 


27,260 


319 


227,524 97 


296,672 89 


July 1, 


1868.. 


29,954 


401 


278,133 06 


352,001 80 


July 1, 


1869.. 


34.740 


4S1 


350,515 43 


446,786 50 


July 1, 


1870. 


3S.939 


557 


414,655 70 


527,741 60 


July 1, 


1871- 


40.832 


572 


444,634 53 


547,461 74 



$225,01., 1- -174,886 79 



Albert G. Lane, county superintendent of schools, was born 
March 15, 1841, in Galewood, Jefferson Township, Cook Co., 111., 
his parents being Elisha B. and Amanda (Grannis) Lane. His 
father went to that locality in 1S36, but moved to Chicago soon 
after the birth of his son, where he established himself as a car- 
penter. Previous to his death in February, 18S4, he was connected 
for seventeen years with the Department of Public Buildings of 
the city government. Albert G. Lane received his primary educa- 
tion at the Scammon School (District No. 3) and afterward as a 
member of the first high school class. In November, 1858, he 
commenced his long and successful career as an educator by becom- 
ing a teacher in the Franklin School, whose territory then embraced 
one of the largest districts in the city. In December. 1S69, he was 
elected superintendent of schools of the county, which position he 
held four years. Being defeated for reelection he took charge of 
Preston, Kean & Co.'s West Side Bank for four years, when, in 
November, 1877, he was chosen to the position which he now 
holds, and admirably fills. On July 18, 1878, Mr. Lane was mar- 
ried to Miss Frances Smallwood, an accomplished lady who had 
been a teacher, for ten years, in the Central High School. They 
have two daughters. 

George Howland, present superintendent of schools, is a 
native of Conway, F>anklin Co., Mass. He is the son of William 
Avery Howland. His mother's maiden name was Hannah Mor- 
ton. Both of his parents were natives of New England. George 
Flowland spent his boyJiood upon his father's farm, devoting his 
leisure to such studies as were within his reach. In course of time 
he entered Williston Seminary, East Hampton, and afterward 
Amherst College, from which he was graduated in 1S50. Two 
years after receiving his degree as Bachelor of Arts, he returned to 
Amherst, and was connected with the college for five years — first as 
tutor and then as instructor in Latin and French. In December. 
1857, he arrived in Chicago, and the following January was elected 
a teacher in the High School, which position he held until July, 
i860, when he was elected principal. After twentv years of work, 
his faithfulness and ability were openly rewarded by his election to 
the position of superintendent of schools, in July, 1S80. During 
the previous year he had been elected trustee of Amherst College, 
and was reelected in 1884. In 1881, he was appointed a member 
of the Illinois State Board of Education, and elected president 
thereof in 1883. 

Histories of the Public Schools. — Dearborn 
School. — The first permanent building for public educa- 
tional purposes was erected in the spring of 1845, on 
the ground now occupied by the Crystal Block and 
Hershey Music Hall, opposite McVicker's Theater. It 
was known as "School No. 1" until its name was 
changed to the Dearborn School, in February, 1858. 

" Upon the opening of the building," says Mr. Johnston, 
" districts Nos. I ami 2 were consolidated into one, and were accom- 
hhh1.ii, ,1 in this building; and from this time until the opening of 
tli' new I, nil, lint; on Block No. 1 13, School-section Addition, after- 
ward known as the Jones School, the reports are headed Districts 
1 and 2. ( Ine year after the opening of the building there were 
enrolled in the school live hundred and forty-three pupils; at the 
end of the second year six hundred and sixty pupils; and at the 
end of the third year, eight hundred and sixty-four pupils. The 
lirst teachers in the school were Austin D. Sturtevant, principal, 

• Eighteen months. 



THE SCHOOLS. 



log 



who had been in the employ of the city in districts Nos. 3 and 2, 
since October, 1S40, and Misses Lucia A. Garvin and Martha 
Uurant. Mr. Sturtevant remained in charge until August, 184(1, 
when he resigned, and was succeeded by A. W. Ingalls, who 
remained in charge until his death in April. 1S50. F. A. Benham 
was the next appointee, being followed by J. P. Brooks, who 
served from April, 1S54, to February, 1S55; l'erkins Bass from 
February, 1S55, to May, 1S56; O. B. Hewitt from May, 1S56, to 
April, 1S57; George D. Broomell until November, 1S63; Albert K. 
Sabin to July, 1865, George D. Broomell to July, 1866; Daniel S. 
Wentworth to July, 1867; Leslie Lewis to October, 1869; Andrew 
M. Brooks to January, 1S70; and Alfred P. Burbank from March, 
1870, to July, 1871. The Dearborn-school building was used for 
school purposes till the close of the school year, in June, 1S71, 
when the lot was leased by the Common Council to Rand, McNally 
& Co.; and a building known as Johnson Hall, located on Wabash 
Avenue, near Monroe Street, was rented for the accommodation of 
the school at a rental of $3,600 per annum. The Dearborn-school 
building was torn down during the summer of 1871. The school 
was continued after the summer vacation of 1871 in Johnson Hall, 
under the charge of Miss Alice L. Barnard, as principal, until the 
great fire swept over the while territory of the Dearborn-school 
district, when the organization of the Dearborn School became 
extinct." 

Kinzie School. — In March, 1845, tne question of 
erecting a permanent building in District No. 4, North 
Division, was agitated, recommended by the Committee 
on Schools in June, and the structure completed in 
January, 1S46. The site was on the corner of LaSalle 
Avenue and Ohio Street, being purchased by William 
B. Ogden. The size of the building was forty-five by 
seventy feet, two stories high. Its first principal was 
A. G. Wilder, who had been in charge of the school of 
this district since 1843, and retained his position for 
a period of fourteen years. In 1857, Philip Atkinson 
succeeded him, serving until the fall of 1858. The 
next principal was Benjamin D. Slocum, who served 
until 1862, when William J. Armstrong was chosen to 
the position. After remaining about four months he 
was succeeded by Jeremiah Slocum, who served until 
May, 1864, when lie was transferred to the Moseley 
School. Ira S. Baker was Mr. Slooum's successor and 
remained in charge of the school until the fall of 1868. 
F. Hanford was principal during the school year 1868-69, 
and was followed by James Hannan, who continued thus 
to act up to the time the main building and branch were 
destroyed by the fire of 187 1. 

The branch building of the Kinzie School was 
authorized to be erected by the Common Council in 
May, 1862, and was completed during that year. 

Scammon School. — The question of erecting a per- 
manent building for the West Division was considered 
during the early portion of 1846. It was completed 
during the year, the structure being of brick and two 
stories in height; its location being on land belonging 
to the School Fund on Madison Street, east of Halsted. 
In October, 1861, a four-room frame buiiding was 
ordered erected on what was then known as the Scam- 
mon-school lot, and completed in 1862, at a cost of about 
$2,800. A. D. Sturtevant, its first principal, was suc- 
ceeded, in 1854, by Daniel S. Wentworth. Mr. Went- 
worth served until January, 1863, when he was followed 
by A. H. Vanzwoll, who continued in the position until 
after the fire. 

Jones School. — In November, 1846, an order was 
passed by the School Inspectors to employ a teacher in 
the southern portion of the First and Second districts, 
which was the beginning of the Jones School. Miss 
Alice L. Barnard taught the school in a small rented 
building on the northwest corner of Wabash Avenue 
and Twelfth Street. In September, 184S, this lot was 
purchased at a sale of canal lands, and the building was 

occupied for school purposes until the Haven scl I- 

house was built in the fall of 1862, this school being 



taught during this period by Miss Barnard. Upon the 
opening of the Haven School, this building was removed 
to the corner of Clark and Harrison streets. 

In November, 1849, the Jones District was made t<> 
include all the territory lying south of a line drawn east 
and west through the center of the blocks between 
Monroe and Adams streets. A building for this new 
district was completed during the second week in March, 
1850, at a cost of $6,795. The first principal was II. 
McChesney, who served until October, 185 1, when he 
was succeeded by Isaac Claflin. He continued to act as 
principal until the spring of 1856, and Willard VVoodard 
then resigned, his successor, I.eander Stone, serving 
for about a year and a half. M. Ingalls became the 
next principal, and H. Belfield took charge of the school 
during the fall of 1865. The latter held the position 
until he was transferred to the new Dore School, in 
December, 1867. Morton Culver, the next incumbent, 
gave place to Norton W. Boomer in the fall of 1870. 
Mr. Boomer held the position at the time of the great 
fire, which swept the Jones from the list of public 
schools. The building was then valued at $13,170, and 
the present fine structure, located on the corner of Har- 
rison Street and Third Avenue, was not erected until 
1873. 

Washington School. — In April, 185 1, the city pur- 
chased a lot on the corner of West Indiana and San- 
gamon streets. A building was erected during that 
year, a two-story brick structure, and the school was 
opened in January, 1852. This was then the Sixth 
School District. In 1862, a wooden structure was 
erected to accommodate the requirements of that region. 
In October, 1855, A. D. Sturtevant, the first principal, 
was succeeded by George A. Low, who served during 
the school year 1857-58. In December, 1858, Benjamin 
R. Cutter became principal, and so acted up to the time 
of his death, June 15, 1875. A new building was 
erected for the Washington School in the summer of 
1 87 1, on Morgan Street, between Erie and Ohio. This 
structure, four stories high, built of brick, was one of 
the most imposing school buildings in the city. 

Sangamon-street School. — L T pon the removal of the 
Washington School to its new quarters on Morgan 
Street, the old building was occupied by the Sangamon- 
street School, having primary grades only. Mrs Laura 
D. Ayres remained as principal until the time of the 
fire. 

Franklin School. — This house (District No. 5) was 
opened in January, 1852, being located on the corner 
of Division and Sedgwick streets. D. C. Ferguson, its 
first principal, served until March, 1855, after which 
Charles A. Dupee acted for one year, when he was 
elected principal of the High School, at its opening. 
William Drake followed him, being succeeded by Albert 
G. Lane in the fall of 1858. Mr. Lane was one of the 
first High School graduates, and continued principal of 
the Franklin School until November, 1869, when he was 
elected to the office he now holds — the superintendency 
of schools of Cook County. 

The new Franklin building was ready for occupancy 
January 4, 1869, dedicatory services being held on the 
8th of that month; which included addresses by A. W. 
Tinkham. secretary of the Board of Public Works; L. 
Brentano, president of the Board of Education; Judge 
J. A. Jameson, Elliott Anthony: J. L. Pickard, superin- 
tendent of schools; and a poem by J. Mahoney. The 
building was similar in construction to the Hayes School, 
each being four stories high, with four rooms in each 
story, except in the upper in which there were two class- 
rooms and an assembly hall. The Franklin was erected 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



on a lot belonging to the School Fund, on the corner of 
Division and Sedgwick streets. In the fall of 1869, F. 
Hanford became principal of the Franklin School, and 
remained in that position until elected assistant super- 
intendent of schools, and was followed, in October, 1870, 
. rt R. Sabin. 
The branch building was erected on the same lot in 
tad was destroyed with the main structure in 
the great lire. The value of the property was then 
$77,195- 

MARGARET DOUGALL, principal of the Oak-street public 
school, was horn in Montreal, and came with her parents, Thomas 
and Elizabeth (Cameron! Dougall, to Chicago, when a mere 
child. She received her preliminary education in the Ogden School, 
there winning the first scholarship medal for general excellence, and 
graduated from the High School in the class of 1S64. Subsequent 
to her graduation, she began to teach at the Franklin School, and 
continued there until the fire of 1S7 [ burned the building, and then 
went to the Lincoln School to finish the remainder of the year, 
with the late Mr. Hanford as principal. After the re-building of 




he Franklin School and at its opening, in November, 1S72, Miss 

returned as head assistant for two years, and in September, 

in Si hool, and became its principal. 

In September. fsv.. she was transferred to the Oak-street School, 

which she organized and put in working order. 

■// School. — In December, 1853, an order was 
to purchase a si hool site on Warren Avenue, 
Wood streets. The purchase was 
ide, and, in February, 1855, proposals were received 
for the ere tion of a two-story wooden school-house 
lot, which was soon afterward completed. 
OOm brick building was opened during 
irly portioti id was the first school 
am in the city. The structure 
high, and cost $25,000. The 
d been used sin< e 1855, was 
npletion of the new build 
ing to the Wells ot, then known as School, No. 
'. •■!, ie and ' lornelia Street, .1 
Vfterl ie ere< tion of the per- 
manent b '.ii [866, it was 

again removi ■ cornel ol Ashland 

and Wab 1 istant, n maining 

in this location until after the fire. v. February, 



1S58, the Board of Education commenced to designate 
the schools by names instead of by numbers, District 
No. 8 was called the " Brown School," in honor of 
William H. Brown, school agent and trustee of the 
School Fund for thirteen years, and who so unselfishly 
labored to establish the system of public education 
when it was weak and in need of fostering care. Henry 
M. Keith served as principal, until the close of the 
school year in 1859, having five assistants. Samuel H. 
White served from that time until September, 1868, 
when he was succeeded by John K. Merrill, who con- 
tinued in charge until after 187 1. 

Foster School. — In 1855, a wooden school-house, two 
stories high, was erected on Union Street, between 
O'Brien and Dussold streets, for District No. 9, which 
was then but sparsely settled. Two years thereafter a 
brick structure was erected, to accommodate the rapidly 
increasing school population, the building being of 
brick, three stories high, and costing $28,000. A small 
branch building (wood) was erected in 1862. George 
W. Spofford remained principal for the Foster School, 
as it was called in 1S58, until the fall of 1870, when he 
was succeeded by Orville T. Bright, who served until 
after 1871. The Foster School was named after Dr. 
John H. Foster, for many years intimately connected 
with the public schools of Chicago, an able, benevolent 
and liberal gentleman. The main building of the Fos- 
ter School was erected, as stated, in 1857, on Union 
Street near Twelfth. There still remained on the lot, 
the old building of 1855, in addition to the four-room 
structure erected in 1S62. In 1864, the city purchased 
a frame building at the corner of Halsted and Twelfth 
streets, which was used for some time as a branch. 

Ogden School — In the spring of 1856, a lot was pur- 
chased on Chestnut Street, north of Chicago Avenue, 
and a building erected thereon during the same year. 
It was composed of brick, three stories high. Apple- 
ton H. Fitch acted as principal from the opening of the 
school until the fall of 1858, when George W. Dow was 
appointed. F. S. Heywood was principal from the fall 
of 1861 to the fall of 1870, at which time George W. 
Heath accepted the position. The great fire destroyed 
the building. 

Moseley School. — The first Moseley-school building 
was erected in 1856, corner of Michigan Avenue and 
Twenty- fourth Street. It was built of brick, three 
stories high. Bradford Y. Averill was the first princi- 
pal of the school, being succeeded in the fall of 1859 
by Francis A. Benham. Samuel A. Briggs commenced 
his term of service in the winter of 1861, and continued 
as principal until May, 1864, when he was succeeded 
by Jeremiah Slocum. When, in June, 1870, Mr. Slo- 
cum was appointed an assistant in the High School, 
Samuel N. Griffith was chosen principal, and held the 
position at the time of the fire. 

Central High School. — As has been stated in the 
first volume of this history, the Central High School 
building was completed in the fall of 1856. The school 
was in charge of Charles A. Dupee, who was succeeded, 
in September, i860, by George Howland, his former 
assistant and the present superintendent of schools. 
Provision was made for a classical course of three 
years, and a normal course of two years. The com- 
bined classical and English high courses could be com- 
pleted in four years. In i860, both the classical and 
English courses were extended to four years and all 
pupils were required to take at least one language dur- 
ing the course. A special classical course of three 
years was provided in 1X68 for those in preparation for 
college. The normal department was organized as an 



THE SCHOOLS. 



independent school in 1871, and so continued until 
1876, when it was again made a department of the 
High School. Ira Moore was principal of the normal 
school from October, 1856, to July, 1857, and Edward 
C. Delano from September, 1857, until the suspension, 
in June, 1877. The age required for admission pre- 
vious to 1870 was thirteen years, when it was reduced 
to twelve years. 

Branch High Schools. — In September, 1869, branch 
high schools or classes were formed in each division 
of the city : In the Franklin School, North Division, 
Haven School, South Division, and two in the 
West Division — one in the Foster-school building, 
and the other in the Hayes-school building. The 




\^upCy 



studies of the first year of the high school course were 
taken up in these classes, after which, if they desired to 
continue the course, the pupils attended the central 
building. This arrangement continued until 1875, 
when the Division High Schools were established, with a 
two years' course. 

The Newberry-school building was erected in 1858. 
It is located at the corner of Orchard and Willow 
streets, on ground purchased of Walter L. Newberry. 
It contains twenty-three rooms, including an assembly 
hall, and has sittings for one thousand four hundred 
and forty pupils. The immediate predecessor of the 
Newberry School was known as the " Branch of School 
No. 5," or " Branch of the Franklin." This was located 
in a mission-church building on Larrabee Street near 
North Avenue, and closed in December, 1858, with one 
hundred and eighteen pupils. Miss Hooke is at pres- 
ent the head-assistant of the Newberry School, having 
been -appointed to this position in 1862. The New- 
berry School was organized in January, 1859, by Miss 
Emma Hooke, assisted by Misses Ellen J. Stevens and 
Ellen V. Lamb. After the first two or three days, 
John Atwater engaged in the school as a substitute for 
the principal, who was detained by the death of a son. 
After about one week, the first principal, Curtis C. 
Meserve, of Rochester, N. Y., assumed charge, and 
continued in this relation until July, 1865. He after- 
ward engaged in the real estate business, and was a 
member of the Board of Education from 1868 to 1872. 
In September, 1865, the second principal, Albert R. 
Sabin, began his work, which remained in his charge 
until October, 1870, when he became principal of the 
Franklin School. In October, 1S70, the third and 
present principal, Corydon G. Stowell, was transferred 
to this school from what was then known as the Larra- 
bee-street School, and later as the Lincoln School, of 
which he was appointed the first principal in Septem- 
ber, 1870. The sessions of the Newberry School were 
interrupted by the great fire of October 8 and 9, 187 1. 
The membership at the close of September, 187 1, was 
nine hundred and seventy-one pupils. On Tuesday, 
October 10, the school building, situated on the very 
border of the fire limits on the northwest, was opened 
as a hospital and supply depot for sufferers by the fire, 
with the principal in charge. About six hundred per- 
sons were sheltered there on the night of October 10, 
and for several days following thousands were furnished 
with provisions, supplied through the Chicago Relief 
and Aid Society. On October 13, about four hundred 



and twenty-five persons were lodged in the building. 
The North Chicago Free Dispensary was opened in the 
school-house during its use for relief purposes. The 
number of occupants gradually diminished, so that in 
the second week in November those remaining were 
removed to the relief barracks, erected near the corner 
of North Avenue and North Halsted Street. One 
birth and one death occurred in the school building 
during its use as a hospital. On November 13, the 
school was re-opened with five hundred and seventy- 
five pupils. Many who had saved their text books 
from the fire donated such as they did not need to the 
Newberry Fund Library, for the use of the pupils who 
needed them. Complete school records were not re- 
sumed until December, 1871, at the close of which 
month there were one thousand and sixty-six in attend- 
ance. Since that time the greatest membership has 
been one thousand five hundred and twenty-two, in 
October, 1872, and the least one thousand one hundred 
and fifteen, in December, 1875. The " Newberry 
Fund " of one thousand dollars was given to the city 
for the benefit of this school, April 7, 1862, by Walter 
L. Newberry, Esq. The income from the investment 
of this fund has been applied to the purchase of text 
books, maps, charts, apparatus, and a general library. 
The latter now contains two hundred and ninety-one 
volumes. The Newberry Magazine Club was organ- 
ized by the teachers in 1872, to provide such magazines 
and papers as seemed desirable for professional and 
juvenile reading. They still sustain this undertaking, 
and their efforts have been supplemented by limited 
appropriations from the Newberry Fund. The build- 
ing was heated by stoves until 1873, when steam-heat- 
ing apparatus was provided. Evening schools were 
conducted at the Newberry building during the greater 
part of the fall terms of 1873-75 and 1877-78. The 
Nickersonville Branch of the Newberry was opened in 
September, 1867, in charge of Miss Mary A. C. Smith. 
When the Lincoln School was opened in September, 
1S70, this became a branch of that school. Of the 
twenty-seven teachers now connected with the New- 
berry (two absent on leave), one has been in this school 
twenty years; one, thirteen; two, nine; two, eight; one, 
seven; two, six; three, five; one, four; two, three; six, 
two; two, one; and four less than one year — the average 
time being nearly four and three-fourths years. From 
the organization of this school to June, 1879, inclusive, 
there were one hundred and twenty-nine different teach- 
ers, and two hundred and twenty-eight pupils admitted 
from its highest grade to the high school. 

Albert Robbins Sabin, principal of the Franklin public 
school, son of E. S. and Sophia (Hall) Sabin, was born at 
Saxton's River, Windham Co, N't., September 30, 1S37. He was 
educated at Middlebury College, Yt., and finished his studies in 
1S62, taking the honorary degrees of A. B. and A. M. In Sep- 
tember, 1S62, he came to Chicago, and on November 9, 1863, com- 
menced to teach at the old Dearborn School (then opposite McVick- 
er's Theatre) where he remained two years. He next held the position 
of principal of the Newberry School for five years, and was ap- 
pointed to the Franklin School in 1S69. In the fire of 1871, the 
school building was burned, and for the remainder of the scholastic 
year Mr. Sabin taught in the Douglas School. During the follow- 
ing two years he was teacher of classics in the High School under 
Mr. Howland, the present superintendent of city schools, and for 
the next five years was principal of the Lake Forest Academy, a 
preparatory school for boys. During the following two years, Mr. 
Sabin was professor at Lake Forest University, was then super- 
intendent of schools in Lake County for four years, and at the 
expiration of that time he returned to Chicago and became prin- 
cipal of the Kinzie School, succeeding James Ilannan After the 
death of Norton W. lioomer, Mr. Sabin was transferred to his 
present position. Mr. Sabin was married in Vermont, July II, 
[862, '." Miss Mary Barber, of Middlebury. Yt. He has one son, 
Stuart 13 , who is preparing to enter the Williams College next fall. 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



In the summer of i562,Mr. Sabin patriotically responded to the 
call for volunteers in defense of the Union, by raising a company 
in Addison Co., Vt., which became a part of the gth Vermont 
Infantry Volunteers. The regiment was captured at Harper's 
Ferrv under Colonel Miles, and. the whole garrison being paroled, 
was sent to Annapolis. Md.. and from there ordered to Kansas to 
gainst the Indians, who were on the war path. The regi- 
ment came to Chicago and was there mustered out. as the Indians 
- iued, and at Camp Douglas Mr. Sabin resigned his com- 
as captain and returned to private life, settling in Chicago. 
Mr. Sabin belongs to the Masonic Order, and is a member of the 
and State Teachers' associations and of the Chicago In- 
stitute of Education. 

Sfo/ir/sr School. — In 1859, a brick structure, four 
stories in height, with wing, was erected at the corner 
of Aberdeen and Jackson streets. It was named in 
honor of Hon. Mark Skinner, and was built upon the 
same plan as the Newberry. A. N. Merriman served 
as principal until the fall of 1869, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Ira S. Baker, who continued until after the 
fire. 

Haven School. — This building, named in honor of 
Luther Haven, was dedicated September 20, 1862. 
Rev. VV. H. Ryder presided at the dedicatory exercises, 
addresses being delivered by Mr. Haven, James Ward, 
chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds; 
S. S. Hayes, city comptroller; Newton Bateman, super- 
intendent of public .instruction; James J. Noble, prin- 
cipal of the school; and City Superintendent Wells. 
The building, on Wabash Avenue, south of Twelfth, 
was three stories high, with basement and attic, heated 
bv steam and furnished with modern improvements. 
Mr. Noble was succeeded by George D. Broomell 
in the fall of 1866. Mr. Broomell, whose name has 
been previously mentioned in connection with the Dear- 
born School, served until September, 1869, when he 
was elected the virtual first assistant-superintendent of 
public schools, although the office had not yet been 
legally created. Leslie Lewis, who had followed Mr. 
Broomell as principal of the Dearborn School, now 
succeeded him as principal of the Haven School, and 
continued in that position until after 187 1. 

School Number Twelve. — This building, situated on 
the corner of Reuben and Cornelia streets, was re- 
moved from the Brown-school (District No. 8) lot, 
upon the opening of the new building, was a wooden 
structure, two stories high, and contained two rooms. 
st principal was Eugene I.. Aiken. Two branches 
in the vicinity were opened previous to the erection of 
the present imposing structure known as the Wells 
School. Morton Culver succeeded Mr. Aiken. Re- 
becca C. Gosselin was principal of the Reuben-street 
branch. Upon the opening of the new sixteen-room 
building erected on this lot, the frame building was 
again removed still further north, to the Burr-s-hool 
(first known as the Rolling Mill School lot, corner of 
Ashland and Waubansia avenues. 

Wells School. — The ground for this building, named 
after William II. Wells, for eight years the faithful and 
iperintendent of Public Schools, was broken Au- 
and the building dedicated with appropri- 
ptember 14. 1866. h stood in the 
center of a plat of ground of forty-five thousand square 
feet in extent, fronting east on Reuben Street, now 
known as Ashland Avenue, and extending south on Cor- 
nelia. I fo 1 stories high, exclusive of 
basement, and built of brick, at a cost of §37,000. At 
the dedicatory exi occupied bv the 
president of the Hoard of E ' I. Holden 
J. G. Gindele, ol the Hoard of Publii Works, delivered 
the keys to Mayor kite who, in turn, transferred them 



C. N. Holden. They passed from Mr. Holden's hands 
to those of Jeremiah Mahoney, principal of the school. 
Addresses were also delivered by John C. Dore, first su- 
perintendent of public schools ; William H. Wells, the 
second, and J. L. Pickard, the then incumbent; also by 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM WELLS. 

Willard Woodard, chairman of the Committee on Schools 
of the Common Council ; C. C. P. Holden, chairman of 
the Finance Committee ; ex-City Comptroller S. S. 
Hayes; and Dr. W. H. Ryder, chairman of Committee 
on Dedication. Mr. Mahoney continued to act as prin- 
cipal during all the period covered by this volume. 

South Chicago School. — By legislative enactment of 
February 13, 1863, the limits of the city were extended 
so as to take in the South Chicago, Bridgeport and Hol- 
stein schools, the number of pupils enrolled in these 
schools, at this time, being three hundred and ninety- 
seven. The South Chicago school occupied a small 
frame building, located on Douglas Avenue, near South 
Park Avenue Upon the opening of the Cottage Grove- 
school building, in 1867, it was removed to Twenty-sixth 
Street, near Wentworth Avenue, and served as a branch 
of the Moseley School till the opening of the Ward- 
school building in 1875, when the building was sold. Rod- 
ney Welch acted as principal until the fall of 1865, when 
he was succeeded by J. H. Broomell, who took charge of 
the Cottage Grove School upon the opening in January, 
1867. The South Chicago School was merged into the 
latter. 

Cottage Grove School. — This building, located on 
Douglas Avenue, near Cottage Grove, was erected in the 
fall of 1866, being first occupied January 2, 1867. It 
was pleasantly situated in the center of extensive 
grounds, shaded by native forest trees. The building 
was of wood, costing about $24,000. James H. Broo- 
mell was its first principal, and so remained until the 
spring of 1S77. 

Holstcin School. — By the extension of the city limits in 
1863, the Holstein School, on Cortland Street nearHen- 
shaw, became one of the public schools. One room was 
added in 1867. Mary E. Lyon, Miriam S. Sherman, and 
Eliza Lundergreen were successively principals of the 
school. 

The Elizabeth-street Primary School was opened Jan- 
uary 2, 1867, and located on Lake Street, corner of 
Elizabeth. Sarah E. Osgood was principal until the 
fall of 1869, when Hattie N. Winchell assumed the re- 
sponsibilities. She is still principal. 

Pearson-street Primary School. — This school was 
opened January 2, 1S67, and located at the corner of 
Pearson and Market streets. The building was destroyed 
in the great fire of 1871, the property being then valued 
at over $16,000. Flora J. Parish served as principal up 
to the fall of 1869, and Mary J. Synon up to the time 
the school was swept away. 

The Walsh-street Primary School, of the same size 
and internal arrangement as the Cottage Grove, was 
opened May 6, 1867. It was located on Twentieth 
Street, corner of Johnson. Frank B. Williams, its first 
principal, was succeeded in the fall of 1868 by Mary F. 
S. Brown, who served until after 1871. 

\i \i;\ Eleanor Spencer Brown Rick, principal of the 

Walsh Public School, was born in Stephentown, Rensselaer Co., 



THE SCHOOLS. 



113 



N. Y., April S, 1S43, and is the daughter of Roswell Darling and 
Eleanor (Carr) Brown. Her father's ancestors came from Scot- 
land in the middle of the eighteenth century, and settled in New 
York, and her mother's from England in the first half of the seven- 
teenth century, locating in Massachusetts. In 1845, her parents 
removed to Joliet, 111., where she was educated. After a thorough 
training in all departments of the schools of that city, she gradu- 
ated from the High School in July, 1859, and began teaching 
during the same year, in the graded schools of that place, holding 
responsible positions in the primary and grammar departments for 
about eight years. In 1867, she went to Warsaw, 111., and taught 
one year in the High School there. She came to Chicago in Octo- 
ber, 186S, and was appointed assistant at the Walsh (then a gram- 
mar school), and in the January following, became principal of the 
same. In April, 1S69, at the general examination of grammar 
schools, the Walsh ranked first in the city, the class winning the 
honor, being the one Mrs. Rice had taught exclusively for seven 
months. In the spring examination of 1870, this school stood 
No. 4. At the examination for papers to be sent to the Vienna 
Exposition in 1873, it ranked second in the city. After the fire of 
October, 1S71, Mrs. Rice was the only principal who generously 
gave up her position to a principal of a burned-out school ; but as 
soon as a vacancy occurred, she was recalled to her former place. 
When Mrs. Rice was first placed at the head of the Walsh School, 
it consisted of a two-story wooden structure and a branch, having 
ten divisions and eleven teachers, including herself ; now there are 
two twelve-room buildings and twenty-seven teachers, including 
the principal. Mrs. Rice was married in Joliet, May 29, 1882, to 
Dr. N. B. Rice, of Chicago. 

The Dore School. — This building, on Harrison Street, 
near Halsted, was named after John C. Dore, first city 
superintendent of schools. It was constructed upon 
the plan of the Wells and Holden school-houses, being 
of brick, four stories high. The structure was com- 
pleted in December, 1867, and dedicated January 4, 
1868. President Clarke presided, and various ad- 
dresses were delivered, among others one by Mr. Dore 
himself. Jeremiah Mahoney, principal of the Wells 
School, also read an ode address to public school teach- 
ers, one verse of which is here produced, as being 
peculiarly charged with good sense : — 

" Three trades are game for every critic fool : 
Religion, politics, and teaching school. 
All other callings are by calm behest 
Explained by those who understand them best ; 
But every wordy, theoretic leech 
Can show you how to vote and preach and teach." 

H. H. Belfield remained principal of the Dore until 
after 1871, having been transferred from the Jones 
School. 

Rolling Mill Primary. — During the year 1867, the 
original No. Twelve-school building was moved from 
the corner of Reuben Street and Waubansia Avenue. 
This structure first did service on the prairies west of 
Union Park in 1855, upon ground occupied by the 
Brown School. A wooden addition was made the next 
year; Sarah O. Babcock was principal until 1871. 
Both buildings were subsequently removed to the 
Wicker Park-school lot. 

Elm-street Primary School was built in 1868, on the 
corner of Rush and Elm streets, and opened on the 5th 
of September. It was of wood, two stories high, built 
upon the same plan as the Cottage Grove-school house, 
and cost nearly $20,000. Lizzie C. Rust, Annie E. 
Young and Sarah N. Smith were the principals during 
the succeeding three years. The building was destroyed 
in the great fire. 

Bridgeport School. — As previously stated, the Bridge- 
port School was one of those absorbed by the city upon 
the extension of its corporate limits in 1863, and was 
situated on the corner of Archer Avenue and Fuller 
Street. This building was enlarged during the fall of 
that year by the addition of two rooms on what is now 
the front of the building. In the summer of 1864 it 
was again increased in size by the addition of two rooms 
S 



in the rear of the building. Charles F. Babcock was 
principal. 

The Holden School, located on Deering Street, corner 
of Thirty-first, was erected in 1868, being dedicated on 
May 2 of that year. It was named in honor of Charles 
N. Holden. The building was a four-story brick struc- 
ture and cost over $70,000. Charles F. Babcock, its 
principal, served until after the fire. 

Charles Ferdinand Babcock, the principal of the Holden 
School, was born in Sherborn, Mass., September 8, 1836, and is 
the son of Malachi and Sarah Babcock. He received his primary 
education at the academy in Leicester, Mass., and then attended 
Captain Alden Partridge's military school, at Brandywine Springs, 
Del. Having finished his course of study there, he was employed 
on a branch, of the Chicago & Alton Railroad until December, 
1S55, when he moved to the great West and became an assistant 
engineer on the Racine & Mississippi Railway, where he remained 
for some time, next becoming connected in the same capacity with 
the Joliet & Chicago Railroad Company. He began teaching in 
the public schools of Chicago in 1S62, having been appointed at 
that time to the position which he now so meritoriously fills. Mr. 
Babcock was married in i860, to Miss Helen Marr, of Chicago. 
He is a member of Richard Cole Lodge, No. 697, A. F. & A. M., 
and of Washington Chapter, No. 43, R. A. M. 

The Hayes School, so called in honor of Samuel S. 
Hayes, was built in 1868, at a cost of over $70,000, and 
was situated on Leavitt Street, between Walnut and 
Fulton. The building, a brick structure, was four stories 
high, and modeled after the Holden-school house. A. 
N. Merriman, the present incumbent, was principal, 
being transferred from the Skinner School. The dedi- 
catory services occurred on September 25, addresses 
being delivered by General J. McArthur, of the Board of 
Public Works; S. A. Briggs, vice-president of the Board 
of Education; Alderman C. C. P. Holden, Rev. Robert 
Collyer, S. S. Hayes and Alderman Willard Woodard. 

The Carpenter School, named after Philo Carpenter, 
and erected in 1868, was four stories' in height, and, in 
the money of those times, cost over $75,000. The lot 
had a frontage of two hundred and thirteen feet on 
Centre Avenue, and ran back on Second Street for a 
distance of two hundred and five feet. Alfred Kirk 
was the first principal of the school and remained in 
that position until after 187 1. 

Wentworth-avenne Primary School was opened Sep- 
tember 5, 1868, the building being a two-story structure 
erected at a cost of nearly $20,000. Mary E. Reed 
acted as principal for several years after its establish- 
ment. 

Cicero Primary School was opened in 1S69, when the 
corporate limits were extended west. Its principals, 
while it was under city control, were Lydia C. Avery 
and Nancy A. Helm. The building was located on 
Warren Avenue, fronting the railroad track, and the 
school was closed in December, 1870. Its pupils were 
transferred to the Hayes School. 

The Clarke School was completed January 1, 1S69, 
and opened on the 17th of January. Addresses were 
delivered by R. M. Guilford, a member of the Board 
and of the Committee on Schools; Alderman Woodard; 
W. H. Carter, of the Board of Public Works; E. F. 
Runyan; J. L. Pickard, superintendent of schools; and 
by George C. Clarke; and a dedicatory poem was read 
by George Howland, principal of the High School. 
Frank B. Williams, its first principal, continued to act 
in such capacity until after the fire. He is now princi- 
pal of the Marquette School. 

Frank Benton Willi VMS, principal of the Marquette School, 
was born in Chelsea, Yt.. on his grandfather's farm (the well-known 
Eli<ha Williams' place, on the East Hill), February 3, 1837 ; and 
is the son of David I'. an, I Dolly (Alexander) Williams. When 
twelve years of age his father died, and the family moved to Tun- 
bridge, Vt., where Frank continued to work on a farm during the 



"4 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



summer, and attended school in the winter. When about four- 
teen, he was bound out to a brother-in-law, until he should become 
of age, but being a proud-spirited boy he concluded henceforth to 
depend on himself, so broke his bonds and started out in life. He 
continued to work on a farm and attend school until eighteen, when 
he began to teach a school in Tunbridge. The following three 
years he was a student in the Thetford and Chelsea academies. He 
then went to the Kimball Union Academy at Meriden, N. H., and 
graduated in iSjo. Having resolved to go west and read law, he 
changed his mind, went to Greenfield, in Southern Missouri, and 
opened an academy, which he taught for three years with success, 
and was then offered a school in Palmyra, Walworth Co., Wis., 
which he accepted and taught for two years. Thence he went to 
Madison. Wis., organized and conducted the high school for one 
year, during which time he wrote a history of the Madison schools. 
In 1S66, he came to Chicago to accept the principalship of the 
Walsh School, and, having succeeded as an instructor and discip- 
linarian, the Board of Education took cognizance of his qualifica- 
tions and transferred him to the Clarke School, one of the best in 
the city. Here he taught for twelve years, raising it to a high stand- 
ard of excellence, in fact, it was the models chool of the city. After 
teaching so long, he intimated to the Board of Education a desire 
to see the old world, for the purpose of recreation and to study the 
educational systems of the different schools in the countries he 
might visit. He was relieved from the Clarke, and engaged to or- 
ganize the Marquette School, then in course of construction, virtu- 
ally being retained in the employ of the Board while granted a leave 
of absence. He traveled in Ireland, Scotland, England, and on the 
continent, visiting the schools and laying up a fund of information 
of which he has since made practical use. After an absence of five 
months, he returned and organized the Marquette School, and now 
has its management. This is also a model school, and the pride of 
the West Side. To his ideas, well and faithfully executed, under 
his skillful direction, is due the marked success of this school. Mr. 
Williams was the prime mover in organizing the society of the 
Sons of Vermont in Chicago, and has been among the foremost in 
making the association a success, acting as secretary and in other 
official positions. 

North Branch Primary School was opened January 
4, 1869, in the building known as the North Star Mis- 
sion, on Division Street, corner of Sedgwick. In 1870, 
the location was changed to Vedder Street, east of Hal- 
sted, and the next year it was swept away by the great 
fire. F. Emma Coss had charge of the school at the 
time of its destruction. 

The West Fourteenth-street School, formerly known 
as the Mitchell-street Primary, was opened in Novem- 
ber, 1869, being located on Mitchell Street, between 
Union and Jefferson streets. Its principal was Miss 
Tammie E. Flowers, who previously had charge of the 
DeKoven-street Primary. She continued at the head 
of the West Fourteenth-street School until after the 
period covered by this volume. 

LaSalle-street Primary School was located on Clark 
Street, near North Avenue, and opened in November, 
1869. Elizabeth C. Rust acted as principal until the 
building was destroyed by the great fire. Its value was 
then placed at $32,650. 

The Third-avenue Primary School was organized 
February 28, 1870. The building was located on 
Third Avenue, near Twelfth Street. Mary T. Dewey, 
the first principal, still continues in charge of the school! 

The Lincoln-school building was erected in Septem- 
ber, 1870, on Lincoln Street, between lielden and Full- 
erton avenues. The structure was of brick, three 
stories high, eighty-two by seventy-six feet, with a wing 
sixty by fifty-two feet. Corydon G. Stowell was princi- 
pal of the * hool about one month, when he was trans- 
ferrer! to tin; Newberry School. Miss Maria H. Haven, 
his successor, held the position until after the fire. 

11 ' The building was erected in 1870, 

being located on the corner of Forest Avenue and 
Thirty-second Street, The structure was of brick, 
three stories in height, eighty-two by seventy-six feet, 
with wing sixty by fifty-two feet. Its first principal, N. 
C. Twining, served until June, 1871, when he was suc- 



ceeded by Alfred P. Burbank, the famous elocutionist. 
Mr. Burbank held the position until 1873, when he re- 
signed, to pursue his specialty. 

Deaf Mute School. — In September, 1870, the first 
step was taken toward the establishment of a school for 
the instruction of deaf mutes in the city, at which time 
the use of a room in the LaSalle-street Primary-school 
building on North Clark Street, opposite Lincoln Park, 
was obtained for this purpose. This class was after- 
ward removed to the new Franklin-school building, and 
then to a room occupied as one of the offices of the 
Board of Education, where it remained until the great 
fire of 1871. 

The Great Fire destroyed ten school buildings 
owned by the city, one in the South Division (Jones), 
and nine in the North Division, leaving but two struct- 
ures devoted to public education in the latter section — 
the Newberry and Lincoln. The following figures show 
the extent of the calamity, setting forth the value of 
property destroyed : " Jones," corner Clark and Har- 
rison streets, $13,170 ; " Kinzie," corner of Ohio and 
LaSalle streets, $21,390 ; " Franklin," corner Division 
and Sedgwick streets, $77,195; "Ogden," Chestnut 
Street, between State and Dearborn streets, $39,675 ; 
Pearson-street Primary, corner of State and Elm streets, 
$16,750 ; LaSalle-street Primary, Clark Street near 
North Avenue, $32,650 ; North Branch Primary, Ved- 
der Street near Halsted, $32,000. Total, $249,780. 
The schools were closed for two weeks after the fire, 
re-opening October 23; and inasmuch as the number of 
teachers employed was largely in excess of the rooms to 
which to assign them, they were divided into four 
classes : First, those who were burned out and were 
homeless ; second, those who had parents or younger 
members of the family dependent upon them for sup- 
port ; third, those who had to depend upon their own 
earnings for a livelihood ; and fourth, those who had 
friends or relatives who could provide for them for the 
present. 

Josiah H. Pickard, superintendent of schools, who 
succeeded Mr. Wells in September, 1864, gives the fol- 
lowing account of the fire as it affected the workings of 
his department : 

" Upon the evening of Saturday, October 7, 1S71, the key to 
the office of the Board of Education was turned as usual, and 
rooms, admirably adapted to the several uses of the Board, newly 
and neatly fitted up, were locked against intruders. These rooms 
contained a full supply of blanks for the year ; a large number of 
class books and registers ; nearly two thousand copies of our 
Course of Instruction ; full files of state and city reports upon 
education, gathered during many years ; a good supply of copies of 
the several reports of our own schools ; the nucleus of a school 
library for which provision had just been made ; manuscript records 
of the proceedings of the Board of Education from its origin ; 
minute records of examination of teachers for seven years preced- 
ing, and partial records of other examinations covering a period of 
fifteen years ; all the papers written by teachers and pupils at the 
regular examinations, except those for admission to the High 
School ; files of all questions used for examination of both teach- 
ers and pupils ; files of an extensive correspondence ; copies of 
monthly and annual reports from the several schools of the city ; 
and a few copies of the report for 1870-71, to the preparation of 
which the long vacation had been devoted. At the usual time for 
opening the schools on Monday morning, nothing of all these re- 
mained save a mass of smoking ruins and one safe, in which were 
preserved, in recognizable form, the records of the proceedings of 
the Board. The same intruder, against whose entrance locks and 
bolts availed nothing, had sought at the bindery the full edition of our 
annual report, and the printed account of our year's work was en- 
tirely destroyed, with the exception of a very few copies that had 
been taken home by members of the Board and the principals of the 
schools who were at the rooms upon Saturday afternoon. Before ten 
o'clock of Monday evening, fifteen buildings used for school pur- 
poses, with reference books, and all the books belonging to the 
children, had been consumed. Of these buildings, ten were owned 



PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 



"5 



by the city and five were rented. Of the buildings owned by the 
city, five were comparatively new, two were erected about thirteen 
years before, and three were among the oldest school structures of 
the city. The fourteen school buildings furnished accommoda- 
tions for about ten thousand pupils, nearly one-third of our entire 
enrollment. One hundred and thirty-five teachers were employed 
in the buildings destroyed. During the afternoon of Monday, 
while one hundred thousand people were fleeing before the devour- 
ing element, many of them without hope of shelter even, the 
president of the Board of Education promptly ordered the opening 
of all the school-houses of the city, and thousands of people upon 
the prairies about the city were visited, and invited to take shelter 
therein. During almost the entire Monday, some of our lady 
teachers, with their friends, sought safety, from the clouds of hot 
smoke filled with burning cinders, in the waters of the lake. 
Standing in the water, and using a covering of wet waterproofs, 
they saved their persons and the clothing they wore from destruc- 
tion. Tuesday morning dawned upon the most perfect desolation. 
The school buildings were thronged with homeless, and well-nigh 
hopeless, people. In the school-rooms, the corridors and dressing- 
rooms, families had settled themselves with what little had been 
saved from the fire. One house furnished quarters for more than 
six hundred people; several others, for scarcely less numbers. For 
a little time, we were stupified ; but the conviction that the things 
which remained must be strengthened, and that, if possible, the 
city must be spared the demoralization which would follow even a 
temporary closing of our schools, together with the thought that 
now, more than ever, parents needed such aid in the care of their 
children as the schools could furnish, urged upon us the necessity 
of immediate action. Temporary quarters were secured for the 
use of the Board, and the teachers were called together upon the 
afternoon of Thursday. Bank vaults were as yet too deeply buried 
in hot debris to reveal the condition of the city deposits. Whether 
a single dollar remained for public purposes was not yet deter- 
mined. In the midst of this uncertainty, the teachers nobly ten- 
dered their services to the city for such pay as the city might find 
herself able to give. Since all could not be employed, many cheer- 
fully relinquished their claims to positions in favor of others who 
might be more unfortunate than themselves. Immediately upon 
this action of the teachers, the Board of Education resolved to open 
the schools at the earliest practicable moment." 

Teachers' Institute. — In December, 1850, the 
Common Council passed an ordinance making it the 
duty of the teachers of the public schools to meet on 
Saturdays and hold a teachers' institute, under the di- 
rection of the school inspectors, and by a rule of the 
Board they were required to meet on the first, second 
and third Saturdays in each month, and remain in ses- 
sion not less than two hours at each meeting. In Octo- 
ber, 1852, it was resolved to hold the meetings on the 
first and third Saturdays of each month, and, in 1856, 
they were reduced to one a month. At first the meetings 
of the institute were held in school No. 1, opposite the 
present site of McVicker's Theatre, and, as stated, un- 
der the direction of the Board of School Inspectors. In 
May, 1854, John C. Dore, Chicago's first superintendent 
of public schools, took charge of it, and, when the high 
school was completed in the summer of 1856, the place 
of meeting was transferred to that building. Mr. Dore 
had, in the meantime, resigned his position, and William 
H. Wells was chosen his successor. The exercises at 
the teachers' institute consisted of instruction in the 
branches of education taught in the public schools, dis- 
cussions and exhibitions of model classes of pupils, 
taken alternately from the primary and grammar schools. 
These meetings were not only productive of mutual im- 
provement, but afforded an opportunity for the superin- 
tendent to communicate freely with the teachers on all 
matters of general educational interest. The teachers 
themselves became better acquainted with one another, 
and, all in all, the institute has been the means of weld- 
ing into more compact shape the public school system 
of Chicago. By 1862, the teachers had so increased in 
numbers, that Superintendent Wells adopted the plan of 
having general exercises, which would benefit all, during 
the first of the forenoon, and dividing the institute into 
five sections, during the last hour, for drill exercises, and 



discussions adapted to the wants of the several grade 
teachers ; and although the management of the insti 
tute had always been left by the Board in his hands, it 
was his uniform practice to invite a committee of the 
teachers to aid him in arranging the successive pro- 
grammes of exercises, and thus giving to the institute, 
except in the matter of attendance, much of the freedom 
of a voluntary association. To give an idea of the in- 
crease in the attendance of the institute for the twelve 
years, during which it had already been in existence, it 
may be stated that when first organized, in 1 S50, the mem- 
bership was twenty-four, while at this time it was over 
one hundred and seventy-five, with an attendance of 
about one hundred. In 1867, the attendance had increased 
to one hundred and seventy-five. Different topics were 
taken up and treated, the teachers gathering in sections 
corresponding in number to the number of grades. In 

1868, the average attendance at every institute was two 
hundred and thirty-nine, and the meetings had become 
so instructive and popular that it was found necessary 
to hold gatherings at other localities. During the year 

1869, five institutes were held at Crosby Music Hall. 
In 1870, the lack of a suitable hall was felt more than 
ever, and for three months of the school year the teach- 
ers met in their respective divisions of the city. During 
the winter a series of lectures were given at Farwell Hall 
by Edmund Andrews, M.D., Col. J. W. Foster, J. V. X. 
Blaney, M.D., W. H. Ryder, D.D., Rev. David Swing, 
and Major J. W. Powell, for the benefit of the institute. 
The condition of this valuable annex to the public 
school system, in June, 1871, is thus described by josiah 
L. Pickard, then superintendent of schools : 

" At no time since the organization of this institute, until the 
past year, have we failed to bring together, for at least half the ses- 
sions, all the teachers of the city. Having no hall large enough to 
accommodate all, we have during the past year met in different parts 
of the city. The teachers of the West Division have met at the Skin- 
ner-school building. Those of the North and South divisions have 
met alternately at the Haven and the Franklin school buildings, No 
outside help, with one or two exceptions, has been called in, but ihe 
exercises have been conducted within ourselves." 

The number present at every institute was four hun- 
dred and one teachers. 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 

The following list of private schools and teachers 
in Chicago, during the years 1857-71, has been pre- 
pared with much care, and is believed to be both com- 
plete and accurate. Recourse has been had to the 
directories of the period, and the information obtained 
from them supplemented and in some instances cor- 
rected by that derived from private sources. Great 
pains has been taken to avoid duplication of any school 
under another name, and changes in title have been 
noticed under that of the earliest date. In the majority 
of cases, the names of teachers could not be obtained ; 
and in many instances where the names have been given, 
the name published may not be the one most familiar 
to some reader who may have attended any given 
school "in the days of his youth." Not a few of the 
residents of Chicago, however, may here find informa- 
tion which will awaken pleasant reminiscences of school- 
boy days that have long slumbered. 

TRIVATE SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS IN CHICAGO, FROM 1S57-/I. 
Academy of St. Agatha, Michigan Avenue, between Twenty- 
fifth and Twenty-sixth streets. 1871 ; Academy of St. Francis 
Xavier (Sisters of Mercy), Mother Frances de Sale 
No. 135 Wabash Avenue, [861-1871 : Academy of the Christian 
Brothers, No. 99 VanBuren Street. 1S69-1S71 ; Academy .if the 
Holy Name, Nos. 295 and 297 Huron Street (Sisters of Charity), 



n6 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



[858-1871 : Academy of the Sacred Heart, West Taylor Street, 
corner Lytle, 1869-1871; Adler, Liebman, corner Adams and Wells 
streets. 1 J65 : Adler, Alex., No. 191 Wells Street. 1S04 ; Atwater, 
J.. No. IOO State Street, 1S59 (evening school). 

Bain, Alexander, North Carpenter Street, near Holland, 1S59- 
1S60 : Barker. Mrs. Alice, No. S19 Prairie Avenue, 1S6S (afterward 
Prairie Avenue Seminary); Barry, Garrett, No. 10S North Clark 
Street. 1S60 : Barn-, G. and W., No. 16S North Clark Street, 
1861—1865 ; Becker. Eliza. Chicago Avenue, corner Sedgwick 
Street. 1S61 ; Belcke, C. J., Nos. 23 and 25 Morgan Block, Clark- 
Street. isoS. No. 144 White Street, 1S71 ; Belcke and Fisk, Uh- 
lich's Block. North Clark Street, 1S67: Berteau, Felix G., No. 108 
-- Street, 1S62: Bethany Mission School (Swedish), conducted 
by Union Bark Congregational Church, between Paulina Street 
and Ashland Avenue. 1S0S-1S71 ; Bethel Seminary, Erie Street, 
between North Wells and Franklin streets, 1S61 ; Bohemian Cath- 
olic School, rear of St. Wenthurst's Church, 186S-1S71 ; Brierly, 
Mrs. J. F., No. 311 North Wells Street, 1S64-1S65 ; Bruce, Thad- 
deus W. , No. $2 VanBuren Street. 1S60-1S62 ; Burns, Jennie, No. 
100 State Street. 1S50. ; Burr's Industrial Schools, Miss M. Rapley, 
principal. No. 3S9 Third Avenue, 1S69-1S70; Mrs. E. S. Mack, 
principal. No. 335 Third Avenue, 1S71. 

Campbell, Ann McGill, No. 152 West Adams Street, 1865- 
1868, No. 4 South May Street, 1S69, 170 Eighteenth Stceet, 1S71; 
Carlstadt. Charles. No. 85 Chicago Avenue, 1S71; Catholic Industrial 
School, Nos. 703 to 707 Archer Avenue, 1S6S; Chicago Academy, 
No. 21? Wabash Avenue, 1S62-1S69, No. 11 Eighteenth Street, 
1S71; Chicago Seminary for Young Ladies, No. 1S0 Cass Street, 
1S63, No. 112 Cass Street, 1S64-1S66; Cohen, Rev. Dr. Isaac R., 
No. 147 South Wells Street, 1S59; Condon, Maurice S., Sherman 
Street, near Polk, 1860-1S62; Convent of the Sisters of the Holy 
Cross. Cass Street, near Chicago Avenue, 1S58; Cook, Melvina, 

S8 Third Avenue, 1S61; Cottage Grove Seminary, No. 180 
Cass Street, 1S61-1S62; Indiana Avenue, between Ringgold Place 
and Palo Alto Street, 1S63-1S65. 

Daggett, Gertrude, No. 136 North Carpenter Street, 1S62; 
Dancer, Emeline, Clinton Street, between Harrison and Van Buren 
streets, 1S64-1S65; Davis, Myra D., West Van Buren Street, cor- 
ner Peoria, 1S61, Taylor Street, between Clark and Buffalo, 1S62; 
Dearborn Seminary, Z. Grover, principal, Nos. 79 and 81 Wabash 
Avenue. 1S60-1S71; Dwight, Mary A., Wabash Avenue, corner 
Harrison Street, 1S61 ; Dyhrenfurth Classical College and Young 
Ladies' Seminary, Julius Dyhrenfurth, principal, Nos. 120 to 124 
Randolph Street, 1S70; Dyhrenfurth Commercial College, Nos. 
116 and 11S Randolph Street, 1870; Dyhrenfurth Educational and 
High School, Nos. 122 and 124 Randolph Street, 1871; Dyhren- 
furth. Julius, Nos. 116 and 11S Randolph Street, 1S68. 

English and German Private School, No. 102 and 104 Van 
Buren Street, 1S09; English and German School, Miss Rein 
Bianca. principal. No. Soo North Wells Street, 1S71; Evangelical 
German Lutheran School, Kossuth Street, corner Hanover, 1871; 
Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's School, Christian Locke, principal, 

- ■ Noble Street. 1867; Evangelical Lutheran School of North 
Chicago, Halsted Street, near Burling, 1861. 

First German Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel School, West 
Taylor Street, corner Brown, 1S69-1871; First Reform German 
School, Desplaines Street, between Harrison and Van Buren streets, 
1869-1871; Fischer, George Henry (German), No. 127 Indiana 
Street, 1864-1865; Fisher's School, Superior Street, corner Frank- 
- Ford, Mrs. Frances M., Asylum Place, between Hurl- 
but and Sedgwick streets, 1871; Fricke, Henry, Union Street, 
southwest corner Carroll, 1867-1870. 

Garfield, Mary R., No. 16 Wahpanseh Avenue, 1871; Gauske, 
William, corner Paulina and Twenty-first streets, 1871; Gebhardt, 
Ferdinand, Willow Street, near North Halsted, 1862; German and 
English Select School, No. 248 Cottage Grove Avenue, 1S67; Ger- 
man and English School, William C. Fricke, principal, No. 511 
Clybourn Avenue, 1871; German and English School, No. 84 North 
Jnion Street, 1871; German and Evangelical Lutheran Schools, 
under charge of kev. Henry Wunder: First School (St. Paul's), 
rch, Superior Street, corner Franklin, H. Fischer, 
r-1871;* Seen.] School (St. John's), Christian 
Locke, principal. Noble Street, between Chicago Avenue and Car- 
ool (St. Jacob's). Charles Lan- 
ier, principal. Willow Street, corner Burling, 1869-1871;! German 
Evangelical Lutheran School (parochial school of St. John's 
Church). Fulton Street, corner Hoyne, 1871; German Lutheran 
fr* 001 ' ' corner Union, 1868; German Lutheran 

School, corner Willow and Burling streets, 1868-1869; German 
Methodist D :,. t, teacher, No. 51 Clybourn 

Avenue, r».67; German School, Main Street, Bridgeport, 1868; 
Mr. Fivhcraia private school. 

Im ui private school, under the name of 
. -,ical Lutheran St. Haul 
I ltuhnx nWi and 1869, Ihufcbool wa» known as the German Lutheran 



German School, II. Hubert, principal, No. 227 West Twenty- 
first Street, 1S69-1S70; afterward known as Koch's German and 
English School, 1871. German United Evangelical Lutheran St. 
Paul's Schools: First School (parochial), Ohio Street, corner La- 
Salle, James A. Falk, principal, 1S69-1S71; Second School (adjoin- 
ing Zion Church), G. Kranz, principal, Union Street, northwest 
corner Mitchell, 1S69-1871; Third School (Salem Church parochi- 
al), W. A. Schmidt, principal, Twenty-first street, near Archer Av- 
enue, 1S69-1871; Fourth School (adjoining St. Peter's Church), 
H. Ritzmann, principal, Chicago Avenue, corner Noble Street, 
1S69-1S71; St. Paul's Second School, N. Fricks, principal, Larrabee 
Street near Clybourn Avenue, 1S69-1S71; St. Paul's Third School, 
R. Mack, principal, Fourth Avenue, near Twelfth Street, 1869- 
1S71; Graham Seminary, Miss Susan Wood, principal. No. 354 
Michigan Avenue, iS6S-iS6g; Graham, Susan F., Peck Court, 
near Wabash Avenue, 1S60-1S63; Grant, Misses E. & B., No. 232 
North Dearborn Street, 1871; Grantham, Isabel, No. 46 North 
Halsted Street, 1S60; Gilman, Mary, No. 300 Erie Street, corner 
North State; Greise, Frederick, No 217 Washington Street, 1865; 
Gregg Miss C. A., Nos. 34S to 354 West Randolph Street, 1S65; 
Gyles, Sarah, No. 296 West Washington Street. 1870. 

Hack, Hubert, South Street, between LaSalle Street and Archer 
Place, 1861-1862 ; Haebernell, Henry, No. 137 Griswold Street, 
1864 ; Hardy, Agnes, No. 2S1 West Madison Street, 1868 ; Hath- 
away, William G., No. 168 South Clark Street, 1859-1864 ; Hath- 
away's Academy, No. 172 Clark Street, 1S65-1S6S ; Heath, Sarah 
A., Jackson Street, corner Edina Place, 1S61-1S64 ; Hielscher, 
Theodore, No. 10 South Clinton Street, 1S64 ; Holy Family (for 
boys), Elizabeth Street, between Austin and May Streets, 1S61- 
1864, South Morgan Street, near Twelfth, 1865-1871 ; Holy Fam- 
ily (for girls), West Taylor Street, corner Lytle, 1868-1871 ; Holy 
Name School, North State Street, corner Huron, 1S6S-1871 ; Hop- 
kins, Maria, Robey Street, corner West Washington, 1S6S ; Hyde, 
Emma, No. 49 South Carpenter Street, 1S71 ; Hyde, Mar)', No. 112 
Mather Street, 1S61-1863, No. 233 South Jefferson Street, 1864. 

Industrial School, No. no Bremer Street, 1861 ; Italian 
School, John Franzoni, director, Meyer Block, 1869-1871. 

Jones, Samuel, Nos. 30 and 31 McCormick Building, 1863. 

Kadlowska. Agatha, No. 73 Third Avenue, 1871 ; Kaufeld, 
Charles, No. 76 West Lake Street, 1S59 I Clinton Street, near Ran- 
dolph, 1S61 ; Keeler, Elizabeth, West Lake Street, corner Paulina, 
1862 ; Keeler, Miss E. D., No. 118 Eighteenth Street, 1871 ; 
Keefe Bridget, No. 63S Archer Avenue, 1S6S ; Kindergarten 
School, Miss C. L. Heinrichs, principal, Maple Street, corner 
Hills, 1871 ; Knapp, Christian, basement St. Paul's Church, 1S60 ; 
Koch's German and English School, No. 227 West Twenty-first 
Street, 1871. 

Lane & Baker, No. 218 Wabash Avenue, 1861 ; Langdon, 
Euretta, Ringgold Place, near Michigan Avenue, 1861 ; Langdon, 
Mrs. Kittie, Halsted Street, corner Harrison, 1S67 ; Larsen, To- 
bias, No. 150 West Indiana Street, 1862 ; Leinitz School, No. 929 
Wells Street, 1868 ; Lenert, Peter, No. 329 South Wells Street, 
1S67, No. 278 State Street, 1871 ; Lepelt, Albert T., No. 457 
State Street, 1860-1861 ; Loretto Academy, West Adams Street, 
near Desplaines, 1S71 ; Lutheran School, No. 79 Burling Street, 
1869. 

McMillan, John B., No. 143 Desplaines Street, 186S ; Max- 
well Select School for Girls (Sisters of Charity), address not given, 
1868-1871 ; Michaelis A., No. 77 North Green Street, 1871 ; Mor- 
gan, Mrs. Charles H. and the Misses, No. 55 South Curtis Street, 
1869 ; Mrs. Charles H. Morgan, No. 55 South Curtis Street, 1870. 

Nelson L. S.,No. 143 South Green Street, 1S62; Nicolaijohn L. 
and James J., No. 70 North Wells Street, 1S59; James Nicolai, 1S62; 
John L. Nicolai, No. 293 Clark Street, 1863 ; Normal Academy 
of Music, No. S5 Clark Street, 1868 ; Northwest Normal Institute 
for Physical Education, O. W. and J. P. Powers, conductors, Nos. 
116 and 1 IS Randolph Street, 1S66; Norwegian Lutheran School (pa- 
rochial school of Our Saviour Church), Benjamin Holland and Julius 
Jenkins, teachers, corner North May and Third streets, 1869-1871. 

Ollendorf, Rev. A., No. 141 Illinois Street, 1868. 

Palmer, William D., No. 213 State Street, 1862-1864 ; Pal- 
mer's Academy, No. 329 Wabash Avenue, 1865-1871 ; Pierce, 
Celia, No. 191 Adams Street, 1865-1875 ; Prairie Avenue Semi- 
nary, Oscar F'ullaber, principal, Nos. 819 and S21 Prairie Avenue, 
1870-1871. 

Quackenbos' Collegiate Institute, Nos. ioS and no Cass 
streets, 1867-1871. 

Randolph, Mary A., St. John's Place between Lake and Ful- 
ton streets, 1865; Ranker, Charles, Clinton Street, corner Mather, 
1861; Robertson, John P., No. 40 North Franklin, 1871; Roniayne, 
Edward, No. 194 Bremer Street, 1871; Rose, A., No. 767 Fulton 
Street, 1871. 

St Agatha's (Sisters of Mercy), Calumet Avenue, corner Rio 
Grande Street, 1859; St. Boniface, M. Bomard. teacher. Carroll 
Avenue, northwest corner Noble Street, 1867-1871; St. Bridget's 



PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 



117 



Catholic School, Mrs. and Miss Rogers, No. 663 Archer Avenue, 
1871; St. Coleman's Private School, Paulina Street corner Indiana, 
1869; St. Columbian's, Paulina Street, corner Owen, 1861-1871; 
St. Francis' Boys' School (Sisters of St. Francis), Newberry Street, 
corner Twelfth, 186S-1S71; St. Francis' Girls' School (Sisters of 
Charity), Newberry Street, corner Twelfth, 186S-1S71; St. Francis 
Xavier, No. 131 Wabash Avenue, 1861; St. James (Sisters of 
Mercy), parochial school of St. James' Church, Carville Street, 
186S-1871; St. John's School, First Street, corner Bickerdyke, 1869; 
St. John's Boys' School, Clark Street, between Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth, 1S6S-1S71; St. John's Girl's School, Fourth Avenue, 
between Eighteenth and Nineteenth, 1868-1871; St. Joseph's, Chi- 
cago Avenue, corner Cass, 1861-1S71; St. Joseph's Catholic School, 
Sister Antonio, mistress, address unknown, 1S6S; St. Mary's, No. 
44 Madison Street, 1S61; St. Mary's of the Lake, Cass Street, near 
Chicago Avenue, 1S61-1S71; St. Mary's School for Girls (Sisters 
of Mercy), under St. Mary's Church, Nos. 131 and 133 Wabash 
Avenue, 1S6S-1S71; St. Michael's German School for Boys, North 
Avenue, corner Church Street, 1S68-1S71; St. Michael's German 
School for Girls (Sisters of Notre Dame), North Avenue, corner 
Church Street, 186S-1871; St. Patrick's School for Boys, Brother 
William, director. No. 139 Desplaines Street, 1S6S-1S71; St. 
Patrick's School for Girls (Sisters of Loretto), Desplaines Street, 
near Adams, 1S6S-1871; St. Paul's Catholic School (Sisters of 
Loretto), Clinton Street, corner Mather, 1S68-1S71; St. Peter's, 
August Schmidt, principal, corner Chicago Avenue and Noble 
Street, 1S67-1S71; St. Peter's (parochial school), Clark Street, cor- 
ner Polk, 1861-1871; St. Stanislaus and Aloysius (Sisters of Char- 
ity B. V.), No. 71 Evans Street, corner Johnson, 186S-1871. 

Sanger, Mrs. A. V., No. 700 West Washington Street, 1868; 
Saunders, Catharine, No. 296 Chicago Avenue, i860; Saunders, 
Eliza J., No. 296 Chicago Avenue, 1S61-1865; Schmitz, P. L., 
Clybourn Avenue, near Division Street, 1861; Schoenfeld, Wolf, 
No. 82 Quincy Street, 1864; School of the Holy Angels (parochial 
school of the Church of the Nativity), Emerald Street, northwest 
corner Egan, 1870-1871; School of the Immaculate Conception 
(Dominican Sisters), No. 497 North Franklin, 1S70-1S71 ; 
School of Trade, Julius Dyhrenfurth, principal, No. 162 Lake 
Street, corner LaSalle, 1861-1S64; Second German Evangelical 



Lutheran Immanuel School, Union Street, cornel Sou 
1871; Seymour Mrs. John, No. 269 South Clinton Street, 1867; 
Shaw, Orrin T„ No. 275 Huron Street. [859; Sinks, Adolphus, 
No. 156 Clark Street, 1866; Sisters of Charii\ (se< Academy of 
the Holy Name); Smith, Miss Jennie A., No. 300 Erie Strei 
Snow, Orville II.. No. 20 Harrison Street, i860; Snow. Sarah, No. 
162 North Sangamon Street, i860; Stanelen, Julius, No. 11; 
Ohio Street, 1S60, No. 14S In. liana Street, [862; Stevens, Eliza- 
beth P. and Mary, No. 63 Edina Place, 1S62-1863, No. 22 Wash- 
ington Street, 1864-1865; Stoelke, J. C, No 17; Butterfield 
1871; Swedish Lutheran School, A. P. Morton, principal, No. io-' 
Sedgwick Street, 1S71; Swedish Lutheran Religious School, No. 
190 Superior Street, 1S69. 

Teisbow, Mrs. Amelia M., No. 351 North LaSalle Street, 
1871; Tillotson. Deidamia M., No. 385 West Lake Street, i860; 
Trinity Evangelical Lutheran School, Farwell Street, between Ar- 
cher Avenue and Hickory Street, 1S69-1871; Try and Win School, 
Adams Street, corner Sangamon, 1871. 

Union Stock Yards Washington Branch, No. 152 West Indi- 
ana Street, 1868. 

Vinton, Emma O., North Street, between State Street and 
Wabash Avenue, 1863. 

Warren Music School and Normal Academy of Music. No. 88 
Clark Street, 1861; Waters, Edwin S., No. 374 Chicago Avenue. 
1871; Wendell, Ann E., Twelfth Street, near State, 1S60; Wiedin- 
ger, B. (German School), Nos. 146 and 14S Indiana Street, [864; 
Whiting, Mary E., No. 3S6 Ontario Street, 1S6S; Whitney, S. 1-., 
Indiana Street, corner Wolcott, 1S61; Wiedman, Anthony, No. .,- 
Fourth Street, i860; Wilhelm, A. P.. No. 135 fackson Street. 
1860-1861, No. 329 Wells Street, 1S62-1864; Whitaker, Mary A.. 
No. 126 Harrison Street, 1862-1863; Wright, Lucy A., Dearborn 
Street, corner Ohio, 1S61, No. 273 Huron Street, 1862, Dearborn 
Street, corner Ontario, 1863; Wright, Matilda, Polk Street, corner 
Edina Place, 1S61-1862. 

Young Ladies' Collegiate Institute, Rev. Martin Fay, prin- 
cipal, No. 763 Wabash Avenue, 1866; Young Ladies' High School, 
No. 63 Edina Place, 1S61. 

Zion School, Clinton Street, corner Wilson, 1S61; Zion School 
(Hebrew), No. 60 Desplaines Street, 1S69. 




DEARBORN PARK, MICHIGAN AVENUE. 



LOCAL TRANSPORTATION. 



Omnibus Routes. — From 1S5S to 1864, a number 
of omnibus routes were maintained by F. Parmelee & 
Co., and M. O. & S. B. Walker. As the lines of street 
railways were extended, the omnibuses were gradually 
driven from the field, until, in 1864, the Walkers, who 
were the last to withdraw, sold out their entire stock of 
horses to the West Division Railway Company. After 
this time, there were one or two spasmodic attempts to 
establish an omnibus opposition to the street cars on 
particular routes, but they resulted in nothing definite 
The omnibus routes extended as follows, for the years 
mentioned : 

■ — Lake Street and Blue Island Avenue ; from the corner 
of Madison and Dearborn streets to Hastings Street and Blue Island 
Avenue, every half hour. 

Canal >treet; from the corner of Madison and Dearborn to 
South Canal and Meagher streets, every half hour. 

South Clark Street; on Clark to South, or Twelfth, Street, 
even,' ten minutes. 

/Sjq-6o. — Lake Street and Blue Island Avenue; from City 
Hotel to Twelfth Street, on Blue Island Avenue, every hour. 

East and West Randolph streets; on Randolph to Robey 
Street, every fifteen minutes. 

South Clark Street, to the corner of Twelfth and Clark, every 
ten minutes. 

iSbi-62. — Lake and Randolph streets ; on Randolph to Robey 
Street, every fifteen minutes. 

East and West Lake streets ; from City Hotel to corner of 
Robey and Lake streets, every half hour. 

Canal Street; from Post-office Exchange to Meagher Street, 
every half hour. 

Madison Street; from Garrett Block to Union Park House, 
every thirty minutes- 

South Clark Street, to the corner of Twelfth and Clark, every 
ten minutes. 

North Clark Street; from Post-office Exchange to Mr. Bucher's. 
every hour. 

1863. — Lake and Blue Island Avenue, to Hastings Street, 
every half hour. 

Canal Street ; from Post-office Exchange to South Branch, 
even- half hour. 

South Clark Street, to Twelfth Street, every ten minutes. 

The year 1864 saw still greater diminution in, and 
before the end of the year the last of, the omnibus 
routes. In that year, the only lines maintained were 
those on Canal Street and on South Clark Street. 

Before the close of the year, these were abandoned, 
and from that time the street cars have formed the 
ordinary means for getting about the city. 

-•avium. I!. Wai.KER is an old and highly respected resident 

irions with the business affairs of the city 

e«tcnding over a period of more than two-store years. Late in 

the fall of 1841, Mr. Walker, accompanied by his mother, a sister. 

rother, came to Chicago from Whiting, Vt., bringing with 

him a stock of dry goods and groceries, lie rented the building 

at No. 144 Lake Street, and began business, carrying 1 general 

nd continued for three years. At the end of that lime he 

merchandise, and in company with his brother, 

d the livery stable of J. V. Sanger, near the old Matteson 

House, the firm name being S : B. & M. O. Walker. It was soon 



^^^h^^^ 



after, that the firM omnibus line was started in Chicago by the 
brother*, running from Randolph Street to Twelfth Street. Not 



long after, a line of vehicles was placed on North Clark Street, 
then on Lake Street as far west as Peoria, followed by the Blue 
Island Avenue line, running by the way of Canal and Harrison 
streets, and the Canal Street line as far south as Eighteenth Street. 
In 1S57, the livery business was abandoned, and the same year an 
omnibus barn was built on the corner of Desplaines and Pierce 
streets. The line of omnibuses was successfully continued up to 
1S64, when the entire stock of horses was sold to the West Division 
Railway Company, and also a number of conveyances, the balance 
of the vehicles being disposed of to hotels throughout the sur- 
rounding country. After selling the omnibus line, Mr. Walker 
engaged in the cigar and tobacco business on Randolph Street, 
between State and Dearborn, the firm name being Walker, Hart & 
Rice. In this enterprise Mr. Walker was not as successful as he 
had anticipated, and after three years of existence the partnership 
was dissolved. He next became associated with E. N. Blake, and 
.together they bought the Dake Bakery, November 14, 1S69, pur- 
chasing the property from the administrator of the Dake estate, 
the firm being Blake, Walker & Co. The business was carried on 
in the rear of McVicker's theatre until the great fire destroyed the 
plant. After the fire, the firm resumed business on Clinton Street, 
continuing until January 21, 1S79, when a sale was effected to 
Blake, Shaw & Co., since which time Mr. Walker has retired from 
active participation in commercial business. Mr. Walker was born 
in Whiting, Addison Co., Vt. , February 21, 1S07, the son of 
Samuel B. and Patty (Bent) Walker. His father was a miller, a 
lumber-merchant and a farmer, and during a part of nis life had 
also kept a general store in the state of Vermont. He followed 
his family to Chicago in 1842, and died in this city on October 
16th of that year, at the age of fifty-seven years. His mother, 



/&st^ 



who came with him to this city in 1841, died August 7, 1S57, at 
the age of seventy-two years. Until he had attained his seventh 
year, Mr. Walker received very little schooling, and at that time 
moved with his family to Hubbardton, Rutland County, ten miles 
distant, where he became a pupil at the schools of that town, until 
he arrived at the age of nineteen He then apprenticed himself to 
learn the trade of a wool carder and dyer, serving a term of three 
years. At the end of that time he opened a business for himself, 
working at his trade during the summer and farming during the 
winter. In 1838, he closed out his business to a brother, and 
returning to Whiting, opened a store, carrying a stock of general 
merchandise This he continued until 1841, when he brought his 
stock to Chicago, and in November of that year, established him- 
self in business in this city. Mr. Walker was married March 5, 
1S28, to Miss Jennette Hamlin, of Rupert, Vt., who died February 
3, 1SS5, at the advanced age of seventy-five years. There are 
three daughters, Chastina B. Walker, Mrs. John Dupee and Mrs. 
Henry T. Whitimore. Mr. Walker is an honored member of Ex- 
celsior Lodge, No. 22, I. O.O F., and formany years has held a high 
position in the Chicago Encampment, No. 12, of that order, sur- 
rendering his membership in January, 1885, on account of his 
inability to attend to the duties of his office. He has always lived 
an upright life, and belongs among those whose sterling virtues 
have helped to make Chicago what it is. 

FRANKLIN PARMELEE, the head of the great transfer system 
which bears his name, was born in Byron, N. V., August II, 1S16, 
being the son of Edward and Mercy (Hopkins) Parmelee. His 
father, one of the pioneer farmers of Genesee Valley, had removed 
to ibis place from the State of Vermont. Voting Parmelee's educa- 
tion was scant, so to speak, as before he was twelve years of age he 
was obliged to leave his school days behind him, and going to Avon 
Springs, engaged himself as a driver. After being employed for a 
time in a public house, he entered a stage office in Bat a via, where he 
remained five years. He next settled in Erie, Penn., where heserved 
for the same length of time under General Reed, the famous stage 
proprietor of that region, and owner of various steamers. Mr. 
Parmelee's first visit to Chicago was due to his intimacy with Gen- 
eral Reed. Through him he obtained a position as clerk on the 



CITY RAILWAYS. 



119 



steamer "James Madison," which, in 1S37, was running between 
Buffalo and Chicago. He thus continued as clerk on various steam- 
ers until 1S50, when he settled in Will County, to engage in mer- 
cantile pursuits. After three years of this life, he decided to come 
to Chicago and conduct his operations in a larger field. In the 
spring of 1S53, ne arrived in this city and started the Chicago Om- 
nibus Line, the first one in this city. His outfit consisted of six 
omnibuses and wagons. In addition to furnishing facilities for de- 
pot travel, in 1S54, Mr. Parmelee established a line of omnibuses 
on Madison Street, which ran as far west as " Bull's Head," or the 
present Union Park. A four-horse omnibus was put on in 1855, 
and extended to Cottage Grove, by way of State Street, to Twelfth 
then the outskirts of this city. This line he maintained until 1S5S, 
when the right-of-way was granted to the Chicago City Railway 
Company, to lay tracks on State Street and Cottage Grove Avenue, 
on Archer Avenue, and on Madison Street to the city limits. The 



*Sa>*Z-&C&-<<J 




permission to construct the tracks was granted to Henry Fuller, 
Franklin Parmelee and Liberty Bigelow. In 1856-57, Mr. Parme- 
lee placed another line on Clark Street. M. O. & S. B. Walker 
put on an opposition line, and Mr. Parmelee withdrew from the 
field. Since 1S63, when the horse-railway charter, covering the 
west side lines, was sold, he has devoted himself exclusively to the 
transportation and transfer business. His splendid slate-roofed 
building, corner of State and Randolph streets, in which this was 
transacted, was destroyed by the great fire. At that time Liberty 
Bigelow was his partner. In eleven weeks from the destruction of 
his property by the fire, the commodious brick structure, one hun- 
dred by one hundred and fifty-three feet, now occupied by him, was 
erected. In 1SS1, an addition of eighty-eight by one hundred and 
fifty-three feet was made to the original building. Mr. Parmelee 
now occupies nearly one-half a square block, between Franklin 
Street and Fifth Avenue. He has contracts for the transfer busi- 
ness with all the railroads centering in Chicago, and something of 
the immensity of his transactions may be inferred from the fact 
that he has in his employ seventy-five omnibuses and seventy-five 
wagons, two hundred and fifty horses and one hundred and thirty 
men. Mr. Parmelee was married in September, 1S40, to Miss Ade- 
line Whitney, of Hindsburg, Orleans Co., N. V., who died in Jan- 
uary, 1S64, leaving one daughter and three sons. In October, 1S6S, 
he married Miss Roxana W. Smith, of Kenosha, Wis. Mr. Par- 
melee's sons are with their father in business, although they are not 
interested with him as partners. 

CITY RAILWAYS. 

The Chicago City Railway Company. — -The first 
ordinance regarding horse-railways was passed March 
4, 1856, and granted to Roswell B. Mason and Charles 
B. Phillips, the privilege of laying a track or tracks 
from the corner of State and Randolph streets, along 
the former, to the southern city limits, and from the 
corner of Dearborn Street and Kinzie, and the corner 
of Kinzie and Franklin streets, to the northern city 
limits, with various connecting sections; the principal 
one being the line extending from the corner of State 
Street and Archer Avenue, along the latter thoroughfare, 
to the southern city limits. Colonel Mason was at this 
time actively engaged in the construction of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, and therefore left the prosecution of 
the horse-railway enterprise principally to Mr. Phillips. 
A short section of track was laid on the North Side, as 
a legal compliance with the ordinance, but the panic of 
1857, and the preceding and succeeding instability of 
business, made of this first "enterprise" a very dead 
one indeed. Colonel Mason sold out his interest, for a 
nominal sum, to his associate, Mr. Phillips, who after- 
ward unavailingly sought to establish the validity of a 
title by legal proceedings. 

Matters lay dormant until August 16, 1858, when 
the Common Council passed an ordinance, granting 
permission to Henry Fuller, Franklin Parmelee and 



Liberty Bigelow to lay tracks on State Street and Cot 
tage Grove Avenue, on Archer Avenue and cm Madi- 
son Street, to the city limits. It was required that the 
construction of one of these lines should be com- 
menced on or before November 1, 1858; that the State- 
street line should be completed to Ringgold Place 
(Twenty-second street), by October 15, 1859; the Mad- 
ison-street line by October 15, i860; and the Cottage 
Cxrove-avenue line by January 1, 1861. Ground was 
broken for the State-street line November 1, 1858, in 
front of Garrett Block, near Randolph Street. As a 
portion of the appropriate ceremonies which there took 
place, Henry Fuller wielded the spade and ex-Gover- 
nor Bross drove the first spike. A section of track was 
first laid between Randolph and Madison streets, and 
two cars that had been brought from Troy, N. Y., were 
placed on this brief initial line and run back and forth, 
greatly to the amusement of the people. There were 
not lacking, however, property owners on State Street, 
who did not join in this good-natured greeting, but 
were preparing to fight the enterprise. Its projectors 
obtained from the Legislature a confirmation of their 
rights by an act, approved February 14, 1859, which 
incorporated Franklin Parmelee, Liberty Bigelow, 
Henry Fuller and David A. Gage, in the order named, 
as the " Chicago City Railway Company," for a term of 
twenty-five years, to operate street lines "within the 
present or future limits of the South and West divisions." 
Section 8 of this act recited, that " Nothing herein con- 
tained shall authorize the construction of more than a 
single track with the necessary turnouts, which shall 
only be at street crossings upon State Street between 
Madison and Twelfth streets, by the consent of the 
owners of two-thirds of the property, in lineal measure- 
ment, lying upon said State Street between Madison 
and Twelfth." State Street to Twelfth — beyond which 
the city limits had but recently been moved southward 
— was then a busy thoroughfare, in transformation from 
residence to business property; and the feeling of oppo- 
sition to the railway, among many property owners, was 
such that their consent had to be bought on private 
terms. Harmony being restored, the line was opened 
to Twelfth Street on April 25, 1859. State Street was 
then paved with cobblestones to Twelfth, and beyond 
was a plank road to the Cottage Grove suburb, since 
better known as Camp Douglas, and the scene of stir- 
ring war incidents. The entire line, from Randolph 
Street south, as first laid, was a single track, with turn- 
outs at street crossings, somewhat similar to the present 
Indiana-avenue line. 

Of the projectors of this second, and now successful, 
street railway enterprise, Messrs. Parmelee, Bigelow and 
Gage constituted the firm of F. Parmelee & Co., own- 
ing street omnibuses and depot transfer wagons, and 
Mr. Fuller was a large owner of real estate. Street 
travel in Chicago was then a thing of vexation to man 
and of weariness to beast. Even a paved street (with 
cobblestones! like State Street had little to boast of, 
and the most aristocratic plank road was too often a 
delusion and a snare. Street railways were thus already 
a public necessity, and were certain to become more and 
more so. It is a reminder of those days, however, and 
has been true of many an enterprise of greater moment, 
that stock subscriptions to the Chicago City Railway 
Company did not open with a rush, in 1859: and as 
human nature ever repeats itself, so it must be written 
that rights to stock subscription were afterward claimed 
by some who had at first refused to come in. 

On the 25th of April, 1S59, as stated, cars were 
running along State to Twelfth Street and in June to 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



the city limits. By May i. a single track had been com- 
pleted from Madison to Twenty-second Street, on State, 
and two horse cars were run every twelve minutes. 
In the summer, the track was extended, on Twenty- 
second Street and Cottage Grove Avenue, to Thirty-first 
Street, and. by fall, cars were running every six minutes 
as tar as Twenty-second Street. A state fair was to be 
held at Cottage Grove in the autumn of 1859, and in 
order to be ready for it the company spiked down the 
rails on the planking as it lay. 

An ordinance of the City Council, passed May 23, 
1859, specified additional streets on which lines might 
might be laid in the West and South divisions, — on 



feits have been unhesitatingly accepted in trade. This 
issue of what may be called "the emergency tickets of 
1861," amounted to about $150,000, and because of 
counterfeits they were, as soon as possible, called in for 
redemption in other tickets of more elaborate prepara- 
tion. The second issue was readily divisible into de- 
nominations of twenty-five, fifteen and ten cents, to the 
greater convenience of the people ; and until the postal 
currency of the United States came into circulation, in 
the summer of 1862, the issues of the Chicago City 
Railway were the most acceptable small change Chicago 
had or could furnish. Long after their use as currency 
had ceased, Mr. Fuller, the treasurer, continued to 





Lake. Randolph and Van Buren streets, in the South 
and West, and on Milwaukee and Blue Island avenues 
in the West. This ordinance prescribed the time when 
each of these lines should be commenced and opened; 
but as Clark Street was then occupied by the Michigan 
Southern Railroad, below Harrison Street, and property 
owners were themselves fighting for a thoroughfare, it 
was agreed that the street railway company should defer 
action, as to Clark Street, for ten years; and in pursu- 
ance of that purpose an ordinance of the Council, 
February 13, i860, extended the rights of the company 
in that thoroughfare to cover the proposed period of 
delay. The Madison-street line, built under the origi- 
nal charter, was opened to Halsted Street on May 20, 
1859, and reached Robey Street August 8 of the same 
year. The Randolph-street line began to come into 
use on July 15, 1859. Meanwhile the State-street line 
• neglected. 
In 1 86 1, the financial medium was first vitiated. 
The daily varying quotations of "stump-tail " made its 
iften glad to be rid of it on any terms. The 
city railway company was of necessity made the re- 
cipient of much of this poor paper. Up to this time the 
company hail not issued " punch tickets " for fares, and 
so long as silver change held out, it had not thought of 
jing so. When, however, silver disappeared, and 
had to postage stamps as the readiest ex- 
pedient, the Chicago City Railroad Company may be 
said to have come to the rescue of the people. Their 
earliest issue of tickets, hastily flung from a job press 
and as hastily stamped, were hailed as a public boon. 
An uncancelled ten-ride ti< ket was good in the city or 
vicinity, and unquestioned for its face value of fifty 
cents. It would pass in almost anytransat tion; indeed, 
anywhere in preference to a greasy little envelope of 
e stamps that were certain to be damaged if they 
were not short in the count. It is even related that 
church contributions brought in no small ston oi them, 
Though redeemable only in rides, so much wen the) 
in demand as a circulating medium that they were 
counterfeit^, and it is a tradition that known counter- 



receive these tickets, by letter, from distant points. 
Many have doubtless been retained as souvenirs of an 
eventful time. 

In 1863, a comprehensive scheme was carried 
through the Legislature, under the title of the " Wabash 
Railway Company," which gave to the incorporators — 
Thomas Harless, Horace A. Hurlbut, and Charles 
Hitchcock, and to their associates, etc. — the right to 
occupy Wabash and Michigan avenues, and other prin- 
cipal streets in all directions from the center, and to 
extend their lines into indefinite suburbs. The act 
passed the Senate on January 22. Being reported by 
a senator from southern Illinois, and read only by its 
title, it went through under a misapprehension. The 
Legislature took a recess from February 14 to June 2, 
and upon its re-assembling the fact for the first time 
dawned upon Chicago that a vast franchise was hidden 
under a misleading title. The bill passed the House on 
June 8, and not until then were its provisions publicly 
known. It was at a time of intense excitement, in a 
critical period of the war, and the Legislature was not 
in harmony with the administration on war measures. 
On Wednesday, June 10, Governor Yates prorogued 
the two houses, and the incident was perhaps the most 
exciting ever known in the legislative history of the 
State. The Tribune of June 11 said: 

" We were to have seen a peace commission instituted, peace 
measures set on foot, and a deep and deadly stab inflicted upon the 
loyal history of our State. * * * But huge above all, the roc's 
egg of this whole affair, looms up the Wabash Horse Railroad 
swindle." 

A public meeting in Metropolitan Hall, on the even- 
ing of June 11, indorsed the Governor's action and 
denounced the Wabash bill. The Common Council, by 
resolution, requested the Governor to veto it. The 
veto, dated June 19, says: 

" The fact that over three months intervened between its pas- 
sage in the Senate and in the House, and that during this long inter- 
val, the citizens of Chicago were not even apprised of its existence, 
i . evidence that those having control of it were unwilling to have it 
submitted to the test of public scrutiny." 



CITY RAILWAYS. 



The Chicago City Railway Company continued to 
extend its line in the South Division. During the 
month of October, 1864, a branch track was laid upon 
the Archer road from State Street to Stewart Avenue, 
and completed to Bridgeport, during the ensuing year. 
At the end of 1869, the company was operating seven- 
teen and one-quarter miles of track. 

In the early part of 1871, the running timetable was 
as follows: "Cars leave corner State and Randolph, via 
State, to Twenty-second, every minute, and to Cottage 
Grove Avenue and Douglas Place every four minutes; 
leave southern limits every four minutes for Twenty- 
second, Twenty-second every minute, and Archer road 
every eight minutes for corner of State and Randolph 
streets." 

The North Chicago Railway Company. — The 
same act of the Legislature of February 14, 1859, which 
incorporated the Chicago City Railway Company, con- 
ferred like immunities and privileges upon William B. 
Ogden, John B. Turner, Charles V. Dyer, James H. 
Rees and Yoluntine C. Turner, by the name of the 
North Chicago Railway Company, for the North Divis- 
ion of the city of Chicago. 

On the 23d of May, 1859, the Common Council, 
by ordinance, authorized the company to construct a 
horse railway in the North Division, on the following 
streets: 

1. On Clark Street, from North Water Street to 
Green Bay road, and then to present and future city 
limits. 

2. From Clark Street west, on Division, to Clybourn 
Avenue, and thence on Clybourn Avenue to city limits. 

3. From Clark Street east, on Michigan, to Rush, 
thence north on Rush to Chicago Avenue. 

4. Commencing on Wells Street at North Water, 
thence north to Division Street, west to Sedgwick and 
north on Sedgwick to Green Bay road. 

5. West on Chicago Avenue, from Rush Street to 
the North Branch of the Chicago River. 

At this time Clark Street was planked, and the first 
railway was laid, by spiking the rails to the planks, an 
additional thickness of plank being placed in the horse- 
path. The track was laid double to Division Street; 
beyond that, a single track to Fullerton Avenue. Eaton, 
Gilbert & Co., of Troy, N. Y., furnished the first 
car. 

The Clark-street line to city limits, the Clybourn 
Avenue and the Chicago-avenue lines were completed 
in 1859 ; the Sedgwick-street line in 1861, and a line to 
Graceland, with a steam dummy, in 1864. The Michi- 
gan and Rush-street lines were never built, and the 
rights thereon were forfeited. 

In 1864, the company was authorized to connect 
their tracks with those of the Chicago City Railway, 
thereby making continuous lines of horse railway be- 
tween the different divisions of the city. 

The same year, also, permission was granted to lay 
a single, or double, track on Larrabee Street, from Chi- 
cago Avenue to Little Fort road, and on Little Fort 
road to present or future city limits. This branch was 
completed the same year. The lines were gradually 
extended on the streets, and in the directions specified, 
until, in 187 1, the company was operating about twelve 
miles of road. 

By the great fire, the company lost $350,000, their 
stables, rolling stock and tracks being entirely con- 
sumed. Their vigorous and energetic recovery from 
the great disaster, and the complete re-habilitation of 
their system will be recounted in the third volume of 
this history. 



Voluntine C. Turner, president of the North Division 
Horse Railway Company, was born in Malta, Saratoga Co., N. Y , 
February 25, 1823. Previous to preparing for college, he received 
a good primary education, and also was employed by his father, 
while engaged upon the construction of the Erie Railroad and the 
Genesee Valley Canal. Young Turner prepared for college at the 
Troy and Oxford academies, New York, graduating at Williams 
College, Williamstown, Mass., in the year 1846. In the fall, he 
removed to Chicago, and soon afterward commenced the practice 
of law, which he continued for a period of twelve years. From 
1848 to 1S58, he was in partnership with 11. A. Clarke, and from 
that year until i860, with the exception of a short time, during 
which he was in partnership with B. F. Ayer, Mr. Turner engaged 
alone in the general practice of his profession. In February, 1859, 
he first became connected with the North Side Railway Company, 
as its secretary and treasurer, continuing thus to act until July. 
1865. From that date until January, 1867, he was vice-president of 
the company, and has been president from that time up to date. 
During all this period, he has been general manager of the road — 
in fact, being its active and untiring superintendent, and confining 
himself to the upbuilding of its interests. He has never held a 
public office, and never aspired to one. Mr. Turner was married 
to Eliza Smith, daughter of Colonel Henry Smith, the old partner 
of William B. Ogden, on the 20th of May, 1851. For twenty-live 
years they were prominent members of the St. James (Episcopal) 
Church. At present, however, they are members of Professor 
Swing's congregation. 

The Chicago West Division Railway Company. 
— On the 21st of February, 1861, the Legislature of 
Illinois enacted, that Edward P. Ward, William K. Mc- 
Allister, Samuel B. Walker, James L. Wilson, Charles 
B. Brown, Nathaniel P. Wilder, and their successors, be 
created and constituted a body corporate and politic, 
by the name of " The Chicago West Division Railway 
Company," for the term of twenty-five years. 

This company was authorized to acquire any of the 
powers, franchises, privileges, or immunities conferred 
upon the Chicago City Railway Company by the act of 
February 14, 1859, as may by contract between the said 
railway corporations be agreed upon. Nothing seems to 
have been done by this company, under their charter, until 
the summer of 1863. At that time, the gentlemen com- 
posing the company sold out their stock to J. Russell 
Jones, John C. Haines, Jerome Beecher, W. Ff. Brad- 
ley, Parnell Munson, and William H. Ovington, of 
Chicago, and E. B. Washburne, Nathan Corwith, and 
Benjamin Campbell, of Galena. The new company 
organized with J. Russell Jones as president and super- 
intendent, and William H. Ovington as secretary and 
treasurer. 

On the 30th of July, 1863, a sale was made to this 
company by the Chicago City Railway, of their road 
and franchises in the West Division, for the sum of 
$200,000, cash. The deed of transfer was dated the 
1st of August, 1863, and had a border of United States 
revenue stamps amounting to $580. 

The tracks laid at that time were on Randolph and 
Madison streets, extending to Union Park. 

The new company entered vigorously upon the work 
of extending the lines. A track was laid upon Blue Is- 
land Avenue, and cars were running to Twelfth Street 
by December 22, 1863. In June, 1864, the Milwaukee 
line was opened, and in October, the Clinton and Jef- 
ferson-street lines. Year after year the lines were ex- 
tended, until, in 1871, the company owned and operated 
over twenty miles of track. By the charters of Febru- 
ary 14, 1859, and February 21, 1861, passed by the Leg- 
islature, incorporating the foregoing horse railway com- 
panies, the franchises and privileges were granted for a 
term of twenty-five years. On the 6th of February, 
1865, the legislature passed, over the Governor's veto, 
an act amending the charters in respect to time, and 
granting terms of ninety-nine years instead of twenty- 
five. 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



J Rissfli Jones, president of the Chicago West Division 
Railway Company, is descended from an old and noted English 
family. Colonel John Jones, one of his ancestors, married the sec- 
ond sister of Oliver Cromwell, in 1023. and was put to death Octo- 

; nHJo, upon the restoration of Charles the II. The son, 
Honorable William Jones, came to this country with his father-in- 
law. Honorable rheophilus Eaton, first Governor of the colony of 
New Haven and Connecticut. Mr. Jones acted as deputy governor 
rs, and died October 17, 1700. Samuel, the grandfather of J. 
Russell [ones, was -in officer under George I I.,and served with credit in 
the French and Indian and theRevolutionary wars. His parents were 
Joel and Maria 1 Dan 1 Jones, J. Russell being the youngest of four 
children. He was born at Conneaut, Ashtabula Co., Ohio, February 

J23. When he was thirteen vears of age, his mother, who had 
been left a widow, removed to Rockton, Winnebago Co., 111. The 
young boy was left at home to support himself, and when, in 1S3S, 
he announced his determination to join the family in the Far West, 
he had so established himself in the confidence and love of the 
community, that the members of the Conneaut Presbvterian Church 
offered to educate him for the ministry if he would remain with 
them. But even at this early age, to determine was to act, and he 
accordingly took passage for Illinois, in the schooner "J. G. 
King," and arrived at Chicago August 19, 1S3S. After some diffi- 
cult v he reached his new home in Winnebago County, where he 
faithfully assisted his family for about two years. In June, 1S40, 



with one dollar in his pocket, but with a hardy constitution and an 
iron will, he removed to Galena. First going into a retail store, he 
soon after went into the employ of Benjamin H. Campbell, a lead- 
ing merchant of that flourishing town, and subsequently became a 
partner in the firm. Until 1856, the business transacted was on a 
scale commensurate with the importance of Galena as the leading 
commercial emporium of the Northwest. The partnership was 
then dissolved. Ten years previous to this date, Mr. Jones had 
been appointed secretary and treasurer of the Galena and Minne- 
sota Packet Company, which position he retained until 1861. In 
1S60, he was elected to represent Jo Daviess and Carroll counties in 
the Twenty-second General Assembly, and the next year was ap- 
pointed United States Marshal for the Northern District of Illinois, 
commencing his term of service in April. In the fall of that year 
he removed to Chicago, and, in 1863, organized and was 
elected president of the Chicago West Division Railway Company, 
retaining that position until June, 1869, when he was appointed 
minister to Belgium by President Grant. He was also re-appointed 
United States Marshal in 1S65. Upon his return from abroad, in 
1875, he was tendered the position of Secretary of the Interior, but 
declined and was appointed Collector of the Port of Chicago, and 
was again elected president of the Railway Company, which posi- 
tion he now holds. Mr. Jones was married, in 184S, to Elizabeth 
Ann, daughter of the late Judge Andrew Scott, of Arkansas. They 
have had three sons and three daughters. 




LA SALLE STREET [ROM THE COURT HOUSE. 



ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL 



In the first volume of this history, record has been 
made of the so-called "unlawful funding of canal indebt- 
edness," and Ex-Governor Matteson's connection with 
it. This concluded the chief events of the period up to 
the latter portion of 1857. By that year the complete 
success of the "canal scheme" was assured. As yet 
its channel was " shallow-cut " ; but soon the original 
intention of a "deep-cut," which poverty only pre- 
vented from being carried out, was to be realized. An 
impetus to this inclination was given by the threatened 
digging of a ditch from the Calumet River, the prin- 
cipal feeder of the canal, to Lake Michigan, in order to 
drain a valuable tract of swamp land in Indiana. Its 
effect would have been to almost destroy the usefulness 
of the Calumet feeder, but in 1S59, to guard against any 
such danger, in the future, two steam engines were 
added to the hydraulic works and other improvements 
made, so that the canal would not be obliged to depend 
so much upon that feeder for supplying the summit 
level. In later years, they were also made to serve the 
purpose of flushing the Chicago River. The sanitary 
safety of the city also forced the deepening of the 
canal; which work was finally accomplished in July, 
187 1. The great War Convention, held in Chicago, 
June 2, 1863, was the first decisive movement toward 
the accomplishment of this -end. Five thousand dele- 
gates attended from the states of the North, it being 
the design to transform the canal into a national water- 
way, which might float the largest gun-boats on their 
passage from the great lakes to the Mississippi River 
However, the various plans proposed fell through, and 
in February, 1865, a legislative act was passed, and 
approved by Governor Oglesby, authorizing the City of 
Chicago to enter into arrangements with the Canal 
Board of Trustees, with a view to the speedy accom- 
plishment of the work on the deep-cut plan. An 
agreement entered into by the city and the board during 
this year was, in 1868, extended for an additional period 
of three years. The contract by which the summit was 
to be cut down so that twenty-four thousand feet of 
water a minute could be drawn from the lake at its 
lowest stage, was let September 26, 1865. The con- 
tractors having abandoned or forfeited their contracts, 
the work was re-let in July, 1867. The work proceeded, 
with the interruptions incident to such enterprises, 
until, in pursuance with law, on May 1, 187 1, the Board 
of Trustees turned over the canal to the following 
Board of Commissioners : Joseph Utley, president ; 
Virgil Hickox, treasurer; and Robert Milne, secretary. 
No change was made in the general officers of the 
canal, and the work of cutting down the summit, or 
deepening the canal, went on. 

There were few changes, in fact, in its officers from 
1857 to 187 1, when the Board of Trustees had performed 
the duties imposed upon them and turned the canal, 
with all its improvements, over to the Canal Commis- 
sioners. In 1858, the trustees were as follows: William 
H. Smith, of Boston, president; David Leavitt, of New 
York, treasurer; Charles H. Ray, State trustee, Chi- 
cago. The secretary of the board was William Good- 
ing, the general superintendent John B. Preston, the 



agent for the sale of canal lands E. S. Prescott, and 
the auditor of accounts Joel Manning. In May, 1859, 
Henry Grinnell was elected in place of David Leavitt, 
and in January, 1861, Martin II. Cassel, of Jackson- 
ville, was appointed State trustee, to succeed Charles 11. 
Ray. In October, 1864, John B. Preston, who had 
been general superintendent of the canal nearly ten years, 
resigned his position, and was succeeded by William A. 
Gooding, who, for four years, had been assistant super- 
intendent in charge of the eastern division. Sheridan 
Wait was appointed State trustee in February, 1865. 
Joel Manning, who had been connected with the canal 
management almost continuously since 1836, died in 
January, 1869, holding, at the time of his death, the 
position of auditor of accounts. In December, 1868, 
William Gooding became general superintendent tem- 
porarily) of the canal, and was appointed permanentlv 
to the position in Januar)', 1869. During that year, 
also, Robert Rowett was appointed State trustee by the 
Governor 

To continue the narrative where it was left when the 
old Board of Trustees turned the canal over to the new 
Commissioners, nearly completed: — The superintendent 
of the canal was ordered, in pursuance of a notice given 
by the Chicago Board of Public Works that their work 
was completed and that they wished to remove the locks, 
to close the navigation of the canal for one month from 
the 15th of June, 187 1. The canal was closed, how- 
ever, on June 26, and kept closed until July 18, the 
labor of removing the locks being greater than was an- 
ticipated. On the morning of the 18th of July, the 
level was full, and the Chicago River, with all its filth, 
had taken the place of the heretofore clear water at 
Lockport, the people of Chicago rejoicing in the great 
relief furnished by the deep-cut, which caused the 
South Branch of the river to run "up stream." Within 
three or four days, the water from Lake Michigan filled 
the canal at Lockport and was thrown off there, over 
the rocks, almost as clear and blue as the waters at the 
Falls of Niagara. Navigation was at once resumed, but 
as the banks had not been trimmed and refuse was still 
lying along the edge of the canal, and even in its prism, 
the Commissioners finished the work according to con- 
tract, and the city paid for it. On the 16th of August 
the Canal Commissioners certified to the correctness of 
all accounts, and, on the 19th of that month, the release 
deed of the canal was transmitted to the Governor. In 
May, 1873, there was a change in the Board of Canal 
Commissioners. Mr. Utley was re-elected president, 
but H. G. Anderson was chosen treasurer, and W. N. 
Brainard, secretary. The board and the duties of its 
members remained unchanged until May, 1877, when 
it was reorganized by the election of J. O. Grover, presi- 
dent; Martin Kingman, treasurer; and B. F. Shaw, sec- 
retary. William Thomas was continued as general su- 
perintendent, Daniel C. Jenne as chief engineer, and 
William Milne as chief clerk. 

The subject of cleansing the river continued to be 
agitated by Chicago sanitarians, and it was decided by 
the city to construct pumping works at the junction of 
the canal and the South Branch. The works were 



i-4 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



completed in August. 1883, at a total cost of about 
- - soo. They are located across the old channel of 
the canal, west of the South Branch. 

The various improvements accomplished during late 
years at Copperas Creek in the Illinois River, and at 
various points along the line of the canal, have not been 
noticed, because, since the stupendous development of 
railroads, they have become of comparatively small 
local interest. The canal has also greatly declined in 
importance as a state highway of travel. 

From 1S57 up to 1866, the tolls of the canal gradu- 
ally increased from S197.000 to §302,000: although 
there was a falling off during some of the years, notice- 
ablv in 1S64, when they amounted to only $156,000. 
The vear 1S66 was the most prosperous in the history 
of the canal, but, with the close of the War, railroad 
traffic was again untrammeled and the railway system, 
especially in Illinois, commenced its marvelous growth. 
Consequently, the canal fell away from its former posi- 
tion of great prominence as a highway of travel and 
commerce. Speaking in general terms, its tolls had 
gradually declined in amount until, in 1882-83, tnev 
amounted to only $S6,ooo. 



At the last meeting of the Commissioners, held 
October 9, and October 10, 1884, it was stated that the 
receipts would be $8,000 more than during the previous 
year, notwithstanding tolls had been reduced fifty per 
cent. During the year, eleven of the ninety miles had 
been supplied with rip-rap work as a protection against 
the wash created by steam craft. By the canal has 
been carried most of the lumber transported from 
Chicago to Peoria and river points. During the year 
1883-84, the Commissioners constructed fourteen hun- 
dred feet of dockage from Ashland Avenue to the river, 
and also a new dock of four hundred feet around 
Armour's elevator, Chicago. The Commissioners have 
also voted to build a dock of six hundred feet at 
Peoria. 

The present management of the canal, who took 
charge in April, 1883, is as follows: Charles Bent, pres- 
ident of the Board of Commissioners, Morrison; George 
F. Brown, secretary, Morris ; D. J. Calligan, treasurer, 
Peoria ; William Thomas, general superintendent, and 
William Milne, chief clerk, Lockport. 




VIEW OF OLD BARRACKS AND LAKE HOUSE 



TELEGRAPH AND EXPRESS. 



Telegraph Companies. — In 1858, there were but 
two telegraph companies doing business in the city of 
Chicago, — The Illinois and Mississippi and The Western 
Union. The history of The Western Union, since that 
year until 187 1, would include almost all that could be 
written of the other companies, for each in turn has 
been organized only to be absorbed by that corpora- 
tion. 

A few years before the first mentioned date, the wires 
of The Western Union had been brought into the city 
with great display of enthusiasm, a brass band playing 
gaily as the laborers reeled off the connecting wire. No 
city ordinance was then required before work could be 
begun within the city limits, permission of the Board of 
Public Works alone being necessary. No trouble was 
experienced, however, as the new organization, by an 
arrangement with the Illinois and Mississippi Company, 
brought its wires into the city upon the latter's poles. 
The two companies were in no sense rivals, since their 
lines covered different territory, and they maintained 
friendly relations under what was known as the " Seven 
Company Contract," whereby the principal telegraph 
companies then existing in the United States pooled 
their earnings according to an equitable plan, and thus 
secured continuous and connecting lines. In 1858, the 
offices of both companies were at No. 1 1 LaSalle Street, 
and, though they were operated as one, a separate 
organization was maintained by each — E. D. L. Sweet 
being superintendent, and George D. Sheldon, manager, 
of the Illinois and Mississippi Company; and Emory 
Cobb, superintendent, and R. C. Rankin, manager, of 
The Western Union. 

In i860, their offices were removed to Lake Street, 
at the southeast corner of Clark. In 1861, F. H. Tubbs 
became manager of the Illinois and Mississippi Company. 
In 1864, the United States Company, after a severe 
struggle with The Western Union, succeeded in estab- 
lishing itself here, having offices at No. 66 Clark Street; 
E. P. Porter being manager. 

In 1866, William H. Hall took Mr. Tubbs's place in 
the Illinois and Mississippi Company, to be succeeded 
the next year by J. E. Ranny. There were also changes 
in the Western Union, Mr. Cobb retiring, and being 
succeeded as superintendent by Mr. Rankin, whose 
place as manager was filled by Fred. Swain. 

In April, 1866, the United States Company was 
absorbed by the Western Union, and in the following 
July, the Illinois and Mississippi was merged into the 
same corporation, under a perpetual lease, and all the 
offices of those companies were moved to Nos. 32-33 
Chamber of Commerce. In 1869, they were again 
moved to the northwest corner of Washington and 
LaSalle streets. In that year, a new rival appeared, in 
the shape of the Great Western Company, and a little 
later a local company, known as the Metropolitan, 
began doing business at No. 126 Washington Street. 

In 1870, the following named companies were doing 
business here: Western LTnion, corner LaSalle and 
Washington streets; William Orton, president; O. H. 
Palmer, secretary; Anson Stager, general superin- 
tendent; J. J. S. Wilson, district superintendent; and R. 



C. Rankin, Chicago manager. Metropolitan, Room 19, 
Merchants' Insurance Building; Murry Nelson, presi- 
dent; S. G. Lynch, secretary; and L. B. Firman, super- 
intendent. Great Western, No. 84 LaSalle Street; 
David A. Gage, president; J. Snow, secretary; A. H. 
Bliss, general superintendent. Atlantic and Pacific, a 
powerful rival of the Western Union, and which the 
latter had succeeded in keeping out of the city for some 
months, No. 128 Washington Street and corner of 
Wabash Avenue and South Water Street; M. I.. Ward, 
general superintendent; C. A. Harper, secretary; B. F. 
Cogger, manager. 

In 187 1, first appeared the Pacific and Atlantic Com- 
pany, with offices at No. 91 Clark Street; R. R. Myers, 
manager. During that year, the Western Union secured 
control of all the companies except the Atlantic and 
Pacific, the Great Western, and the Pacific and Atlantic. 
For a long time a determined effort had been made by 
the city to compel the various companies to make con- 
cessions to it, for allowing the lines to be operated 
within the city limits, but the companies successfully 
resisted all such attempts; and it was not until the com- 
pletion of the first tunnel under the river, when the 
companies found that they could lay their wires in it to 
much greater advantage than to maintain cables, that 
they yielded, and agreed to do a certain amount of busi- 
ness for the city free of expense. The amount fixed 
upon as the Western Union Company's share was $600 
per annum. During the war period, great difficulty was 
experienced in securing enough operators to handle the 
increased business, and the pay of a first class operator 
sprang from $55 to $85 per month. In 1858, six oper- 
ators handled all the business of the two companies 
(Illinois and Mississippi, and Western Union); in 1871, 
the latter company alone employed between seventy- 
five and one hundred operators, besides a proportionate 
increase in the number of clerks, messengers and other 
employes In 1863, the Western Union handled one 
hundred and sixty-six thousand nine hundred and eighty- 
three messages, at a cost of ninety-one cents per message, 
and in 187 1, five hundred and fifty-two thousand eight 
hundred and forty-eight messages, costing an average 
of forty-eight cents each. Chicago has long been the 
second city in the United States in point of telegraphic 
importance, New York alone surpassing her in volume 
of business. 

And here have lived many who have occupied most 
prominent positions, either as officers, superintendents 
or managers in the various organizations, and to whose 
energy and ability is due the rapid progress made in 
telegraphy throughout the country. Perhaps more than 
to any other man in this connection, honor is due to 
Judge J. D. Caton; for, by his industry, courage and 
perseverance, the Illinois and Mississippi Company was 
made a profitable investment. 

Well advanced in years before he became interested 
in telegraph matters, he mastered the intricacies of the 
subject and was able to make himself one of the fore- 
most presidents of his time, only retiring after he had 
succeeded in transferring his company, advantageously, 
to the Western Union. As assistants in this great work, 



126 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



he had such men as Colonel J. J. S. Wilson,* E. D. L. 
Sweet. Colonel R. C. Clowry, and F. H. Tubbs. To 
Hiram Sibley belongs the credit of having first con- 
ceived, and, almost single-handed, by indomitable 
strength of will and untiring energy, brought to comple- 
tion the trans-continental line. And the list would 
indeed be incomplete if the name of General Anson 
Stager were omitted, since it is to the force of his 
logic and his practical knowledge of the subject, that 
the railroad companies owe their present intimate con- 



headquarters at Washington. Until November, 1861, he remained 
in charge of the latter, when he was commissioned Captain and As- 
sistant Quartermaster, and appointed chief of the military 
telegraphs throughout the United States. He was subsequently 
commissioned Colonel and Aide-de-Camp, assigned to duty in the 
War Department, and also placed in charge of the cypher corre- 
spondence of the Secretary of War, the peculiar cryptography of 
which was his own invention. Colonel Stager remained in the ser- 
vice until September, 1865, and was breveted Brigadier-General for 
valuable and meritorious services. Soon after the war closed the 
Southwestern and American Telegraph consolidated with the West- 
ern Union, and the general superintendency was offered to him, but 




WIGWAM BUILDINI 



nection with all telegraph systems, and were shown the 
importance of being able to direct the movements of 
their trains by telegraph. 

IGER, deceased, for nearly a quarter of a century 
general superintendent of the central division of the Western Union 
ih Company, was a native of the Empire State, having 
I bora in Ontario County, April 20, 1S25. His father, Henry 
W. Stager, was a manufacturer of edge tools, at Rochester, N. Y., 
in 1843, while his mother, Almira (Anson) Stager, lived 
TJ. being, at the time of her death, in her eighty-third yeir. 
Asa boy, Anson learned the printing business with Henry O'Reilly. 
afterward among the first builders and operators of telegraph lines 
lr, ta ;ei - "inmenced his career as a tele- 
graph operator in Philadelphia, and subsequently worked in Pitts- 
burgh as the pioneer of his trade or profession, From 1 348 to 1852, he 
foperatorof the " national lines," at Cincin- 
nati, and during the latter year became superintendent of the lines "I 
the \li--i- ippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company, his supervision 
soon extending over tl Vork. Mr. Stager was prom- 
inent in organizing the variou olidated with the Western 

Union Telegraph Company, and when that company was founded 
was call' eral superintendency. The system of 

railroad tl ol his brains and hands. When 

Sumter was (ir- - 1 on, the telegraph lines of Ohio. Illinois and In- 
diana were placed in his hands by the governors of these states, 

I during the entire pe- 
riod of the war. lie 1 cm o] li. Id ti le- 
graphs for General '•!<' lellan, and the military telegraph, with 

*l Wil*on wa* ' 
the Wijfwam to Abraham I nomination to thi pri idency. 



he declined the flattering offer, preferring to live in the west ; 
whereupon the system was divided into the central, eastern and 
south grand divisions, and General Stager assumed charge of the 
first named, with headquarters at Cleveland. In 1869, the transfer 
of the center of business westward made it necessary to change the 
headquarters to Chicago, and he therefore became one of our citi- 
zens. What he has done in the development of Chicago and the 
Northwest, is best told in the part which has been taken by the 
Western Union in such a grand progress. In fact, there were few 
men in the country who possessed a more far-seeing, executive abil- 
ity than General Anson Stager. In addition to his connection 
with this wonderful corporation, he was president of the Western 
Electric Manufacturing Company, of Chicago, the largest manufac- 
tory of the kind in the United States. He was also president of 
the American Electrical Society and vice-president of the Babcock 
Manufacturing Company. General Stager was married, November 
14, 1847, to Miss Rebecca Sprague, daughter of the late William 
Sprague, of Buffalo. His wife died November 22, 1883, and his 
death occurred on March 26, 1885. He left three daughters, one 
the wife of Frank S. Gorten, president of the Chicago F'orging 
Company; the second married to Ralph W. Hickox; and the third, 
Miss Ellen Sprague Stager. General Stager's funeral took place at 
his residence, corner of Michigan Avenue and Eighteenth Street, 
his remains being borne to Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland. The 
newspapers describe in full the impressive ceremonies attendant 
upon his obsequies, which were participated in by a vast con- 
course of Chicago's eminent citizens, who assembled to show their 
sorrow for their peer. 

Express Companies. — The first express west of 
Buffalo was commenced in April, 1845, uv Messrs. 



TELEGRAPH AND EXPRESS. 



127 



Wells, Fargo &: Dunning, under the firm name of Wells 
& Co. The next year, they began to run their four- 
horse express wagons once a week, from Detroit to 
Chicago and Milwaukee. The trip by rail and by ex- 
press wagons between Buffalo and Chicago occupied 
just one week, the charges being $3 for one hundred 
pounds, on all ordinary packages of over fifty and 
under two hundred pounds. As the freight was $3 
between Buffalo and New York, the total charge be- 
tween the eastern and western points was $6. The 
same rate was charged to Milwaukee as to Chicago. At 
that time, the agents here were A. H & C. Burley, who 
relinquished a few shelves in their book-store to the 
business of the company. In 1847, the company passed 
into the hands of William G. Fargo and William A. 
Livingston, who continued it under the firm name of 
Livingston & Fargo until March 18, 1850, when it was 
consolidated with the interests of Wells & Co. and 
Butterfield, Wasson & Co. The three concerns, when 
united, were called the American Express Company. 



*&-&.{?* 



In May, 1851, Harvey D. Colvin was appointed agent 
of the company, and continued to hold the position un- 
til the organization of the United Express Company, 
just three years thereafter. 

The company had now so outstripped the mails that 
the newspapers of Chicago often had occasion to thank 
them for receiving papers from St. Louis and the west 
in advance of Uncle Sam's conveyances. In 1855, it 
began to run four messengers daily from Louisville to 
Chicago ; also using the passenger trains from Michi- 
gan City to Chicago and those on the New Albany & 
Lake Michigan Railroad. The company was incorpo- 
rated by the Illinois Legislature in 1859, with a capital 
of $1,000,000, with power to increase it to $2,000,000. 
In the year i860, a reorganization was effected under this 
act as follows : Manager of the Western Division, W. G. 
Fargo, Buffalo; Assistant Manager, James C. Fargo, 
Chicago ; Agent, D. B. Cooke, Chicago ; Superintend- 
ent of Illinois Division, Edwin Hayden, Chicago. 

Mr. Fargo continued agent until 1866, when he be- 
came general superintendent and O. W. Barrett, the 
present incumbent, agent. By 1863, however, the busi- 
ness of the company had so increased that its office was 
removed from No. 20 Dearborn Street to the corner of 
Lake and Dearborn streets. In 1864, as remarked by an 
authority on the subject, "the number of hands had in- 
creased to one hundred and forty, as is proven by the 
number of turkeys called for last Christmas." 

Adams Express. — Adams & Co.'s California Ex- 
press, established in 1849, was succeeded in 1S55 by 
that of Freeman & Co. In 1854, Adams & Co., the 



Harnden Express (then owned by Thompson & Liv- 
ingstone), Kinsley &; Co. and Hoey & Co., were con- 
solidated in a joint stuck company, afterwards famous 
as the Adams Express Company. The office of the 
company in Chicago was at the corner of Lake and 
Dearborn streets, and John L. Hopkins was the agi nl 
during the period covered by this volume. 

Merchants Despatch. — This was a fast freight 
line, originally established, in 1850, as Kasson's Ex- 
press, and afterward owned and operated by the Ameri- 
can Express Company. The agents for the American 
Express Company were agents for this line; hence their 
routes were the same as those of the American, and they 
forwarded freight at regular railroad rates. On Decem- 
ber 1, 1863, the company occupied the building at the 
foot of South Water Street. 

United States Express Company. — This com- 
pany was organized in New York, and a branch office 
opened in Chicago at the same time — May 1, 1854. The 
local office was at Nos. 12-14 Dearborn Street, being in 
charge of Harvey D. Colvin, who still holds the position. 
At first the line was from the Mississippi River to New 
York City, by way of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific and the Michigan Southern railroads The busi- 
ness at this point increased so rapidly that, in 1862, the 
company removed to more commodious quarters on the 
northwest corner of Clark and Lake streets. Thirty-six 
drivers, messengers and clerks were then employed in 
the transaction of its business. Its routes were then, 
also, covering a great portion of the western country 
from Chicago to Fort Kearney, making a continuous 
route from New York of over two thousand miles, and 
the amount of freight handled at this office had increased 
from ten to forty tons, daily, in 1864. Its officers, who 
remained the same up to and including the year 1871, 
were: D. N. Barney and A. H. Barney, president and 
vice-president, New York City; Henry Kip, general 
superintendent, Buffalo. Its capital was $1,000,000, 
and its business had increased at a rate commensurate 
with the growth of the Great West, whose patronage it 
had been striving for with such marked success. 

Union Despatch Company. — This company was 
incorporated March 20, 1859, under the laws of Illinois, 
their charter extending for one hundred years ; author- 
ized capital, $1,000,000, of which $So,ooo were sub- 
scribed by four hundred stockholders. At first, the home 
office was at No. 60 South Dearborn. After remaining 
there five years, the company removed to Nos. 54-S 8 
Randolph Street, under the management of Charles B. 
Bingham, president, R. N. Booth, secretary, and about 
three hundred local agents in the principal towns and 
cities of the United States, from Bangor. Me., to St. 
Louis, Mo. The company was in the habit of trans- 
porting to market, selling and collecting for producers, 
shippers and manufacturers, charging regular railroad 
rates for transportation. 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



Illinois Central Railroad Company. — In the 
first volume of this history have been detailed the 
successful efforts of the people of Illinois, assisted 
by Eastern capitalists, to build a great central rail- 
road through the then developed portions of the 
state. In 1852, when the company received permission 
to lay their tracks along the lake-front, and which were 
originally placed on piles, almost the entire area, now 
devoted to the park, the railroad tracks, the Exposition 
building and Illinois Central and Michigan Central de- 
pots, was submerged. The land was gradually reclaimed, 
at great expense, and in 1869 that portion between Park 
Row and a continuation of Monroe Street was con- 
veyed to the city, and the submerged land, east of the 
four hundred feet limit, to the Illinois Central Com- 
pany. The title of the state to the lake-front, between 
Monroe and Randolph streets and Michigan Avenue 
and the Illinois Central track, was granted to this com- 
pany, also to the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and 
the Michigan Central companies, by an act, passed in 
1869, for depot accommodations, in consideration of 
the payment of $800,000 to the city of Chicago. In 
1873, the act of 1869 was repealed, although it is 
claimed that the repeal did not affect the grant just 
mentioned. 

Returning to 1857, it is found that by the comple- 
tion of the section between Mattoon and H. L. Junc- 
tion in September, 1856, there were seven hundred and 
four miles of road in operation, and, up to January 1, 
over $25,940,000 had been expended upon the road. 
The earnings for the year show an increase of about 
sixty per cent, over those of the previous year. On the 
1st of January, 1857, the Chicago branch was opened 
between Mattoon and Centralia. By March of that 
year, forty miles of the Dubuque & Pacific Railroad had 
been completed, and thirty-nine miles of the Mineral 
Point road, which joined the Illinois Central at Warren, 
were in operation. The western connection with the 
Peoria & Oquawka road had been made. The utmost 
exertions of the Illinois Central Company were next 
directed toward the development of the mineral resour- 
ces of southern Wisconsin and the coal trade of south- 
ern and eastern Illinois and the adjacent country. In 
May, 1857, connections were established at Pana, 
Christian County, with the Terre Haute, Alton & St. 
Louis road, and an exchange of business was arranged 
with the Ohio &: Mississippi road at Sandoval, Marion 
County. At that time the officers of the company were 
as follows: \V. H. Osborn, president; E. Lane, resident 
director; J. N. Perkins, treasurer; W. K. Ackerman, 
secretary; George B. McClellan, engineer-in-chief; J. C. 

Clarke, master of transportation; S. J. Hayes, master 
of machinery; J. C. Jacobs, superintendent north divis- 



ion; Silas Bent, superintendent of Chicago division; 
George Ackerman, assistant treasurer; Joseph Kirk- 
man, auditor. The officers of the land department 
were: John Wilson, commissioner; P. Daggy, secre- 
tary; George M. Reed, cashier; J. B. Austin, registrar; 
John M. Douglas and David Stuart, solicitors. 

Previous to 1857, the main line north of Centralia 
was without a direct connection with Chicago. In 
March of that year, arrangements were made with the 
Peoria & Oquawka Railroad Company to enable them 
to complete their road between the main line and the 
branch. This was done, the road crossing the main 
line one hundred and fifty-four miles north of Centralia 
and one hundred and eighty-nine miles south of Dun- 
leith, and intersecting the branch eighty-one miles south 
of Chicago and one hundred and seventy-one miles 
north of Centralia. The year 1857 is marked by the 
completion of the extensive basin opening into the 
Illinois River at LaSalle, and the branch track from the 
Illinois Central to that point, which was the head of 
navigation of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. The new 
levee at Cairo, washed away in December, 1857, was 
finished during the spring of 1858. In April, an im- 




portant change in the working of the company was 
made, by which all construction and repairs, except of 
rolling equipment, were placed in a separate depart- 
ment, under the chief engineer. The road was divided 
into four divisions, each in charge of a resident division 
engineer, who also acted as road-master. The first line 
extended from Cairo to Wapella, two hundred and 
thirty miles ; the second, from Wapella to Dunleith, 
two hundred and twenty-five miles ; the third, from the 
junction to the main line with the Chicago branch to 
Kankakee, one hundred and ninety-four miles ; the 
fourth, from Kankakee to Chicago, fifty-six miles. The 
divisions were separated into sub-divisions, varying from 
forty to fifty miles, and the sub-divisions into sections 
of from three to six miles each. At that time, about 
one-half of the original grant of land 2,595,000 acres) 
remained unsold. The financial crisis of 1857, followed 
by the successive failures of two crops, told severely 
upon the prosperity of the road, which looked to the 
farmers for support. During 1857, in fact, the company 
was obliged to make an assignment of its property. 
The settlers themselves had cause for despondency in 
1858, as many of them had made advance payments of 
interest on their tracts of land, expending the balance 
of the money they had brought with them in erecting 
their houses, fencing their farms, and purchasing stock. 
The farmers depended solely upon their crops to meet 
accruing payments to the company, and when these 
failed, ruin stared them in the face. The company see- 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



ing. that to press the farmers was to drive them away, 
and embarrass the future, in many instances wisely ex- 
tended the contracts : notwithstanding this, twenty- 
three thousand four hundred and sixty-eight acres, 
representing $375,000 purchase money, reverted to 




/L<z.se^ 



the company. This amount, however, did not represent 
a wide-spread disaffection and an alarming exodus ; 
for the cancellations included the contracts of two 
individual speculations amounting to over twenty thou- 
sand acres, which sold for $330,000. But the times 
were dark for those who remained upon their lands, 
many of the farmers actually suffering for the necessi- 
ties of life : immigration was almost checked, and the 
prospect was, indeed, gloomy for the Illinois Central 
Company, which had seemed about to advance along 
such a bright career. The alarm spread to the foreign 
shareholders, and a committee was appointed in London 
to visit Chicago and New York, and look over the books 
of the company. Principally through the good offices 
and sound judgment of Richard Cobden, who was 
largely interested in the road, the foreign investors 
were placated, and brighter times brought complete 
satisfaction with their investment in the enterprise. 
After the harvest of 1859 had been garnered and sent 
to market, the business of the road showed a marked 
and encouraging increase — the Indian-corn crop being 
especially prolific. By the commencement of i860, 
connection with Memphis and New Orleans had been 
completed ; the Grand Trunk line, constructed to De- 
troit, had given the Illinois Central an outlet to the 
Great East, and the extension of the Dubuque & Pacific 
into Iowa was creating an important Western outlet and 
feeder. In that year, the increase in passenger traffic 
from the South, and in heavy river freights, was very 
great, and gladdened the hearts of the managers. 
The coal trade was also increasing, the company was 
striving for the cotton trade, and it was expected that 
trains would be running between Chicago and New 
Orleans, over the Mississippi Central, in February, 1861. 
The Mobile & Ohio line was rapidly approaching com- 
pletion. In fact, the Illinois Central seemed destined, 
before the conclusion of the year 1861, to become the 
great connecting link between the Northeast and the 
Southwest, and an important factor in the Middle West- 
ern system. In April, i860, the company met with a 
severe loss in the burning of the extensive car-shops at 
Chicago. In February, 1861, President Osborn an- 
nounced that the company was relieved from its floating 

debt, and that its funded debt and its capital stock were 
each over $15,000,000. But the Illinois Central was 
destined to pass through another season of financial 
depression, for, with the opening of the war, its increas- 
ing passenger and freight traffic from the South was 
suspended, and many of the most important of the 
grain markets were closed to the farmers. In April, 



1 861, the Government placed a force of troops in Cairo 
and from that time until the close of the war, over two 
hundred and fifty miles of the Illinois Central road, 
south of the Terre Haute line, were mainly used for the 
transportation of men and military stores. With the very 
abundant harvest of wheat and corn, the local traf- 
fic of the line north of the points named, would 
have supported the entire road, with ordinary 
market prices for the products of the country; but 
the surplus crops of the Northwest were thrown 
on to the lakes. The supply of vessels and canal 
boats was inadequate to the sudden and unex- 
ampled demand for transportation, whose rates con- 
sequently rose rapidly and reduced the net price of 
products to the Illinois farmer to so low a point 
as to leave no margin for profit. And the with- 
drawal of $12,000,000 of the State-bank currency, 
based largely upon the securities of the Southern 
States, was another reason why the company had cause 
for uneasiness. At the close of the year 1861, although 
the company had been transporting troops at less than 
one-fifth of a cent per mile above the actual cost, the 
War Department still was indebted to it in the sum of 
$207,000. No complaints were made, for the Illinois 
Central was noted throughout the war for its patriotism 
and the number of brave men whom it sent to the 
front ; but this point is merely noticed to impress upon 
the general reader the fact that this corporation was 
making a brave fight for existence. 

The next two years showed an increase in passen- 
ger traffic. During 1863, the Mississippi River was 



hn 




opened to trade, which led to profitable traffic upon the 
main line, good markets for the farmers and renewed 
immigration. Although the local traffic was interfered 
with by the requirements of the Government in sending 
forage and supplies for the armies in the Southwest, the 
general business was increasing and the rolling stock 
of the company assuming large proportions. The prop- 
erty consisted of seven hundred and six miles of rail- 
way, one hundred and thirty-three engines and three 
thousand five hundred cars. The machine shops were 
well furnished and the depots and station-buildings in 
excellent shape. The property of the company was 
valued at $50,000 per mile, and a dividend of five per 
cent, had been declared during the year. In 1865, 
arrangements were entered into with the American and 
the Adams Express Companies for the carrying of 
money and parcels after May 1. For the year ending 
December 31, there was an increase of $850,000 in 
gross earnings over the amount received in 1864. The 
Southern trade promised to be again restored; the equip- 
ment was increased by twenty-two new locomotives; 
over $1,200,000 had been expended upon the repairing 
of the tracks; the debt had been reduced $7,200,000 
during the past seven years; and, altogether, the out- 
look for the Illinois Central Railroad Company, at the 
close of 1865, was encouraging in every aspect. The 
next year's exhibit was less promising, as there was no 
transportation of troops and supplies and little travel 
came from the shattered South. There was an increase 
of local freight business, but the net earnings of the 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



131 



road were about the same. For the years 1867 and 

1868, the net earnings were about $2,400,000, and the 
management continued to re-lay the road. In Novem- 
ber of the former year, the Illinois Central had leased 
the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad, one hundred and 
forty-two miles in length. On the 1st of January, 

1869, the bridge across the Mississippi, between Dun- 
leith and Dubuque, was opened. The funded debt 
had been reduced to $9,377,000 and 1,124,446 acres of 
land sold, leaving 526,690 acres still on the market 
when the year closed. In August, forty-eight miles of 
the Iowa Falls & Sioux City Railroad had been 
leased, and in December twenty-five more miles were 
acquired by the same legal process. By October, 1870, 
one hundred and fifty-nine miles of this road had been 
leased and were in operation ; within the state of Iowa 
there were four hundred and two miles in operation; 
and the Illinois Central was now enabled to compete 
for the trade of Dakota and the Northwest. Arrange- 
ments had also been perfected with the Belleville & 
Southern Illinois Railroad, by which through passenger 
and freight trains were to run between St. Louis and 
Cairo ; and negotiations were pending for the con- 
struction of the road between Cairo and the Mobile & 
Ohio Railroad. The ambition of the Illinois Central, 
so rudely dashed by the Rebellion nearly ten years 
previously, was soon to be realized. In 1870 and 187 1, 
the State produced large harvests of corn, while other 
cereal crops were fair ; the consequent increase of 
freight traffic in Illinois, however, but just met the 
decrease in Iowa, caused by the partial failure of crops 
in that state. Then came the Chicago fire, in which 
the company lost its passenger and freight depots, land 
office, several small buildings and twenty-six freight 
cars. Except the land office, the property was all 
insured. Elevator A, on the station grounds, owned 
by private parties, was also destroyed, seriously crip- 
pling the grain receipts. The grand total of the sys- 
tem operated at that 
time by the Illinois 
Central Company was 
over one thousand one 
hundred miles. The 
rolling stock consisted 
of one hundred and 
ninety- three locomo- 
tives, one hundred and 
sixty - two passenger 
coaches, and four thou- 
sand three hundred and 
forty-four freight cars. 
The number of acres 
of land sold in 1871 
was 48,927, yielding 
$459,404. The aggre- 
gate amount of land 
sold was 2,215,790 
acres, leaving 379,210 
acres at the disposal of 
the company, not inclu- 
ding right of way and 
depot grounds. 

The following table 
shows the amount of 
gross earnings of the 

Illinois Central Railroad, from all sources, since its 
completion, in March, 1855, up to December 31, 1S71, 
with the amount of tax on its Illinois earnings, paid 
into the State Treasury in accordance with its charter 
provisions : 



Years. Gross Earnings. Statf. Tax. 

1855 $1,532,118 8l $ 29,751 59 

1856 2,476,035 27 77,631 66 

1857 2,357,203 06 145.645 84 

1858 1,976,578 52 132.005 53 

1859 2,114,44s 9S 132,104 46 

i860 2,721,590 94 177,557 22 

1861 2,S99,6i2 64 177.257 81 

1862 3,445,S26 88 212,174 6° 

1863 4,571,02s 38 300,394 58 

1864 6,329,447 20 405,514 04 

1S65 7,181,20s 37 496,489 S4 

1866 6,546,741 47 427.075 75 

1867 7,160,991 83 444,007 74 

1868 7,817,629 24 428,397 48 

1869 8,823,482 20 464,933 31 

1870 8,678,95s 22 464,584 52 

1S71 8,401.141 Si 463,512 91 



Total. 



55,034,043 82 $4.979. 03S 




THE " ROCKET LOCOMOTIVE. 



John M. Douglas, one of the oldest of the railroad men of 
Chicago, was born at Plattsburg, Clinton Co., N. Y., August 22, 
iSig. His maternal grandfather, Elijah Weaver, was second lieu- 
tenant in the Revolutionary War, and his father, Congdon Douglas, 
served in the War of 1S12, and fought at the Battle of Plattsburg. 
At the age of seventeen, he entered the law office of Sweatland & 
Beckwith, at Plattsburg, and read law for three years. He then 
came west and settled in Galena. 111. After examination by the 
Supreme Court of the State, he was admitted to the Bar, at Spring- 
field, in 1S41, and opened a law office in Galena. In 1856, hecame 
to Chicago, and, in 1S57, 
was appointed general solic- 
itor for the Illinois Central 
Railroad. He was after- 
ward elected vice-president, 
and served in both offices 
until elected president of the 
company in 1865. In 1S71, 
he retired from the service 
of the company, but was re- 
elected in 1S73 and served 
until 1876, when he retired 
permanently from active 
management of the company 
and from business life. In 
1S81, he was appointed by 
Judge Drummond receiver 
ot the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railway. Mr. Douglas was 
a sufferer, in common with 
thousands of others, by the 
great fire, losing his elegant 
mansion on Erie Street, with 
all its valuable contents. He 
is a Democrat in politics, 
but is not inclined to active 
political life. Mr. Douglas 
was united in marriage to 
Miss Amanda Marshall, of 
Plattsburg, N. V., and has 
had three children; Helen, 
the wife of James Charnley, 
the lumber dealer ; Anna, 
the wife of Walter Neef, the 
western manager of the As- 
sociated Press ; and John 
Marshall Douglas. 

I ames C. Clarke, pres- 
ident of the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, has been 
pronounced by competent 
authorities one of the must 
practical and discriminating 
railroad men in the country. 
He was born in 1S26, in 
Montgomery County, did., 
and commenced his long and 
successful career, when only 
eighteen years of age, in the 
employ of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company. For ten 
years he remained in the employ of this corporation in various 
subordinate positions, and, in 1854, became superintendent of 
the Central Ohio Railroad, and in 1S55. came west to Chicago 
as superintendent of the northern division of the Illinois Central 
Railroad. In 1856, he assumed the general superintended)' of the 



13- 



H IS TORY OF CHICAGO. 



same road, which position he continued to hold for three years, 
thus carrying the enterprise through the most trying period ol its 
existence. In 1S50. he severed his connection with the Illinois 
Central, to become superintendent of the Northern Central Rail- 
road. He discharged the duties of this important trust with his 
usual energy and success until 1S62, when he withdrew from the 

- . tield for some years and devoted himself to private busi- 
ness [87 1872, he was president of the Chesapeake & 
'anal Company, and from 1S72 to 1S74 vice president and 
general manager of the Erie Railroad. In September. 1S74, he 
assumed the management of the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany, and continued as general manager of the road until January, 
I . From January. 1577. to August. 1 S S _; . Mr. Clarke was 

resident and general manager of the Illinois Central and 
Chicago. St. Louis & New Orleans railroads. In August, 1SS3, 
he was chosen to his present position, at the head of the great 
Illinois Central system of railroads. 

Peter Daggy, land commissioner of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road Company, was born October 25, 1S19, on a farm about two 
miles west of the village of Mount Solon, Augusta Co., Va. His 
parents. Michael and Sybil Daggy, were of remote German de- 
scent, but of American birth. The son, Peter, worked on his 
father's farm during his boyhood, and obtained his education by 
attending the country school during the winter terms. The parents 
resided there until Peter was sixteen years old, and then they came 
west, locating at Frankfort, Ind, The senior Daggy had been 
brought up to the trade of stonemason and bricklayer, but after his 
marriage he betook himself to farming, which occupation he fol- 
lowed the rest of his davs. The family resided in Frankfort about 
a vear. and while there Peter wrote in the County Recorder's office. 
In 1S37. his father purchased a farm near Greencastle, and Peter 
went with him; but he was discontented with farm work, and he 
persuaded his father to let him learn the printing business. He 
went to work on an agricultural paper at Greencastle, and was 
there for several years. He was afterward employed in a dry 
goods store for a short time, and then entered the Asbury Uni- 
versity, at Greencastle, where he remained about a year. His 
education remained uncompleted, owing to his means being ex- 
hausted, and he went to working in the office of the Clerk of the 
Circuit Court, where he remained for several years. During this 
time he studied law and was admitted to the Bar. During his 
fifteen years' residence in Indiana, he was elected Presiding Justice 
of the County Court, and resigned the office in January, 1850, to 
accept a clerkship in the government land office, at Washington, D. 
C. He remained there until Tune 30, 1853, and at the time of his 
removal he was at the head of the swamp land division in the land 
department. In the latter part of 1S55, he came to Chicago to 
accept a position as clerk in the land department of the Illinois 
Central Railroad. He was a clerk fcr about two weeks, and on Jan- 
uary 10, 1S56, was made secretary of the department, which office he 
held until March 4, 1871, and was then elected commissioner of the 
land department. This position he now occupies, and in all his 
various connections with the Illinois Central has performed his 
duties with the utmost satisfaction. In December, 1S69, Mr. 
Daggy was elected alderman in this city, and served until Decem- 
ber, i?72. During his term of office, the court house and city hall 
building was erected, and just completed prior to the fire of 1871. 
Mr. Daggy was married at Danville, Ind., April 23, 1843, to Miss 
Nancy lane Matlock. She died in the city of Washington, Janu- 
ary 26, 1851, leaving two sons, Henry Clay Daggy and Charles. 
The former enlisted in Company " D," 19th Regiment of Illinois 
Infantry Volunteers, at the age of seventeen, and at the battle of 
Stone River, Tenn., received his death wound. The son Charles 
died in this city November, 1864, at the age of eighteen. On De- 
cember 4, 1851, Mr. Daggy was married to Miss Julia Lunt, of 
Washington, D. C. They had six children, but only one is now 
living. This is a son, John Julian Daggy, Mr. Daggy was 
admitted to the Masonic Order at Greencastle, Ind., where he was 
made a member of Temple Lodge, No. 47, in April, 1843. Me is 
a member of Landmark Lodge, No. 422, A. 1'. & A. M.; of Fair- 
view Chapter, No. 161, R. A. M.; of Temple Council, No. 65, R. 
& S. M.. and of Apollo Commandery, No. 1, K. T., of this city. 
He has passed all the chairs of subordinate lodge, chapter and 
council. Mr. Daggy has always been a Whig-Republican, and did 
a great deal of hard work for the cause during the rebellious times. 
Hoi ••■• 1. I VI Ki.k, general freight agent of the Illinois Central 
Railroad, was born May 20, 1842, in Salem, Mass. Mr. Tucker, 
during his boyhood, attended the common schools of his native town, 
and when a youth was employed in a croi kerj store in Salem. He 
remained in that employment for about six years, and when he was 
twenty years of age, he 1 ame west " to make his fortune." Although 
he has had hard work in the railroad service he has doubtless satis- 
fied his ambition to make a success in life, at least the public so 
consider his experience, for certainly no western man stands higher 
in the estimation of the shipping public than Horace Tucker, lie 



has always been in the service of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
commencing with that corporation January S, 1S62, as ticket agent 
in the Central Depot, Chicago. He held that post until January 
1, 1S70, and was then made cashier in the treasurer's office. He 
retained that position for nearly four years, during which time he 
gained a considerable knowledge of the proper management of the 
affairs of a railroad. He concluded to identify himself with a 
department of the Illinois Central, and September 15, 1S74, took 
a clerkship in the freight office, and, during his short term of em- 
ployment in that capacity, mastered the details of the freight 
business. Three months after his appointment as clerk, or on 
January 1, 1S75, he was made general freight agent of the Iowa 
and Illinois Division of the Illinois Central, and he occupies that 
prominent and responsible office at the present time. Mr. 
Tucker is an agreeable, courteous official, and has won the esteem 
of all who have had business relations with him. lie was married 
at Salem, Mass., September II, i860, to Miss Carrie P. Rowell; 
they have three children — Fred, Bessie and Sadie. 

William K. Ackerman, ex-president of the Illinois Central 
Railroad, dates his connection with this corporation from May 28, 
1S52. Actual work upon the line was commenced May 14, 
1S51, and the very first train that entered Chicago over the Illinois 
Central Company's track was on May 21, 1S52. So it is readily 
seen that Mr. Ackerman was in the service of the company almost 
from the date of its inception. The main office of the corporation 
was then, as it is now, located in New York. Mr. Ackerman, who 
was born in that city on January 29, 1832, took a position with the 
Illinois Central Railroad Company when he was twenty years of 
age, shortly after completing his education in the male high school 
of Gotham. From May 28. 1852, to November 21, 1855, he was 
assistant secretary and transfer clerk, and from the latter date was 
the secretary up to the time of his removing west, September 10, 
i860. Upon coming to Chicago, he was appointed local treasurer, 
and held that office until April 14. 1871; then he took the treasurer- 
ship of the corporation, and handled its finances till January 28, 
1875. On May 29, 1872, he was elected a director of the company, 
and so continued up to the time of his withdrawal from active ser- 
vice. In January, 1875, having been appointed general auditor of 
the road, he assumed the duties of his new position, introduced a 
new system of accounts, and directed the work of that office until 
July 17, 1876, when he became vice-president. He was elected 
president October 17, 1S77, and filled that chair until August 15, 
18S3, and then returned to the vice-presidency, which he held un- 
til his retirement from the road, January 1. 1884. During his 
thirty-two years connection with this company, Mr. Ackerman has 
undoubtedly done as much toward bringing the Illinois Central up 
to its present high standard as any other one man. Energetic in 
developing its facilities, consistent in forming new plans for the 
benefit of the road and the public, and always endeavoring to im- 
prove its system, he retired from the management and connection 
with a most creditable record. It was largely owing to his efforts 
that the splendid suburban system of the Illinois Central Company 
was introduced. At the present time, Mr. Ackerman is connected 
with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, in an advisory position in 
the management of its western affairs, with headquarters in this 
city. He was married, November 30, 1858, to Miss Alida Rey- 
nolds Lewis, at Cortland, N. Y. They have two daughters, Mrs. 
George W. Meeker, of this city, and Miss Gertrude McKindtey 
Ackerman. Mr. Ackerman is an active member of the Chicago 
Historical Society, and has always taken an interest in all matters 
relating to the history of this State. He is the author of a valuable 
work, entitled " Early Railroads of Illinois," and has also con- 
tributed a large number of articles on the subject of railways and 
their management to the North American Review and other peri- 
odicals, as well as to the daily press. He is regarded an authority 
on railway questions, and his opinions are given the credit which 
they well deserve. 

Benjamin Franklin Ayer, general solicitor of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, was born in Kingston, Rockingham Co., N. H., 
April 22, 1S25. His family is one of the oldest in New England, 
he having descended, in the eighth generation, from John Ayer, of 
England, who settled in Haverhill, Mass., in 1645. After prepar- 
ing himself at the Albany (New York) Academy, Mr. Ayer entered 
Dartmouth College, where he graduated in the year 1846. On 
completing his literary studies he determined to make the law his 
profession, and spent three years in perfecting himself, part of the 
time attending the Dana Law School of Harvard College. He 
was admited to the liar in July, 1849, and then went to Manchester, 
N. II., to practice his profession. Having received a splendid 
education, both general and legal, and being endowed with natural 
abilities for the profession, he soon made a high reputation; and so 
won the confidence and esteem of the people of Manchester, that 
he was sent to the Legislature in 1853. In 1854, he was appointed 
prosecuting attorney for Hillsborough County, N. II., and held 
that office until the dale of his removal to Chicago, in 1857. He 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



•33 



was admitted to the Bar of this State on May 15 of that year, and 
he as rapidly rose in the regard of our people and of the profession 
as he had in his Eastern home. In [861, he was appointed corpor- 
ation counsel, and served as such live years, during which time In- 
prepared the revised charter of the city, in is<>;. I le ivas afterward 
of the law linn of Beckwith, Aver \ Kales, and in 1S75 of tin- turn 
of Aver & Kales. In December, 1 -^ t ' ■ . he was tendered the office 
of general solicitor of the Illinois Central Railroad Company. 
l'rior to this he had devoted his attention to corporation ami railroad 
law, and had distinguished himself in this class of legal practice, 
lie accepted the offer of the Illinois ( 'cut nil Company, gave up all 
other practice, and since 1S76 has devoted himself to the legal de- 
partment of that corporation. For the past lour or live years, he 
has been president of the Western Association. He is a member 
of the Chicago Club. Chicago Literary Club, and Kenwood Club, 
Mr. Aver was married in 1S0S, to Miss Jennie A , daughter of 
fudge Hopkins, of Madison, Wis <-They have three children, 
Walter, Mary Louise and Janet. The family have resided in 
Hyde Park since 1S73, and they are attendants of St. Paul's Epis- 
copal Church, of which Mr. Aver is a vestryman. 

HENRY DeWOLF, assistant treasurer of the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, is the son of William !•'. DeWolf, an old 



Janesville, fifty-two miles. This road, sold undei for< 
closure in June, 1 S 5 9 , became the- basis of the Chicago 
.\ North-Western Railway Company. 

Returning to the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad 
Company, at the point in 1S57 where it was left in the 
first volume of this work, il is found thai al lite annual 
meeting of the directors, chosen in June of that year, 
the following offii ers were elected: John Bice Turner, 
president; William H. Brown, vice-president; William 
J, McAlpine, chief engineer. The additional officers 
were: Secretary, William M. Larrabee; treasurer, Hen- 
ry A.Tucker; auditor, George M. Wheeler. Inning 
the next six months the whole of the second track 
between Chicago and Turner, thirty miles, was comple- 
ted and used. Over nine millions dollars had already 
been expended on the line. By the year 1S5.X, the Ga- 
lena & Chicago Union Railroad had been constructed 
from Chicago to Freeport (main line), one nun- 







THE OLD GALENA DEPOT. 



and honored resident of Chicago and a law practitioner of long 
standing. He was born in Alton, 111., in 1S46, and came to 
Chicago, with his parents, four years later. Mr. DeWolf received 
his education in this city, and graduated from one of the high 
schools. In 186S, he went into the land department of the Illinois 
Central Company, where he remained for about four years. He first 
held the position of clerk, then private secretary to Commissioner 
John C. Calhoun, and at the lime of his leaving that office he held 
the position of cashier. On January 1, 1872, he was promoted to 
private secretary to the president of the road, John Newell, now of 
the Michigan Central. Mr. DeWolf was in the president's office 
until January, 1874, when he took the post of cashier in the treas- 
urer's office. He was made assistant treasurer, upon the promo- 
tion of J. C. Welling to the office of general auditor, and has had 
charge of the Illinois Central's local financial business for the past 
nine years. Mr. DeWolf is a member of the Union League Club 
of this city, and is held in high esteem by his personal associates. 
His business relations with the company have effectually demon- 
strated the perfect confidence in which he is held for his business 
and personal integrity. 

Chicago & North-Western Railway Company. 
—The Illinois and Wisconsin Railway Company was 
organized December 30, 185 1, and the road built from 
Chicago to Gary, a distance of thirty-eight miles, in 
1854. In March, 1855, it was consolidated with the 
Rock River Valley Union Railroad Company, which, 
during the previous year, had constructed its road from 
Minnesota Junction to Fond du Lac, a distance of 
twenty-nine miles. The new company was called the 
Chicago, St. Paul & Font! tlu Lac Railroad Company, 
and during 1855 it extended its line from Gary to 



dred and twenty-one miles; Belvidere to Magno- 
lia (Beloit and Madison branch 1 , one hundred and 
eighteen miles; Junction to Fulton (Dixon and 
Iowa Central branch), one hundred and thirty-six 
miles. The entire equipment consisted of sixteen 
locomotives, forty-one first-class passenger cars, twen- 
ty-two second-class and baggage cars, eight hundred 
and sixty covered freight cars, one hundred and fifty 
platform and one hundred and one burden freight cars, 
one hundred and twenty-two hand repairing cars, one 
hundred and thirty-four small gravel cars, one pay- 
master's and one wrecking car. At that time, also, the 
company owned real estate as follows: Near Harlem 
Station, nine miles west of Chicago, three thousand 
three hundred acres; main line and Beloit branch, in- 
cluding sixty-two acres in Chicago, one hundred and 
sixty-five acres; one hundred and sixteen acres on the 
Chicago, Fulton & Iowa line; sixty-eight acres of gravel 
pits; miscellaneous, three thousand four hundred and 
ninety-one acres; total, eight thousand and eighty 
acres. The miscellaneous item included " wooded 
land," which, when cleared, was re-sold by the railroad 
company. Contracts were in force with the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, requiring the compa- 
ny to transport all business to and from Chicago over 
that portion of the Galena & Chicago Union east of 
the Junction, and prohibiting them from competing for 
business on the Illinois Central north of Amboy. A 



!34 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



joint contract was in force with the Mineral Point and 
Illinois Central companies, providing that the former 
should send all its business, the destination of which it 
could control, for twenty years, over the Galena & 
Chicago Union Railroad. The Fox River Valley Rail- 
road Company was to send all its business over the 
Galena & Chicago Union, die latter to allow fifteen per 
cent, of its earnings over the road more than two miles 
north of Elgin. For the use of the Beloit & Madison, 
the Galena & Chicago Union was to pay ten per cent. 
of its earnings on the road more than six miles north 
of Beloit, passing over the main line between Belvidere 
and Chicago, when it should be put in operation be- 
tween Beloit and Madison. Besides the above con- 
tracts, a running arrangement was in force with the 
Illinois Central, by which the roads from Chicago to 
Dunleith were worked as a complete line. By Decem- 
ber 31, 1858, there was no floating debt, the funded 
indebtedness of the company being $3,783,015. Con- 
nection had been formed at Bass Creek, Wis., between 
the line of the Beloit & Madison Railroad, operated by 
the Galena & Chicago Union and the southern Wiscon- 
sin branch of the Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad 
Company, so that cars were running to Janesville, Wis., 
May 17. 1S5S. In November of that year, the Fox 
River Valley Railroad Company reorganized under the 
name of the Elgin & State Line Railroad Company, 
and a contract was made with the Galena & Chicago 
Union, to run for five years. 

The hard times of 1S57 were havingtheir effect upon 
the Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac Railroad Com- 
pany, making it impossible to meet the interest on its 
bonds. An act was passed by the Legislature, February 
19, 1859, authorizing the sale of the road, and on the 
14th of March another was passed to facilitate the for- 
mation of a corporation which should operate it. By 
agreement of the bondholders and stockholders, Samuel 
J. Tilden and Ossian D. Ashley were appointed their 
agents to attend and supervise the sale. This took 
place on the 2d of June, when William B. Ogden, James 
V. I). Lanier, William A. Booth and James Winslow, 
trustees of the road, turned over all the property to 
these parties. Five days later, the Chicago & North 
Western Railway Company was formed by the purchas- 
ers, the road extending from Chicago to Oshkosh, Wis , 
one hundred and ninety-three miles, and from Oshkosh 
to Appleton, twenty-eight miles. Its officers were as 
follows: William B. Ogden, president; Perry H. Smith, 
vice-president ; George L. Dunlap, superintendent ; 
I'. Lee, treasurer; James R. Young, secretary; 
I. I' Witt Robinson, general ticket agent; and N. Gup- 
till, general freight agent. The plan adopted for the 

etion of the line to Oshkosh provided for a fund 
- 0,000, to pay for right of way, construction, de- 

ind other buildings. The Hue was put in opera- 
tion during the year [860, at an additional expenditure 
of le^s than §550,000. This was less than $9,000 per 
mile, the uncompleted section being sixty-three miles. 
In order to obtain the land granted by Congress to the 
Chicago, St. Paul ,V Pond du Lac road.it was necessary 
■id the line some three mile-, beyond Oshkosh. 
The total expenditure up to January 1, i860, on the line 

:n Janesville and LaCrosse now Minnesota Junc- 
tion, was $536,086, and from April 1, i860, to January r, 
1861, from Chicago to Oshkosh, §87,487. Vdd to this 
the amount previously laid out, and nearly §700,000 is 
to have been expended on |l ins. Up 

to January 1, 1861, over §134,000 had been expended 
on new equipment, the total debt of the road, except 
funded, being §33 1,491 .01. The funded debt now 



amounted to $3,524,200; the capital stock of the com- 
pany to §6,028,300 ; the net surplus to §335,212 ; and 
length of its track to three hundred and thirty-five 
miles. Since the organization of the Chicago & North- 
Western Railway Company in June, 1859, the equip- 
ment of the road had been increased by the addition of 
fifteen locomotives, three passenger cars, one baggage 
car, two hundred and fifty six box cars, and seventy-five 
platform cars, making twenty-nine first class locomotive 
engines, nineteen first class passenger cars, — in all 
over seven hundred cars. By act, approved by the 
Wisconsin State Legislature in April, 1861, the Chicago 
& North-Western Railway Company was authorized to 
locate a line of its road, or a branch, by way of Fort 
Howard or Green Bay, Wis., to the north line of the 
State, at the Menominee River. It was not built until 
in the fall of 1862, as at that time (the spring of 1861) 
the road was unable to meet the interest on its first 
mortgage bonds, and on April n, 1861, the bondholders 
held a meeting in New York City. The committee then 
appointed visited Chicago, to look over the valuable 
grounds of the company in this city, to report upon the 
best way out of the financial embarrassment, and to as- 
certain whether it was expedient to extend the road 
from Appleton to Green Bay and west from Neenah to 
Waupaca, Wis. As was to be expected, although the 
extension was looked upon as important, and as a 
necessary development of the system soon to be made, 
the committee, after visiting the towns and attending 
enthusiastic meetings, "withheld their recommenda- 
tion." In December, 1861, the Chicago & North-Wes- 
tern Company proposed to Brown County to exchange 
$49,500 of its stock for an equivalent in county bonds, 
and the proposition was accepted in the next month. 
The road was formerly opened to the public on Novem- 
ber 13, 1862. Congress had granted eighty acres of 
land for depot purposes from the military reservation, 
and the line was already stretching toward Marquette. 
In Chicago, arrangements had been made with Munn & 
Scott for the erection of a large grain elevator on the 
depot grounds, this firm being already the owners of 
another elevator connected with the company. One 
was also to be erected at Green Bay. 

In the meantime (in January, 1862), forty miles of 
the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River Railroad had been 
completed and leased to the Galena & Chicago Union. 
The lease dated from July, so that in the summer of 
1862 the Galena & Chicago Union Company controlled 
a direct line from Chicago to Marshalltown, Iowa, one 
hundred and fifty-one miles west of the Mississippi 
River. A partition of land held jointly by the Galena 
& Chicago Union, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy rail- 
road companies, on the South Branch of the Chicago 
River, was made during that year. The latter com- 
pany was then constructing a new line of road into 
Chicago from Aurora, to be used in lieu of the thirty 
miles of the Galena & Chicago Union line. Notice had' 
been given of a discontinuance of the use of this line 
after May, 1864. By the opening of the Chicago, Iowa 
& Nebraska Railroad, which was leased to the com- 
pany in July, 1862, the Galena & Chicago LTnion 
operated a continuous line from Chicago to Cedar 
Rapids, via Clinton. During the year, also, the passen- 
ger depot of the company at Chicago, which had been 
built before the completion of the Freeport line, was 
enlarged SO as to 'j,wc an additional story and bring 
together under one roof all the ijeneral offices. 

The Dixon, Rockford & Kenosha Railroad Com- 
pany, whose line was built from Chicago to Rockford, 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



■35 



seventy-two miles, was consolidated with the Chicago 
& North- Western Railway Company, January 19, 1864. 

On the 2d of June, 1864, the two corporations 
whose history has been traced, in a general way, up to 
this time — the Galena & Chicago Union and the Chi- 
cago & North-Western companies — were consolidated. 
At the time of the consolidation, the system controlled 
by the new corporation was as follows: From Chicago 
via Janesville, Fond du Lac, Oshkosh and Appleton, 
to Green Bay, two hundred and forty-two miles; Ke- 
nosha to Rockford, the junction of the old Galena road 
on Rock River, seventy-three miles; the Galena & 
Chicago Union lines, both owned and leased, five hun- 
dred and twenty-one miles; the Peninsula Railroad, 
seventy miles; total, nine hundred and six miles. The 
new company assumed the name, " Chicago & North- 
western Railway," because the outlet to the Mississippi 
River, by way of Galena, had long since passed under 
the control of the Illinois Central road. The Dixon 
Air Line, built west from the Junction to the Missis- 
sippi River, at Fulton, had been put in operation to 
meet this demand. All the roads brandling out from 
Chicago now controlled by this company run in a gene- 
ral northerly or westerly direction — hence the name. The 
adoption, of the name also involved no change of books 
or blanks from those used by the old Chicago & North- 
western Railway Company. 

At the time of the absorption of the Galena & Chi- 
cago Union Railroad Company, its officers were: William 
H. Brown, president; Edward B.Talcott, general superin- 
tendent; Augustine W. Adams, general freight agent; 
George M. Wheeler, auditor; Willard S. Pope, engi- 
neer; Elliott Anthony, attorney; W. M. Larrabee, 
secretary; Henry A. Tucker, treasurer. 

The officers of the Chicago & North-Western Railway 
Company in June, 1864, were as follows: William B. Og- 
den, president; Perry H. Smith, vice-president; George 
L. Dunlap, superintendent; George P. Lee, treasurer; 
James R. Young, secretary; B. F. Patrick, general 
ticket agent; Charles S. Tappen, general freight agent. 
Since the lease of the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River 
road to the Galena & Chicago Union, in 1862, the line 
had been extended to Boonesboro', two hundred and 
four miles west of the Mississippi River, leaving about 
one,hundred and thirty miles of road to complete to the 
Union Pacific at Omaha, so that this has been added 
to the North-Western system. Just previous to the con- 
solidation, the Galena road had commenced the con- 
struction of a bridge across the Mississippi at Clinton, 
and during the year 1864 it was completed by the Chi- 
cago & North-Western. The Peninsular Railroad Com- 
pany, of Michigan, operating a line sixty-two miles in 
length from Escanaba to Negaunee, was consolidated 
with this voracious corporation in October of that year. 
In June, 1865, Joseph B. Redfield, now auditor of the 
road, became assistant secretary. 

No changes of importance were made among the 
officers from June, 1865, until June, 1867, when they 
were as follows : William B. Ogden, president ; Perry 
H. Smith, vice-president ; M. L. Sykes, Jr., second vice- 
president ; James R. Young, secretary ; Albert L. 
Pritchard, treasurer ; George L. Dunlap, general super- 
intendent ; James H. Howe, general solicitor ; William 
H. Ferry, acting director of the Galena Division ; 
George P. Lee, local treasurer; Charles S. Tappen, 
general freight agent ; B. F. Patrick, general passenger 
agent. The company now held the stock of the Green 
Bay Transit Company, transacting business between 
Fort Howard and Escanaba, the terminus of the Penin- 
sula Railroad, now "Division." It also controlled the 



Chicago & Milwaukee Railway Company, eighty-five 
miles. 

Up to this time, the entire amount expended upon 
the Chicago & North-Western Railway system was, in 
round numbers, $49,232,000. Since the consolidation, 
$2,777,000 has been laid out upon it. In June, 1870, 
John F. Tracy became president of the road, while the 
other officers were as follows : M. L. Sykes, Jr., vice- 
president ; Albert L. Pritchard, secretary and treasurer; 
James H. Howe, general solicitor ; George L. Dunlap, 
general manager ; John C. Gault, general superintend- 
ent ; J. B. Redfield, auditor ; C. C. Wheeler, general 
freight agent ; and H. P. Stanwood, general passenger 
agent. The year 1870 marks the completion and con- 
nection of the road with the Winona & St. Peter line, 
making one hundred and twenty-one miles included in 
its Minnesota Division. By June, 187 1, the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway Company operated one thou- 
sand two hundred and twenty-six miles of road, having 
during the previous January absorbed the Beloit & 
Madison Railroad Company. Its rolling stock, since 
the date of the Galena & Chicago Union consolidation, 
had increased from two thousand four hundred and 
twenty cars to six thousand four hundred and sixty, 
and over $54,000,000 had been expended upon the 
entire system during the past twenty-five years. Its 
common stock amounted to $14,720,000, its preferred 
to $20,415,000, and its funded debt to $12,800,000. 

In June, 187 1, at which time this history of the road 
closes in this volume, the Chicago & North-Western 
Railway Company was officered as follows : John F. 
Tracy, president ; M. L. Sykes, Jr., vice-president ; 
Albert L. Pritchard, secretary and treasurer; James H. 
Howe, manager; John C. Gault, superintendent; E. H. 
Johnson, chief engineer ; B. C. Cook, solicitor ; M. M. 
Kirkman, treasurer ; Joseph B. Redfield, assistant sec- 
retary and auditor ; R. W. Hamer, purchasing agent ; 
C. C. Wheeler, freight agent; and H. P. Stanwood, 
ticket agent. 

Albert Keep, president of the Chicago & North-Western Rail- 
way system, was born in Homer, Cortland Co., N. Y., in 1S26, 
and received his education at the common school and the academy 
of his birthplace. From 1S41 to 1S46, he was a clerk in a general 
country store in his native town. In 1846, he came west and 
located at Whitewater, Wis., immediately engaging in mercantile 
pursuits. He remained thus employed at that town until 1S51, 
when he came to Chicago and entered the wholesale dry goods 
business as a member of the firm of Peck, Keep& Co., which com- 
prised Philander Peck, Albert Keep, and the latter's brother, Henry 
Keep. The business house was No. 211 South Water Street, and 
Mr. Keep remained therein until 1857, when he closed out the in- 
terests of the firm and sold to their successors, Harmon, Aiken & 
Gale. Mr. Keep then invested largely in real estate, and erected 
numbers of buildings, which he rented or sold as the real estate 
market proffered advantages for doing. When the fire of October, 
1S71, swept over the city, it destroyed his office and a number 
of his buildings. He immediately erected others, and contin- 
ued in real estate and building enterprises until June, 1S73, 
when he was proffered the position he at present occupies. Mr. 
Keep was also a director of the Lake Shore S: Michigan Southern 
Railroad from 1S65 until 1SS2. 

Marvin Hughitt, second vice-president and general mana- 
ger of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, and president of 
the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railway and of the 
Sioux City & Pacific, and Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
Railroad companies, was born in August, 1837. He commenced 
his business life as a telegraph operator, was one of the first opera- 
tors connected with the service in the west, and left the telegraph 
business proper to take service with the Chicago & Alton Railroad 
in 1856, with which he was employed as telegraph operator, super- 
intendent of telegraph, and chief train-despatcher. He entered 
the service of the Illinois Central Railroad in 1S62, and was suc- 
cessively superintendent of telegraph, train master, assistant gene- 
ral superintendent and general superintendent. In 1S71, he be- 
came assistant general manager of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railway, and in the autumn of 1S71 was appointed general 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



superintendent of the Pullman Palace Sleeping Car Company. 
In February 1S72. he became connected with the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway; was general superintendent until June, 
1570. when he was also appointed general manager, and in 1SS0 
was elected one of its vice-presidents. Since that date, he has been 
its second vice-president and general manager. In December, 
[88s le was elected president of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minnea- 
- i miaha Railway, and in July, 1S84. he was elected presi- 
dent of the Sioux City & Pacific Railroad and of the Fremont, 
Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad, and at present occupies those 
positions. 

Perry H. Smith, who in his lifetime was one of Chicago's 
prominent and most influential citizens, was a man possessing rare 
qualities of both mind and heart. He was born, March 2S, 1S2S, 
at Augusta. Oneida Co., X. V.; his father was Timothy Smith, an 
influential business man of Augusta, his mother was Lucy Avery, 
a descendant of a well-known family of that name in Connecticut, 
and was in everv way a worthy and estimable lady. When thir- 
teen vears of age. Perry entered Hamilton College, where, five years 
later, during one of which he was confined at home by illness from 
overwork, he graduated with high honors, standing second in his 
class. He then entered, as a student, the law office of N. S. Ben- 
ton, a prominent attorney at Little Falls, N. V., and on March 
. the day on which he attained his majority, was admitted 
to the Bar by Judge Peckham, at Albany, N. Y. In October of 
that year, he came west and after looking over Kenosha and Mil- 
waukee, established himself at Appleton, in the practice of his pro- 
fession, and almost from the time of his arrival took a prominent 
part in developing what then was a village of two houses and a 
part of Brown County. In 1S51, he was elected the first county 
judge of Outagamie County, over Professor James M. Phinney, 
serving a fractional term and declining a re-election. In 1854^ he 
was elected to the Assembly from the district composed of Outa- 
gamie, Oconto and Waupaca counties, and at once became one of 
its most influential members. In 1S55, he was elected to the State 
Senate. He was both able and influential in that body. In 1S57 
and 1858, he was elected to the Assembly. The last year, a very 
bitter and acrimonious contest, partially of a personal nature, was 
waged upon him and upon the Democratic ticket, and he felt so 
sore over it that he determined to, and did in 1S56, remove from 
Appleton to Chicago. In 1S56, a special session was held for dis- 
position of the immense land grants made by the National Govern- 
ment to Wisconsin, to aid in the construction of railroads. Mr. Smith 
succeeded in maintaining legislation so that the " Superior *' grant 
to aid the building of a road from Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, and Ap- 
pleton to Lake Superior, was transferred to a new company, which, 

Utended, was soon consolidated with the Chicago, St. Paul 
& Fond du Lac Railroad Company. Mr. Smith became vice-presi- 
dent of the company, and when, some time later, it was reorganized 
as the Chicago i North-Western, he took the same position with 
the latter. Milwaukee having opposed him in everything, in and 
out of the Legislature, Mr Smith resolved to "get even" with its 
citizens. In that day, the " Milwaukee scheme " was to leave Nee- 
nah, Menasha and Appleton out of the line of road, and to strike 
northwardly from Oshkosh. Mr. Smith stood by the Lower Fox 
River region, and thus carried out his threat ; for through the dis- 
position of the grant, which he was chiefly instrumental in effecting, 
and the consequent extension of the Chicago road, a great deal of 
trade, naturally tributary to Milwaukee, was diverted to Chicago. 
After he waselected vice-president of the North-Western, he gained 
the confidence of William B. I >gden to such an extent that he was 
virtually the actual manager of the road and shaped its policy. It 

thai during all the time he was a successful railroad mana- 
ger he never forgot his hostility to Milwaukee. While living 
at Appleton, he made investments in lands anil lead and iron mines, 
and these, together with his railroad connections, made him wealthy. 

. Mr. Smith removed to this city, ami for two years lived on 
I and Erie streets He then bought a 
r of Pine and Huron streets, and occupied it 
until it the great fire of 1S71. After that event he 

built the magnificent the same site, and which is still 

occupied by the f.imil;. - ■ md was furnished 

with great elegance, and, in 1^74, when it was finished, was re- 
:' the finest residences in the city. In 1868, here- 
tired fromthe management of the North-Western Railway, and set 
about ei !rh he had accumulated. He made everal 

trip* to Europe, and traveled extensively in this country. The re- 
linquishmcnt of owever, acted unfavorably upon him, 

nind began to fail him. This affection tead- 
ily grew worse unti ii 1883, when it became necessary to have a 
Conservator after his affairs. His wife 

this trust under the appointment of the court, but later relinquished 
its responsible dutii • 1 son. 'I he affection of Mr. 

Smith's mind showed itself chiefly in loss of memory. Up to 
a few weeks of his death he could converse rationally on almost any 



subject. His ideas and intentions on politics and current events 
were clear and logical, and his conversation as entertaining as ever. 
His memory, however, was so treacherous that he often failed ut- 
terly to recall one day what he had said or done the day before. 
His malady, however, was of an incurable nature, and in March, 
1SS5, had reached a stage extremely critical. His illness terminated 
in his death, which occurred on the 29th of that month, at the age 
of fifty-seven years and eleven days. At his death, Mr. Smith left 
a wife and four children, all of whom were comfortably provided 
for out of the handsome estate he had accumulated during the years 
of his active business life Mr. Smith was married, in 1851, to Miss 
Emma A. Smith, daughter of Rev. Reeder Smith, of Appleton, 
Wis. The children, already mentioned, are Perry H., Jr. ; Ernest 
F. ; Emma, now the wife of F. A. Sawyer, of Boston, Mass., and 
William D. Thus briefly have been sketched the life and charac- 
ter of Mr. Smith, and though little or no attempt has been made at 
laudatory comment, yet the simple facts as they have been stated 
show his worth and ability, and that in every sense of the word he 
was a self-made man. He was always industrious, brave and seif- 
reliant ; it was not his nature to ask favors of anyone, although no 
man prized true friendship higher than he. He won his way in 
the world by the force of his own genius and will, and being pos- 
sessed of a fine education, comprehensive views, excellent judg- 
ment, great energy and geniality, these qualities brought to him 
not only his success, but a very large circle of warm and apprecia- 
tive friends. 

John Bice Turner, for many years one of the most able, pub- 
lic-spirited and trustworthy of Chicago's early citizens, stands as a 
corner-stone of the great Chicago & North-Western Railway system. 
William B. Ogden and himself are to day recognized as having 
been the most powerful agents in the establishment of the Galena 
& Chicago Union Railroad Company, which may be called the 
foundation of its giant successor. It is full of interest as well as 
instruction to trace the life of such a man along the rugged path- 
way by which he reached his ultimate success. His record as a 
railroad pioneer commences as early as 1835, in the state of New 
York. Having not yet recovered from the business reverses sus- 
tained a few years previously, in April, 1S35 being then a young man 
of thirty-four, he set to work, under contract, to build seven miles 
of the Ransom & Saratoga Railroad. This being accomplished, 
he was placed in charge of the entire road and had the honor of 
putting in service the " Champlain," a locomotive engine of five 
tons weight, and the second of its kind to appear in the northern 
states. Most of the " trains " were drawn by horses, of which the 
company purchased thirty, and Mr. Turner built a barn every ten 
miles along the road, for their accommodation. In November, 1S35, 
ground was broken by himself and his partner, as contractors, for the 
construction of the Delaware division of the New York & Erie Rail- 
road Company. The financial crash of April, 1S37, however, carried 
that corporation with it and caused the temporary ruin of the young 
contractor and his partners. Subsequently, the company resumed 
operations, and the $16,000, which it was feared had been perma- 
nently lost, was recovered. His next venture was in partnership 
with his brother-in-law, John Yernam, in the building of the Ge- 
nesee Valley Canal. When, in 1S40, the State suspended work 
upon it, Mr. Turner himself received another set-back. The en- 
terprise was resumed, however, and finished, also a section of the 
Troy & Schenectady road, by the spring of 1843. This placed Mr. 
Turner in more comfortable circumstances, and he resolved to lo- 
cate in the west. In company with his wife, he made a journey of 
observation as far west as the Mississippi River. Determining to 
settle in Chicago, he returned to Troy for his two younger children, 
leaving his oldest boy in Williamstown College. He arrived in the 
Garden City on October 15, 1S43, boarding, with his family, at the 
old Tremont House Early in the spring, Mr. Turner purchased 
one thousand acres of prairie land lying south of Blue Island and 
put upon it an immense flock of sheep which he had brought from 
Ohio. He was now in such comfortable circumstances that he was 
enabled to devote his active mind to larger projects connected with 
the improvement of the new country which he had made his home. 
A railroad from Chicago to the Fox River was the all-absorbing 
topic among the active and broad-minded men of the state and the 
city. The Galena & Chicago Union Railroad Company had been 
inaugurated several years previously, and a small section of the road 
constructed, when the funds gave out and work was suspended. 
In 1847, ten years after the building of this crude excuse fora rail- 
road, Messrs. Ogden and Turner resuscitated the enterprise, and on 
the 5th of April, 1847, the former was elected president and Mr. 
Turner acting director of the road. Soon afterward, Richard P. 
Morgan made a survey of the line, and the two enthusiastic and able 
offii i ils traveled through the country soliciting subscriptions. 
Winn Mr. Turner was elected president of the company, in De- 
cember, 1850, the line had been extended from Chicago to beyond 
Elgin, and by September, 1852, it had reached l'reeport, where it 
connected with the Illinois Central. Under his administration, the 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



'37 



Dixon Air line was completed to Fulton, and during that period the 
line across the state of Iowa was partially finished. lie resigned 
the presidency in 1S5S, after having been, with the exception, per- 
haps, of William B. Ogden, the most efficient laborer in laying the 
foundation of one of the greatest railway systems in the world. In 
1S53, he had organized, also, the Beloit & Madison Railroad Com- 
pany, and continued inactive connection with the Galena & Chicago 
Union Company and its successor up to the time of his death. When 
the consolidation of the Galena & Chicago Union and the Chicago & 
North-Western was effected in June, 1S64, Mr. Turner was chairman 
of the managing committee. He subsequently served as a directorand 
member of the executive committee of the new road, bringing to 
bear the same energy, ability and probity which he evinced in his 
younger days. One illustration of the confidence which he had 
gained, not only of his immediate circle, but even throughout the 
country, is here given. During the war, while Fremont had com- 
mand in Missouri, and suspicions were abroad that the railways 
were swindling the Government, he made an investigation of the 
matter and the National Commissioners adopted his figures without 
alteration. In fact, the nature of his public enterprises since his 
settlement in Chicago had brought him into contact with capital- 
ists and professional men scattered throughout the land, and the 
name of John Bice Turner had become a synonym for all that was 
honest and reliable. In addition to his other manifold labors, Mr. 
Turner's name appears as one of the directors of the North Side 
Street Railway Company, which was incorporated in February, 1859. 
V. C. Turner, his son, and now president, then became manager. 
Mr. Turner was born at Colchester, Delaware Co., N. Y., Jan- 
uary 14, 1799. His father died when he was two years of age and 
his mother when he was fourteen, he having been adopted by a 
Mr. Powers soon after the death of his father. In a tan-yard and 
upon a farm, with an occasional term of schooling, the boy passed 
the early years of his life, and so well did he improve his oppor- 
tunities that he was able, in iSig, to unite himself in marriage to 
Miss Martha Voluntine, of Malta, Saratoga Co., N. Y. In 1824, 
he sold the interest he had obtained in the farm to his brother-in- 
law, bought a mill and built a distillery, which, with a store, he 
operated at Mattaville, in the same county. Six years thereafter, 
business reverses came upon him, which at length induced him to 
embark in those railroad enterprises which brought him fame and 
fortune. While acting as an official, however, Mr. Turner stu- 
diously and conscientiously avoided the rock of speculation — a 
marked trait of his upright character being his often expressed fear, 
that some one would suspect him of abusing his position for the pur- 
pose of increasing his fortune through such means. In March, 1853, 
Mr. Turner lost his first wife by death. In 1S55, he was married to 
Miss Adeline Williams, of Columbus, Ga. Six children were born to 
him, three of whom were daughters. Up to the day of his death, which 
occurred on February 26, 1871, he seemed hale and hearty. He died 
peacefully and quietly — a fitting end forone whose life was so filled 
with good and earnest works. His demise was the occasion for 
wide-spread grief — his railroad associates, especially, looking upon 
his loss as irreparable. As gracefully and feelingly announced by 
General Manager Dunlap, of the Chicago & North-Western road, 
its general offices and shops were closed in profound respect for the 
memory of this "judicious and faithful counsellor, genial com- 
panion, considerate friend and Christian gentleman. His devo- 
tion to the material interests of the country was excelled only by 
the patriotism which never lost sight of the highest duties of citizen- 
ship. His great works live after him, and will keep his memory 
green forever." 

Henry H. Porter, the president of the Union Steel Com- 
pany of this city, is a native of Maine, born in Machias, Wash- 
ington Co., in 1837. His father, Rufus King Porter, was a lawyer 
and a man of considerable prominence in that profession. His 
mother, Lucy Hedge Porter, was a most estimable woman, and 
belonged to one of the oldest and best of New England families. 
Henry H. Porter was given a fair English education in the com- 
mon schools of that dav, besides enjoying the advantages of a 
short term in an academy at Andover, Mass. At fifteen years of 
age, he began clerking in a store in Eastport, Me., but a year later, 
having determined upon trying his fortune in the West, he, in 1853, 
came to this city and entered the offices of the old Galena & Chi- 
cago Union Railroad as a clerk, under the superintendency of John 
Bice Turner. Mr. Porter relates that, at that time, his salary was 
but four hundred dollars a year, and that the road, which is now 
one of the main divisions of the North-Western system, was then 
only seventy-five miles long, and the track for thirty miles out of 
Chicago was laid with the old strap iron, which had been previously 
used on what is now the New York Central Railroad, between 
Rochester and Niagara Falls, of the kind used in the days "I 
primitive railroading. He remained with this road, filling various 
positions, until, in 1S60, he was appointed station agent in this 
city for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway and a little 
later became the general freight agent for the same corporation. 



In 1S63. he was made general superintendent of this line, which 

position he held until 1S65. In the following year, in c pan) 

with Jesse Spalding and others, he embarked extensively in the 
lumber trade, on the upper peninsula of Michigan, handling on an 
average nearly sixty million feet of lumber per annum. In 1 S67- 
68, he became a director of the first National Bank of this city, 
and also of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 1 
and of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, in 1870. He was 
connected for a time with the directory of the Union Pacific road, 
and about 1S74, became the general manager of the Chicago • ■ 
North-Western, continuing as such fora period of about two years. 
In 1875, he, with certain associates, purchased the old Western 
Wisconsin Railroad, and re-organizing it as the St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha, operated it until 1882, when its control was pur- 
chased by the North-Western road; since which time, Mr. Porter, 
beyond being in the directory of certain railways, has no active 
association with their interests. In 1S84, he, with several other 
gentlemen, obtained control of the affairs of the old Union Iron 
and Steel Company, which under a reorganization is now known as 
the Union Steel Company, a sketch of which appears in another 
part of this work. 

Honorable Burton C. Cook, general solicitor of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railway, was born in Rochester, N. Y., on 
May ir, 1819. He was educated at Rochester Collegiate Institute 
— since Rochester University — and graduated therefrom in 1S34. 
He immediately commenced the study of the law, with the deter- 
mination to make it his profession. In 1835, he came to this state, 
and passing through Chicago, went to Ottawa, and there was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, and commenced practicing law. The career of 
Mr. Cook in that city is a part of the history of the state ; he was 
State's Attorney of the Ninth Judicial Circuit, for eight years ; 
member of the State Senate for eight years, and was a member of 
the Peace Congress in 1S61. About 1859, he was the attorney for 
the Chicago & Rock Island Railway, and retained that position 
until 1864, when, being elected to Congress from the Sixth — now 
a part of the Seventh — Congressional District, he resigned his 
attorneyship and went to Congress. He was re-elected to Congress 
in 1S66, again in 1S68, and again in 1870, resigning his seat in 
1S71 to accept the general solicitorship he at present occupies, and 
which was proffered him by James F. Tracy, then president of the 
Chicago & North-Western road, who had been president of the Rock- 
island while Mr. Cook was its attorney, and consequently knew 
his eligibility and fitness for the position. Mr. Cook was married, 
in 1S4S, to Miss Elizabeth Hart, daughter of Judge Orris Hart, of 
Oswego, N. Y.; this lady died on February n, 1879, leaving 
one daughter, Ellen E., the wife of Charles H. Lawrence, a prac- 
ticing attorney of this city. Some of the important measures in 
which Mr. Cook participated during his public service, may lie 
briefly stated, as follows : In 1855, John M. Palmer, Norman B. 
Judd and Burton C. Cook seceded from the Democratic party, on 
the question of the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and suc- 
ceeded in effecting an organization hostile thereto ; on account of 
this action, Messrs. Judd and Cook were deposed from the Judiciary 
Committee. On January 15, 1856, these gentlemen — being at that 
time members of the State Senate — and Messrs. Baker and Allen, 
of the House, supported the nomination of Lvman Trumbull for 
the United States Senate, he, likewise, being an opponent of the 
repeal of the Compromise, this measure being taken upon the ad- 
vice of Abraham Lincoln. On February S, 185(1, Mr. Palmer 
nominated Lyman Trumbull, the amendment was concurred in, 
and Mr. Trumbull elected. The first ballot, however, onlj gave 
five votes for Mr. Trumbull, they being those of Messrs. Judd, 
Cook and Palmer, of the Senate, and Messrs. Allen and Baker, of 
the House. The tenth ballot gave Mr. Trumbull the nomination, 
fifty-one votes being cast for, and forty-eight against, him. No 
resolutions were adopted instructing senators to vote for the restora- 
tion of the Missouri Compromise, but the members in favor of it 
constantly put the question t" vote, thereby placing the members 
on record. As an evidence of the part taken by Mr. Cook during 
the crises of the Republican party, as well as by his confrere, Mr. 
Judd, it may be mentioned thai the latter was the first chairman, 
and the nominator of Mr. Lincoln in i860, at the Chicago Con- 
vention ; while Mr. Cook, who was chairman of the Republican 
State Committee in 1864, appointed by the State Convention, 
placed Mr. Lincoln in nomination that year at Baltimore. Some 
of the general measures taken by Mr. Cook in the furtherance of 
public interests, were his opposition to the resolutions adopted at 
the Peace Conference, when he and one other member prol 
against their adoption going on record, lie reported the bill 
which favored free schools ; he assisted to draft, and subsequently 
introduced, the first bill which gave married women the right to 
hold property in their own names : he drafted and introduced the 
bill, which was adopted, fixing the basis of Congressional repre- 
sentation, and he reported a polygamy bill, such as was pi 1. 
adopted after he left Congress. During his service there, he was 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



twice a member of the District of Columbia Commission ; he was 
a member and chairman of the Election Committee ; twice a mem- 
ber of the Judiciary Committee; and was chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Railroads and Canals. From this brief statement of 
some of the positions occupied by Mr. Cook, it is sufficiently easy 
to form a correct estimate of the cogency of his influence during 
his long and honorable career before the public. 

PHILLIP A. Hall is one of the oldest railroad men now resid- 
ing in Chicago. He is a native of Genesee County, N. Y.. where 
he was born October 10, 1S1S. In May, 1S36, he left Batavia, N. Y., 
and came to Chicago, where he obtained employment in the whole- 
sale grocery store of Hall & Monroe, one of the partners being his 
brother. About 1S4S, he became connected with the Aurora branch 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy road, as secretary and treas- 
urer, and after the line was completed took the active management 
of the train service. He even went so far, at one time, as to run a 
gravel train himself, it being necessary to forward it to its destina- 
tion without delay. Mr. Hall continued on the Chicago & Aurora 
line until 1S52, being assistant superintendent under President 
John B. Turner. In 1S54, he was appointed superintendent, as he 
had been, in fact, for some years. When Mr. Turner resigned as 
president of the road, Mr. Hall also relinquished the office of super- 
intendent, which occurred in 1S58. During the war, he was sum- 




EARLY LOCOMOTIVE. 



moned to St. Louis as an expert witness by the National Commis- 
sioners who were examining into the charges that, during Fremont's 
command in Missouri, the Government had been swindled. His 
testimony was principally regarding the prices which reasonably 
should be charged for the transportation of material and troops over 
what were termed " Land Grant Railroads, ' it being claimed in 
some quarters that such service ought to be free on the part of 
roads which had obtained Covernment land grants. In the spring 
of 1865, he returned to Chicago and was appointed assistant super- 
intendent of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific road, and so con- 
tinued until 1871. Since that year he has retired from active railroad 
business and been engaged in a variety of financial pursuits. 

CHARLES C. WHEELER, general superintendent of the Chicago 
& North-Western Railway, commenced his railroad experience as 
clerk and agent at Yergennes, Vt., in 1850, on the Rutland Rail- 
road. He has successively been general freight agent of the* 
Chicago & Alton Railroad ; general superintendent of the Chicago 
& Milwaukee Railroad, until its consolidation with the Chicago & 
North- Western Railway, when he was made general freight agent; 
general freight agent of the Michigan Central Railway; assistant 
general superintendent of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, 
and, in June. 18S0, was made assistant general manager of that 
road, remaining in that position until July, 188 J, when he accepted 
the appointment of general manager of the Atchison, Topeka iV 
Santa Ic Railway. He remained there until 1 li tobi 1, [883, when 
he returned to Chicago, and, December, 1883, was appointed to 
his present position. 

.!. I.. Di 1 ■.!■, son '.f John and Mary (Robinson) Dun- 
lap, was born in Brunswick, Me., in [828. Having acquired a 

amon school education, he took an academic course in 
mathematics and engineering at Gorhatn Academy; subsequently 

ng his prepai on foi hi chosen profession, by 

a thorough course of practical training in active field work. In 

ered the 1 tnploy "i the Boston 
& Maine Railroad Company, where he remained until 1851, at 



which time he engaged with the New York & Erie Railroad, 
where he remained until January I, 1855. At this date, he first 
became identified with railroading in the west, accepting the posi- 
tion of assistant engineer of the Chicago & North-Western Rail- 
way Company — then the Galena & Chicago Union — which he held 
nearly four years. In October, 185S, he became the general super- 
intendent of the road, filling that responsible position with unques- 
tioned ability for fourteen years thereafter (until 1872). He then 
became connected with the Montreal & Quebec Railway, then pro- 
jected. He spent eighteen months in London in the interest of 
the enterprise, and had charge of the construction of the road to 
its completion. In 1S79, he renewed his labors in the west, com- 
pleting the Wabash Railroad during that year, and building, in 
1S80, the road between Chicago and Strawn, 111. In 1881, he 
built the Wabash Grain Elevator, located on the South Branch of 
the Chicago River, near its intersection with Thirty-second Street. 
This elevator has a storage capacity of one million five hundred 
thousand bushels, and is the largest in the city, with one excep- 
tion. Its cost was $400,000. Mr. Dunlap became a member :>f 
the Chicago Board of Trade in 1881 Thirty years of arduous 
and faithful labor and responsibility have brought him the well- 
earned recompense of an ample fortune, which he enjoys to the 
full extent possible to an American not yet retired from the active 
duties of business life. As proprietor of the Wa- 
bash Elevator he is one of the most prominent of 
Chicago's commercial gentlemen. In addition to 
his residence in Chicago, he owns a fine farm in 
Walworth Co., Wis., near Lake Geneva, which is 
his summer home. Mr. Dunlap is a master ma- 
son, a member of Blaney Lodge, No. 271, A. F. 
& A. M., of Chicago. In politics he is a pro- 
nounced Democrat, and a member of the Iroquois 
Club. He has, however, never entered political 
life. He married, in 1858, Miss Ellen M. Pond, 
who left, at her death, two daughters, both of 
whom are now married — Mrs. A. L. Hopkins of 
New York, and Mrs. Dr. F. W. Payne of Boston. 
In July, 1872, he married Miss Emma Blanche 
Rice, daughter of Hon. John B. Rice, of Chicago. 
William Austin Thrall, general ticket 
agent of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, 
was born in Sharon, Schoharie Co., N. Y., on 
August 3, 1834, the son of William and Eleanor 
E. (Huddleston) Thrall. He received his educa- 
tion at the common schools, and the academy of 
Schoharie County ; and first engaged in business 
as an employe in a hotel at Guilderland, Albany 
Co., N. Y. He then was for a year in a store at 
Schoharie Court House, and also engaged in va- 
rious other commercial duties until about 1851, 
when he went to New York City, and there held several clerical po- 
sitions until the fall of 1S54. From New York City, Mr. Thrall came 
to Chicago, and entered the freight depot of the Galena & Chicago 
Union Railroad, as check clerk, and there remained until the fall of 
1855, when he was given a position in the general ticket office of 
that road. In 1856, he was appointed general ticket agent, and re- 
mained in that office until 1858, when he accepted a position on the 
Illinois Central Railroad. From the fall of 185S until January 1, 
1S73, Mr. Thrall was with the Illinois Central Company, as assist- 
ant general passenger agent, and on the latter date received the ap- 
pointment on the North-Western Railway which he at present 
holds ; and, as a memento of his long acquaintance with the North- 
Western, has a passenger tariff rate compiled by him for the old 
Galena & Chicago Union road, thirty years since. It seems ri- 
diculous, to any one acquainted with the railroad service in this 
city, to utter any eulogium on Mr. Thrall, so well is he known and 
so thoroughly is his aptitude for the position acknowledged ; but as 
there exists many persons who only know him by the signature 
on their tickets, a few words of description of this gentleman may 
not be inapt. His gentlemanly, genial, yet decisive manner; his 
comprehensive acquaintance with the innumerable minutia; of his 
duties ; and his accurate knowledge of the various needs and mu- 
tations of the passenger service, have rendered him, in conjunction 
with the extended experience he has acquired, a conceded authority, 
and a most valuable official of the road. Mr. Thrall is a life mem- 
ber of Oriental Lodge, No. 33, A. F. & A. M., and received the 
third degree in June, 1S58, and is also a past master of that lodge ; 
he likewise held several offices in Lafayette Chapter, the highest of 
which was Scribe ; hedemitted from that chapter in January, 1878 ; 
and is an ex-member of Chicago Council, No. 4. Mr. Thrall is a 
life member of Apollo Commandery, No. 1, K. T., having been 
one of the first Sir Knights to achieve that distinction, and is also a 
life member of Oriental Consistory, 32°, S. P. R. S , and the sub- 
ordinate bodies, having paid dues therein for over twenty years. He 
was married, in 1859, to Miss Elmira Boyce, of Belvidere, 111. ; 
they have two children, Samuel E. and William A. jr. 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



■39 



Marshall M. Kirkman, comptroller of the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway, was born near the city of Springfield, [II., 
in 1842, and received his education at a common school and through 
private instructors. In February, 1S56, he entered the employment 
of the North-Western (Galena) road, at Fulton, 111., and remained 
there, and in that vicinity, until March, 1S57, when he came to Chi- 
cago, and occupied various positions under the administration here. 
In 1S60, he was placed at the head of the freight accounting de- 
partment, and, in 1864, he became assistant general accounting of- 
ficer, which position he retained until 1868. In 1S6S, he was gen- 
eral accounting officer and local treasurer, the titles being subse- 
quently consolidated. He was then promoted to the position of 
general accounting officer, which he at present holds, the official 
designation having been changed to comptroller in 1S81. 

Joseph B. Redfield, assistant secretary and auditor of the 
Chicago & North- Western Railway, came from New York to this 
city in 1855, and entered the service of the road, with which he has 
been connected ever since, receiving the appointment to his present 
position in June, 1865. 

W. S. Mellen, general freight agent of the Chicago & 
North- Western Railway, was born in Crete, 111 , on February 26, 
1846, the son of Reuben and Marian B. (Davis) Mellen, his mother 
being the daughter of Aaron and Rebecca Davis. Very shortly 
after his birth his parents moved to this city, arriving here in 1S46, 
and here he obtained his education in the graded schools, his class 
in the high school being taught by George P. Wells, the present 
principal of the West Division High School. No academic or col- 
legiate facilities were afforded Mr. Mellen, his experience having 
been one of hard work and his reward that which awaits industry, 
perseverance and unflagging attention to the interests committed to 
his charge. He first engaged in business as a bookkeeper for 
Bevans & Morey, a commission firm on South Water Street, in 

1562, very shortly after the close of his school career, in 1861. He 
remained with Messrs. Bevans & Morey until 1864, when he be- 
came receiving clerk at the Chicago office of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, and while there acquired a knowledge of 
telegraph operating. On December 21, 1S65, Mr. Mellen first 
entered the employment of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 
as telegraph operator at Milton Junction, Wis., and was afterward 
at Barrington, 111., until June, 1866. He was then transferred to 
Kenosha, Wis., where he was also telegraph operator until March, 
1867, on which date he was made agent at Racine, Wis., and there 
remained until September, 1S71. At the latter date, he was made 
agent at Green Bay, Wis., and continued there until January, 1S73, 
when he accepted the appointment of general freight and passenger 
and ticket agent of the Green Bay & Lake Pepin Railroad. On 
October I, 1S74, he was appointed general agent of the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway in Minnesota and Dakota, with head- 
quarters in Winona, and on October 1, 1875, he received the ap- 
pointment of assistant general freight agent of the same road, at 
Chicago, where he remained until December, 188 1, when he 
accepted the position of assistant general superintendent in charge 
of the operating department of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railroad. The latter position Mr. Mellen retained until November 
I, 1882, when he accepted that of general freight agent of the 
Chicago & North-Western Railway, with headquarters at Chicago, 
and this position he still occupies. He is a member of Covenant 
Lodge, No. 526, A. F. & A. M.; Corinthian Chapter, No. 69, R. 
A. M ; St. Bernard Commandery, No. 35, K. T.; and Oriental 
Consistory, S. P. R. S. 32°, having been a member of the Scottish 
Rite bodies about seven years. He is also a member of Excelsior 
Lodge, No. 32, 1.45. O. F. Mr. Mellen is chairman of the Joint 
Western Classification Committee, which office he has held for one 
and a half years, his occupancy of this responsible place sufficiently 
demonstrating the perspicacity of the North-Western officials in his 
selection. He was married in 1870 to Miss Gertrude Fratt, of 
Racine, Wis. They have two children, Gertrude and Henry 
Wicker. 

Charles E. Simmons, land commissioner of the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway, was born in Lake County, 111., near 
the town of Waukegan, on December 25, 1845, the son of Icha- 
bod and Adelia (Frey) Simmons. He received his education at 
the common schools in the vicinity of his birthplace, and when he 
was sixteen years of age became a clerk in the office of the County 
Clerk of Lake Countv, 111-, and there remained until April, 

1563. He then engaged in the war-claim business, in partnership 
with Homer Cook, at Chicago, and there remained until he enlisted 
in the army in January, 1865. He was then elected 2d Lieuten- 
ant of Company " H," 153d Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and 
mustered into service as such, at Camp Fry, in February ; and, on 
March 7, 1865, the regiment left for the South and experienced 
some campaigning in Tennessee. On September 2, 1S65, the regi- 
ment was mustered out, and then Mr. Simmons re-entered the 
office of the County Clerk of Lake County, and there continued 
until October, 1868, when he entered the abstract office of Messrs. 



Jones & Sellers, of this city, as clerk. He remained in the same 
capacity with that firm until the time of the fire, and was then chiei 
clerk for the combined abstract firms. On December 1, 1872, the 
three firms of Jones lV Sellers, Short all & Hoard and 1 base Broth- 
ers leased their books to Handy, Simmons >\ Co., and of tin- firm 
of lessees Mr. Simmons was a partner. In September, 1876, he 
was proffered, and accepted, the position of assistant land 
commissioner of the Chicago & North-Western Railway ; still 
retaining, however, his interest in the firm of Handy, Simmons & 
Co. On July I, 1878, he was promoted to the position of land 
commissioner of the road ; and on that date he withdrew from the 
abstract firm, in order to give his whole attention to the important 
duties of his office, for which his long experience has so evidently 
fitted him. Mr. Simmons is a member and past master of Lincoln 
Park Lodge, No. 611, A.F.& A.M.; and a member of Lincoln 
Park Chapter, No. 177, R.A.M., and of Siloam Commandery, No. 
59, K.T. He was married on May 14, t866, to Miss Lucy J. 
Cleveland, of Rockford, 111., daughter of Rev. Festus P. Cleve- 
land. They have one son, Howard L. 

George H. Thayer, superintendent of telegraph, Chicago a 
North-Western Railway, was born in Perkinsville, Vt , in 1*43, the 
son of Henry A. and Marcia A. (Spafford) Thayer. When he was 
about nine years of age, he came to Chicago with his parents, and 
received his education in this city at the common and high schools. 
In 1S58, he first engaged in business as a messenger for the Illinois 
& Mississippi Telegraph Company, and remained in that position 
for two years, during which time he gained a good knowledge of 
telegraph operating. In 1861, he received an appointment as tele- 
graph operator on the line of the North-Western, and occupied that 
situation until 1873, when he was promoted to the superintendency 
he now holds. Mr. Thayer was married in 1865 to Miss Addie C. 
Miller, of Chicago. They have four children — George I... Wil- 
liam J., Frederick and Mabel. 

Frank M. Luce, general car accountant of the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway, is a gentleman whose proficiency in the 
details of those duties, and ability in their exercise, is not only re- 
cognized by the management of the road in his appointment and 
maintenance in his position, but is also well-known to railroad men 
throughout the United States. He is the author of Luce's System 
of Car Accounts, and of Luce's Book of Equipment Lists which 
are indispensible for car accountants on all the principal lines in 
the United States and Canada, and which have produced order out 
of the chaos to which such accounts were heretofore subject. The 
system was invented by Mr. Luce in 1863, and has grown into 
such great appreciation that it is now (1S84) used by one hundred 
and eighty-two railroads and fast freight lines, and has received 
from them the highest eulogiums. Mr. Luce has received from 
railroad men the sobriquet of "the father of the car-accountant 
business." He was born in Marion, Plymouth Co., Mass., in 1S46, 
the son of Elisha C. and Lucretia (Clark) Luce. He was educated 
at the Pierce Academy, Middleboro, Mass., and graduated from 
that institution. He first entered the railroad business in 1S63, as 
an employe of the Cleveland tV Toledo Railroad Company, .and was 
speedily made car-mileage clerk, which position he retained until 
1866, when he became car accountant of the Toledo, Wabash iV 
Western Railroad. He remained with that road until 1S71. when 
he was made general car accountant for the Chicago & North- 
Western. In 1869 he married Miss Emma S. McLean, of Cleve- 
land. They have two children; Alfred M., and Frank M., jr. 
Mr. Luce is a member of Home Lodge, No. 50S, A.F. & A.M.; ol 
Chicago Chapter, No. 127, R.A.M.; of Apollo Commandery, No. 
I, K.T., and of Oriental Consistory, S.P.R.S. 32°, and of Medina!) 
Temple, A.A.O.N.M.S. 

Charles Murray, superintendent of the Galena Division of 
the Chicago & North-Western Railway, was born in Wheeler, 
Steuben Co., N.Y., on January 21, 1S33, the son of William Mur- 
ray, of Schoharie County, and of Abigail lllickoxl Murray, of 
Oneida County. William Murray was a prominent woolen manu- 
facturer, not only in New York State, but also in Joliet, III., where 
he was employed in the management of that branch of business undi I 
the late Governor Joel A. Matteson. He received but little education 
in the common schools, but his natural desire for knowledge and 
his studious characteristics more than atoned for his lack of edu- 
cational advantages, and his ripe culture and thorough acquain- 
tance with the affairs of the world proclaim that, if Mr. Murray is 
a self-made man, no care has been withheld and no study ignored 
during his progress to his present status. At the age of twelve, he 
removed with his parents to Joliet, 111., traveling across the country 
in wagons and sleighs; at which place his father died. I111S47, 
the family removed to Elgin, 111., where Mr. Murray entered upon 
his first business experience in the employ of the Elgin woolen 
factory, where he remained for about one year; he thru entered the 
mercantile business as clerk and continued in that line unti 
when he removed to Freeport, 111., and engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness on his own account, remaining there about one year; when he 



140 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



returned to Elgin,* and was again engaged in mercantile pursuits 
for about one year; and on March .'4, 1855, he came to Chicago 
and entered the service of the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad 
Companv as clerk in the treight department office, at the foot of 
Dearborn Street. He occupied that position until March 5, 1S61, 
when he was appointed agent of the same company at Dixon, 111., 
where he remained until November 13. 1S73. During his residence 
in Dixon, he became identified with the city government and was a 
member of the City Council and also a member of the Board of 
Education, as well' as its president at the time he left Dixon. 
On November 11. 1S73, he was appointed local freight agent of 
the company at Chicago, which place he occupied until December 
ti. (876, when he was appointed superintendent of the Galena 
Division, which position he now fills. His thirty years of con- 
tinuous service piace him among the oldest employes of the com- 
panv. Mr. Murray was married on December 14, 1S57, at Musca- 
tine. Iowa, to Miss' Cordelia F. Cox, of New York City; they have 
two daughters, Carrie and Kittie. 

Ei>\vard I. CUYLER was born in Essex County, N. Y., in 
i52g. the son of Edward S. and Emily E. (Parkhill) Cuyler. His 
education was obtained chiefly in New York City, although the 
advantages enjoyed by him were not great. At the age of seven- 
teen, he became clerk in the Deadwater Iron Works, in Essex 
County, and was in the iron business for three years in that county. 
In iSJg. he went to New York City as agent for a transportation 
line, and there remained until 1S55, in which year he came to Chi- 
cago as construction paymaster for the Chicago & North-Western 
Railway, and retained that position until the road was completed 
to Janesville, Wis., a period of about three years. He was then 
a sort of pioneer station-agent for the road, being assigned to the 
various defined termini, as rapidly as the road was completed to 
such established stations ; the first of which was YVatertown, Wis., 
and the last, Oshkosh, Wis. He remained at Oshkosh until 1S64, 
and then was made assistant superintendent of the Galena Division 
of the Chicago & North- Western Railway, with his headquarters 
at Chicago — the position being given him after the purchase of the 
the road by the North-Western. He remained in that capacity 
until 1S76, and was transferred to his present position, as superin- 
tendent of the Wisconsin division. Mr. Cuyler was married, in 
185s, to Miss Josephine Quill, of Janesville, Wis., who died in 
1S69 Mr. Cuyler had two children, who also died. 

Thomas Stcart Rattle, contract and freight agent of the 
Chicago & North-Western Railway, was born in Chicago, in 
1 ~54. the son of Samuel and Anna M. (Dobbins) Rattle. Samuel 
Rattle was an old settler of this city, and was a descendant of 
English ancestry ; his arrival in this city occurred about 1849, and 
he afterward resided in Harlem, now Oak Park, where his son was 
educated. T. S. Rattle first entered upon his business career, as 
an office-boy, in the employment of the North-Western road, in 
1868, and by dint of hard work and attention to the duties devolv- 
ing upon him, he rose, step by step, to the position of assistant 
contract and freight agent, to which he was appointed in Novem- 
ber. 1S77. He retained that position until August, iS8o, when he 
was promoted to his present office, which is conceded to be a just 
recognition of his perseverance and strict attention to the interests 
of the road. He was married, in 1877, to Miss Sarah Adele 
Archdeacon, of this city ; they have one child, Paul Stuart. 

JENKS D. PERKINS, trainmaster of the Chicago it North- 
Western Railway, was born in the village of Oriskany, Oneida Co., 
N. Y.. of which village his parents were among the first settlers. 
.■:T was David Perkins, and his mother Elmira (Stacy) Per- 
kins, and the date of his birth was February 17, 1823. He received 
his education at the common schools of his native village, and then 
commenced his business experience by driving piles along the Sus- 
quehanna River for the old Erie Railroad Company; this was in 
1-41. In the spring of I S42, commenced a three years' appren- 
ticeship as bridge-builder, joiner, and railroad carpenter, serving one 
Brothers, and during the balance of the period 
with his father. In 1845, he worked for the state of New York for 
one year, and in the spring of 1- |'j ... nt to work for the old Syra- 
cuse & L'lica Railroad, of which John Wilkerson was president. He 
remained with that road until May. 1851, when he came on a fur- 
lough to Chicago, and was solicited by the: Galena & Chicago Union 
Railroad to <:;jO:r its employment; this he did, after securing the 
permission of the Syracuse & Utica Railroad, the consent of this 
road being mai pan "I the contract with 'he Galena 

making it a part of the agreement tliat Mr. 
Perkins should return to his employ whenever he desired to do so, 
as he was th-; b ■ r had in that capacity. Mr I'd kins 

then went to work foi ro id, and laid the first T rail on 

June 9, [851, thai ■ of the lakes, at the Fox River 

switch, the junction of the old Fox River road, two miles east of 
Elgin and the ' I nion Railroad. This was the 

first work he performed for the road, and to achieve it he had to 

• Hi* nWbrr died at that citv il 



make all his own tools for the T rail laying, as none were to be 
found in this country. He whittled out the models, and the com- 
pany's blacksmith forged them under his supervision. For two 
years he was in charge of the tracks, and then, in 1S53, was placed 
in charge of the road's docks and the tracks inside the city. He 
remained in that position until 1854, and was then transferred to 
the West -side lumber yards as freight agent for West Chicago, and 
there remained until 1864, when he was made trainmaster. In 
1861, he took a trip of two weeks to the East, his sole holiday in 
fifteen years. Mr. Perkins has been in constant employment ever 
since his entry into the service in May, 1S51, and it is a matter of 
just pride with him, and commendation from the officials of the 
road, that he has never omitted signing the monthly roll. When 
the new depot was built on North Wells Street, Mr. Perkins took 
charge of all the training, and still acts as general superintendent of 
that service, except the handling of freight trains, and to this mat- 
ter gives his personal and unremittent supervision. Notwithstand- 
ing his sixty-one years, he is as active and hale as a young athlete, 
and is a splendid specimen of energetic manhood, never employing 
medical aid for himself. He is a master mason, and a life member 
of Cleveland Lodge, No. 211. He was married, on April 22, 1844, 
to Miss Phcebe Jane Wiggins, of Oriskany. N. Y. ; they have two 
children living, William Francis, now an engineer of the Chicago 
& North-Western Railway, and Martha Maria. 

John Hickey, superintendent of bridges of the Galena Di- 
vision of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, was born in Wa- 
terford County, Ireland, in 1S32, the son of James and Kate (Walsh) 
Hickey. He came to the United States in 1851, prior to which he 
had received a little education at primary and night schools, the ed- 
ucational advantages in those years, and in that country, being of 
the most primitive character. This lack of tuition, however, Mr. 
Hickey has supplanted by study and an extensive course of read- 
ing in his later years. From 1851 until 1855, he remained in New 
York working at such things as presented themselves; and, in July 
of the latter year came to Chicago. About August 15, 1S55, he 
commer .ed working for the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad, 
under the supervision of George Bassett, who was at that time the 
superintendent of bridges and buildings on the Galena Division. 
Mr. Bassett succeeded Major Flunter, who was the first incumbent 
of that position, and who built the first railroad bridge over the 
Chicago River. This bridge was constructed for the Galena & 
Chicago Union Railroad, and was an excellent arrangement at 
high water, but when there was any great subsidence of the water it 
would not swing. It occupied nearly the same position that the 
present railroad bridge, near Kinzie Street, does. But the days of 
1855, and antecedent thereto, were days of primitive arrangements; 
Mr. Hickey has frequently filled the locomotive tank by bailing 
out the ditches by the roadbed; and often when the engine arrived 
at a water station, the tank would be found empty and the attend- 
ant slumbering, when the engineer or fireman would pump water 
into the water-tank, and thence let it run into the locomotive tank. 
And this was no unusual occurrence, but an every-day happening. 
After working for fifteen years in that department, Mr. Hickey was, 
in 1S70, appointed superintendent of bridges of the Galena Divis- 
ion, and has since retained that position. He has never lost any- 
time since his employment on the road, save a few days from sick- 
ness, and has so assiduously attended to his duties that he has not 
even taken a vacation He was married, in 1S66, to Miss Elizabeth 
McCarthy, of Chicago. They have four children: Kate, Gertrude, 
Walter and Mary. 

N. A. Phillips, general baggage agent of the Chicago & 
North-Western Railway Company, was born in West Bloomfield, 
Ontario Co., N. Y.. on December 10, 1S36; being the son of Hu- 
bert R. and Lydia (Douglas) Phillips. After receiving a common 
school education, he went into the hotel and passenger transporta- 
tion business, and in May, 1851, located in Chicago. In 1854. 
Mr. Phillips first became connected with the railway service as a 
train baggageman. He also acted as freight and passenger con- 
ductor and passenger agent, previous to his appointment to his 
present position in December, 1874. Mr Phillips was married, 
January 12, 1857, to Annie M. Walters. 

The Chicago & Alton Railroad Company. — 
The charter of the Alton & Sangamon Railroad was 
granted February 27, 1847, and was completed from 
Alton to Springfield in 1853. This road was the first 
section of the present system opened to the public. 
The Chicago & Mississippi Railroad Company was 
chartered June 19, 1852. It was finished from Spring- 
field to Bloomington in 1854, and from Bloomington to 
foliet in 1856. In the spring of 1857, the Joliet & 
Chicago Railroad Company, chartered by the Legisla- 
ture of 1854-55, obtained the right of way into Chicago, 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



141 



and was finished at that time. By act of February, 
1855, the name of the Chicago & Mississippi Railroad 
Company had been changed to the Chicago, Alton & 
St. Louis Company; the intent of the new corporation 
was to build a railroad from Alton to Joliet and to a 
point on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, opposite 
St. Louis. The line was mortgaged, and the company 
became so embarrassed that, in August, 1855, a lease 
was made to Hamilton Spencer, of Bloomington, to 
run twenty years. Mr. Spencer was to advance certain 
sums of money and pay the interest on the income 
bonds of the company; to operate the road and pay the 
expenses. This was done, and he made an assignment 
of the lease to Brown, Brost & Co. It passed into the 
hands of Governor Joel A. Matteson and E. C. Litch- 
field, in December, 1857. Up to that time, the line had 
been completed from Springfield to Joliet at a cost of 
nine and a half million of dollars. This, with the Joliet 
& Chicago Company, formed a continuous line from 
Springfield to Chicago. In the spring of 1858, a bill 
was filed complaining that the property of the St. Louis, 
Alton & Chicago had been perverted from its original 
purpose. All allegations, however, terminated in No- 
vember, 1859, and the road was placed in the hands of 
James Robb and Charles Congdon, receivers, they to 
operate it under the direction of the court. By an in- 
corporating act, approved February 18, 1861, James 
Robb, Charles Moran, Adrian Iselin, Nathan Peck, 
Louis Von Hoffman, Lewis H. Meyer, Septimus 
Crookes, William B. Ogden, Jacob Bunn, J. J. Mitchell, 
Joseph B. White and E. M. Gilbert were constituted 
the commissioners to organize the Chicago & Alton 
Railroad Company. On the 7th of August, 1S62, a de- 
cree was entered in the United States Court, by which 
all claims against the road were brought before it. The 
property was directed sold, and was purchased by the 
above parties. On the 16th of October, an organization 
was effected as follows: James Robb, president; Joseph 
Price, secretary and treasurer; C. N. Allen, superin- 
tendent; Robert P. Tansey, general freight agent; 
Thomas Warnock, general purchasing agent; Fred. 
Hudson, auditor. The directors for the year ending 
December 31, 1863, were: James Robb, John B. Drake 
and John Crerar, Chicago; George A. Robbins and 
Albert Havemeyer, New York. The first annual re- 
port for that year shows the capital of the company to 
have been $8,290,939; receipts from all sources, $2,- 
021,770; operating expenses, $971,840. On the 1st of 
January, 1864, the Joliet & Chicago line was leased. 
The Alton & St. Louis Company, which had been or- 
ganized six years previously, commenced the line be- 
tween these two places in May, 1864, and the road was 
opened to the public January 1, 1865, being leased to 
the Chicago &: Alton Railroad Company. During the 
year 1864, there had been a change in the management 
of the road, T. B. Blackstone, the present incumbent, 
being elected president; W. M. Larrabee, secretary and 
treasurer; Robert Hale, general superintendent; O. 
Chanute, chief engineer; H. C. Wicker, general freight 
agent; Augustus Newman, general ticket agent; C. N. 
Pratt, general passenger agent; and A. W. Church, attor- 
ney. The St. Louis, Jacksonville & Chicago Company, 
although incorporated in 1851, did not complete its line 
to Petersburgh until January 1, 1866. In September, 
1867, a connection was made with the Chicago & Alton 
line at Bloomington, and the road was leased by that 
corporation in April, 1868. Having obtained control 
of this connection, the Chicago & Alton Company had 
virtually no competitors for the traffic between Chicago 
and St. Louis. The passenger business greatly in- 



creased and the coal trade was a growing item in the 
freight traffic. The latter had grown from six thousand 
tons, in 1865, to over one hundred and sixty-six thou- 
sand tons, in 1868, being more than half of the whole 
amount of bituminous coal received by rail in Chii ago 
during that year. Its financial status for the year end- 
ing December 31, 1868, was as follows: earnings, 
$4,508,642 97; expenses, $2,463,182.64; net earnings, 
$2,045,460.33. Its income account showed receipts of 
$2,969,812.61, and its disbursements were $1,985,145.24. 
In September of that year, J. C. McMullin was ap- 
pointed general superintendent of the road, to succeed 
Robert Hale, who resigned in December, 1867. K. 1''. 
Booth, the chief engineer, had succeeded Mr. Chanute 
in 1866, and James Smith, general freight agent, fol- 
lowed Mr. Wicker. The year 1S69 witnessed no change 
in the officers of the road, but there was a large increase 
in freight and passenger traffic. At the commencement 
of 1870, the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company opera- 
ted four hundred and thirty-one miles of road — Chicago 
& Joliet (leased i, thirty-eight miles; Joliet to East St. 
Louis, (owned), two hundred and forty-two miles; 
Bloomington to Godfrey, a few miles above Alton, 
where it connected with the main line — being the St. 
Louis, Jacksonville & Chicago (leased — one hundred 
and fifty-one miles. During 1870, there was acquired 
the section from Dwight to Wenona, by purchase in 
March, thirty-five miles; from Wenona to Washington 
and from Varna to Lacon, forty-five miles, completed 
in December. So that, on January 1, 187 1, there were 
five hundred and eleven miles in operation, owned or 
leased by the company. Desiring another outlet to the 
Mississippi River, the company made a contract with 
the St. Louis, Jacksonville & Chicago road, for the use 
of its franchises in the construction of a line from 
Roodhouse west to Louisiana. A contract was also 
entered into with the Louisiana &: Missouri River Rail- 
road for the completion of the line from Louisiana to 
Mexico, Mo. An agreement was also made between 
the Chicago & Alton Company and lines in northern 
Missouri, by which a through line for passengers 
and freight was to be operated between Chicago, 
Alton and Kansas City, as soon as the line should 
be constructed to Mexico. These contracts were 
still in force at the time of the great fire, the 
Roodhouse line being finished. By this casualty, the 
company lost $100,000 above the insurance* upon its 
property, about one hundred and thirteen of its cars 
being destroyed. By the end of the year, the company 
operated five hundred and ninety-five miles of road, the 
line to Mexico being opened October 30, 187 1. 

At first, this road occupied the Michigan Southern 
Depot, on Van Buren Street, bur. after 1858 used the 
Union Depot for its passenger business. Its freight 
depot was on Charles Street, corner of Van Buren, and 
its round-house on Stewart Avenue, between Wilson 
and Twelfth streets. 

Timothy B. Blackstone, president of the Chicago & Alton 
Railroad, is one of the most practical, clear-headed and successful 
railroad men of our country. He is a typical American, a son of 
sturdy and self-reliant parents, and from his infancy there were in- 
stilled into his nature determination and energy. These attributes, 
now so seldom found, are what made Mr. Blackstone the successful 
man of to-day. He is a native of Branford, Conn., born March 
2S, 1S29. He received what little education he could obtain during 
his boyhood in the common schools of Branford, and took a course 
in an academy. At the age of eighteen, he commenced to take care 
of himself, and engaged as rodman of the engineer corps of the 
New York & New Haven Railroad, thus commencing at the very 
lowest round of the ladder he was destined to climb. Such beginnings 
in life represent the truest type of an American — the lower down they 
commence, the higher their ultimate attainments. Of course, the 



14-^ 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



subject of this sketch knew not what was in store for him, but 
when he went to work it was with a determination to make his 
way ; and, being ambitious, he succeeded in securing gradual pro- 
motion in the engineering service, until, at the end of a year, he 
was appointed to the post of assistant engineer on the Stockbridge 
& Pittsrield Raiiroad. He occupied this position until December, 
1849, in the meanwhile devoting himself assiduously to the study 
of the science of engineering. He was then offered a similar po- 
sition on the Vermont Valley Railroad, which he accepted and occu- 
pied until the following April. In May, 1S51, Mr. Blackstone rec- 
ognizing the grand possibilities of the West, decided to remove to 
Illinois, and he came here to take the position of engineer of sur- 
vevs. location and construction of the Illinois Central Railroad. 
Work was then being done on the main line, and his division was 
from Bloomington to Dixon, with headquarters at LaSalle. In De- 
cember, 1S55, the work was completed, and the main line of the 
Illinois Central was ready for the transportation of traffic, the gen- 
eral supervision of survey, location and construction of the road 
having been in charge of Roswell B. Mason, chief engineer. In 
1S56, Mr. Blackstone connected himself with the Joliet & Chicago 
Railroad, took the position of chief engineer, and became finan- 
cially interested in the building of the road. He supervised the lo- 
cation, construction and maintenance of the road, and five years 
later was elected president of the company. For three years there- 
after he remained at the head of this corporation, and in January, 
1S61, resigned and severed his connection with it, owing to his 
having been elected a director of the Chicago & Alton Railroad. 
He became heavily interested and strongly identified with the man- 
agement of its affairs, and three months later was elevated to the 
presidency of this corporation — now one of the largest and most 
successful companies of the West. For twenty-one years he has 
been at the head of the Chicago & Alton, and to his management 
is undoubtedly due its chief success. One-half of his life was 
spent in reaching a goal of honor, and he now enjoys the fruits of 
hi; labors. This is one of the instances where men are self-made; 
and when all young men look to such an example of energy, deter- 
mination and persistent devotion to duty, there will be fewer fail- 
ures and better results in business life. 




"OLD IRONSIDES," 1832. 

Jamf.-; C. McMULLIN, vice-president of the Chicago & 
Alton Railroad, was born in Watertown, Jefferson Co., N. Y., 
November 13. 1836. While a lad, he attended the country schools! 
and later, was a student at the Jefferson County Institute. When 
nineteen years old, he went to Danville, Livingstone Co., and 
commenced working in a drug store, with the intention of study- 
ing pharmacy and making it his profession. He remained there 

rears, however, at the end of that time deciding to come 
' Hi May 27, 1357, he commenced work in the depot of the 
Great Western Railroad, at Decatur, III., as freight and ticket 
clerk, and from that time to the present, has always been identified 
with railroads. He remained with that road until March 30, i860, 
then became connected with the Chicago & Alton Railroad, 
with which corporation he has be n a XX iated for twenty-five years. 
He first occupied the position of freight agent al Springfield, which 
he held until January I, 1863; then he came to Chicago 
in a similar capacity, and so acted until September 1, 1864, when 
he was made division niperintendenf of the northern division, 
from Bloomington to Ch ago He served in that capacity until 

' 1867 and tant general superintend- 

ent. In September, 1S68, he was elected general superintendent 

N'otk.— For the views of the Karly Locomotives presented in this chapter, 
the publwher* are indebted to the courtesy of H. k. Hobart. 1 <lit-.r and propri 
etor of the Railway Axr. 



of the road, and he filled that important and responsible office for 
ten years. On May 9, 187S, he was made general manager, which 
position he occupied until May 28, 1883, when he was made vice- 
president of the road, and he has held the office up to the present 
time. Thus, from the date of his entrance into the railway ser- 
vice, Mr. McMullin has steadily won promotion, until he has 
attained a position and prominence of which any man may well 
feel proud. Mr. McMullin was married in Decatur, 111., March 
27, i860, to Miss Ettie A. Mason. They have two children, 
Frank R. and Louie E. 

Charles H. Foster, secretary and treasurer of the Chicago 
& Alton Railroad, was born in Rochester, N. Y., April 14, 1S35. 
During his boyhood, he attended the Wadsworth School and 
Dewey's High School of Rochester, and at the age of seventeen 
went to Albany, N. Y., taking the position of agent of the Mer- 
cantile Canal-boat Line. Although but a youth, he proved capable 
of attending to his duties, and he retained this position for three 
years. In 1854, he went to New York City, and engaged in the 
forwarding business on his own account, for a year being occupied 
in the transportation of coal and lumber from New York to Phila- 
delphia for the Rochester market, and in the summer of 1855, he 
went out of business. On July 11, of that year, he came 
west, and took a position with the Galena & Chicago Union Rail- 
road. He first commenced checking goods in the freight depart- 
ment of that road in this city, and was promoted from time to time. 
For one year and a half he was check and bill clerk in the local 
freight office. In January, 1857, he was made assistant cashier in 
the same office; in 1858, was chief clerk in the general freight 
office; in 1859, chief clerk in the general ticket office; and from 
January, i860, to January II, 1863, was general bookkeeper in the 
secretary's office. He was with the Galena & Chicago Union road 
until the spring of 1S63. During 1S63 and 1864, he was employed 
as chief clerk in the office of Samuel T. Atwater, agent of the 
Buffalo Mutual Insurance Company, and on January II, 1865, was 
tendered the position of general accountant under W. M. Larra- 
bee, secretary and treasurer of the Chicago & Alton Railroad. 
Mr. Foster had been with Mr. Larrabee for over twenty years, five 
of which were with the Galena & Chicago Union, and, recognizing 
Mr. Foster's superior abilities and experience, the latter offered 
him the position with the Chicago & Alton road. Mr. Foster 
commenced his work with Mr. Larrabee, and was under him until 
1879. For some time prior to the latter year, Mr. Larrabee's 
health was very poor, and the duties of secretary and treasurer 
fell upon the shoulders of the chief clerk, Mr. Foster, who was 
made secretary pro tern. In May, 1879, the health of Mr. Larra- 
bee continuing to fail, Mr. Foster was elected to the office, and he 
has since held this responsible position. Mr. Foster is also secre- 
tary of the Joliet & Chicago Railroad Company; secretary and 
treasurer of the Mississippi River Bridge Company, whose bridges 
are located at Pike, Mo. ; and is also secretary and treasurer of the 
Louisiana & Missouri River Railroad — the above corporations 
being auxiliaries of the Chicago & Alton Railroad. Mr. Foster 
was married in this city to Miss Caroline Van Inwagen, daughter 
of Anthony Van Inwagen, on December 11, 1864. Her death 
occurred November 7, 1884. Three children survive the mother, 
their names being Gertrude, Harry C. and Eugene. 

Henry H. Courtwright, general freight agent of the Chi- 
cago & Alton Railroad, was born in Wyoming Valley, Penn., in 
1837. He attended the common schools until he was sixteen years 
old. In 1856, he came west and commenced business life by enter- 
ing the railway service. In July of that year, he was appointed 
station agent at Dement, on the line of the Galena & Chicago 
Union Railroad, and afterward was sent to Morrison as agent. 
He was with that road three years, and in January, i860, was ap- 
pointed station agent at Lincoln, III., on the line of the Chicago, 
Alton & St. Louis Railroad, which position he occupied until July 
31, i860. In August of that year, he took the position of local 
agent of the Hannibal & St. Joe Railroad, at Hannibal, and later 
was local agent at Quincy, 111., for the same road. He was local 
agent for four years, and for about one year was acting division 
superintendent of the eastern division of the Hannibal line. In 
August, 1S65, he was made general freight agent of the road, with 
headquarters in Kansas City. In December, 1873, he was general 
freight agent of the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Railway, 
and at the end of that time was re-appointed to his former position 
on the Hannibal & St. Joe road. He was with the latter, in the 
capacity of general freight agent, for about ten years, and at one 
time was acting superintendent for a brief period. In March, 
1878, Mr. Courtwright was offered the position of commercial 
agent of the Missouri Pacific line and the St. Louis, Kansas City 
& Northern Railway, with headquarters at Kansas City. He ac- 
cepted the trust and served the companies until he received the 
appointment of general agent of the Southwestern Railway Asso- 
ciation, lie remained as general agent until March, 1879, when 
he received the appointment of general western freight agent of the 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



*43 



Chicago & Alton road, with headquarters at Kansas City and St. 
Louis. His ability as a manager was of such a high character as 
to be quickly recognized by the Chicago & Alton Company, and he 
was called to the office of general freight agent, with headquarters 
at Chicago, in September, iSSl. This position he now maintains. 
Mr. Courtwright's experience as a railroad man is varied and ex- 
tensive, and he is possessed of complete knowledge of the minute 
details of a business which is almost gigantic. Mr. Courtwright 
was married at Morrison, 111., in 1S60, to Miss Nettie M. Burton. 
Augustus Newman, assistant general freight agent of the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad, was born in New York City, December 
I, 1840. During his boyhood, he attended the common schools 
of his native city, but at the early age of thirteen he commenced to 
earn his own living, and went into the employment of Moran 
Brothers, foreign bankers. He took the position of bank messen- 



- rM^ 




RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE. 



ger, and by prompt and careful attention to his work was rewarded 
with a promotion to assistant bookkeeper and correspondent, 
remaining with this firm from March 21, 1S54, to April, 1862. 
He then came west, and on May r, 1S62, entered the railway ser- 
vice. He took a clerkship in the treasurer's office of the Chicago, 
Alton & St. Louis Railroad in this city, and by devoting the same 
careful attention to his work as in his past business experience, he 
won the favor of his superior officers, and was gradually promoted 
until he obtained the position he now holds. From clerk in the 
treasurer's office, he was elevated to the post of military freight 
and passenger accountant, and also to that of general bookkeeper. 
Krom January, 1S65, to June, 1871, he was the general ticket 
agent of the company in this city, and then received the appoint- 
ment of assistant general freight agent. Mr. Newman has worked 
steadily and faithfully for the Chicago & Alton Railroad for 
twenty-three years, and his persistency and devotion to his duties 
make a fitting example which the young men of to-day may well 
follow. Mr. Newman was married to Miss Chanley, of Buffalo, 
N. Y. , in 1S7S. They have two daughters living, named Ada and 
Stella; the eldest daughter, Margie, died June 1, 1884. 

James Charlton, who for the past fourteen years has held 
the position of general passenger and ticket agent of the Chicago 
& Alton Railroad, is one of the oldest officials in point of service 
of any of the representatives of lines leading to this city. Mr 
Charlton is an Englishman by birth, having been born at Bothal, 
Northumberland, May 15, 1832. He received his school training 
in the public institutions of his native town, but at the age of 
fifteen commenced to earn his own living by entering the railway 
service. In- April, 1847, he took a position as junior clerk on the 
Newcastle & Carlisle Railway, at Newcastle-on-Tyne. He was 
in the service of that road for ten years, and from the inferior 
position of clerk was elevated to the chief clerkship of the freight 
department, and afterward to cashier of the road. In the early 
spring of 1857, Mr. Charlton emigrated to America, took up his 
abode in Canada, and obtained the post of assistant to the chief 
clerk of the auditing department, and was given charge of the 
statistics and freight accounts of the Great Western Railway of 
Canada, at Montreal. During his eleven years of service with 
this, Canada's greatest railway corporation, Mr. Charlton was pro- 
moted to the higher positions which his ability and energy easily 
won for him. As the routine promotions occurred, he ascended to 
the rank of chief clerk of the auditing department, then was made 



auditor, and, at the time of his resignation, held the office of gen- 
eral passenger agent. He then came to the United States, and 
two years later re-entered active service, taking the position "i 
general ticket and passenger agent for the North Missouri Rail- 
road. He held that place from March 22, 1870, to July 13, 1871, 
and then was called to take charge of the general passenger depart- 
ment of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, with headquarters in this 
city. Mr. Charlton, who has passed more than one-third of his 
life in the railway service, has lost none of his youthful energy 
and activity, but gives the business of his department his constant 
and active supervision. He has for a number of years had a valu- 
able assistant in his son, James Charlton, Jr., who now holds the 
office of assistant passenger agent, and who possesses in a high 
degree the diversity of talents required in the management of the 
passenger traffic. 

The Chicago, Bur- 
lino ton & QUINCY 
Railroad Company was 
formerly known as the 
Aurora Branch road. At 
the time of declaring its 
first semi - annual divi- 
dend, in June, 1854, when 
the Aurora Branch (and 
by change of name to 
Chicago & Aurora; line 
had been completed to 
Mendota, the earnings 
amounted to $60,700. 
This point was at the 
junction of the Illinois 
Central and the connec- 
tion with the Central Mil- 
itary Tract road, eighty- 
three miles west of Chi- 
cago. The dividend of 
$3 per share was paid in 
July. The Central Mili- 
tary Tract road was completed to Galesburg in De- 
cember, 1S54, and in July, 1855, trains commenced to 
run to Burlington, Iowa. It had been the intention of 
the Peoria & Oquawka Company to construct the road 
from Peoria to Burlington, but it became embarrassed, 
and entered into an agreement with the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy and the Central Military Tract roads, 
by which the section between Galesburg and Burling- 
ton was completed by the latter corporation. A condi- 
tional agreement was also entered into by which the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Central Military 
Tract and the Northern Cross roads also completed the 
latter (at about the same time), from Galesburg one 
hundred miles west to Quincy. In the meantime, by 
act of the Legislature, passed February 14, 1855, the 
name of the Chicago & Aurora was changed to the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company, and 
on July 9, 1856, that corporation and the Central Mili- 
tary Tract were consolidated, under the former name. 
The Northern Cross and the Peoria & Oquawka com- 
panies were purchased after several proceedings 
against them, culminating in foreclosure by the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company, which now 
operated two hundred and ten miles of road, including 
the thirty miles from Chicago to the Junction, used in 
common with the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad 
Company. The depot of that company was also used 
by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. 

In 1856, ten acres of land were purchased of the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Company, on the 
South Branch, adjoining North Street and Stewart Ave- 
nue, for the accommodation of the grain elevator busi- 
ness and of a rapidly increasing lumber trade, and a 
contract was entered into with the Illinois Central for 



144 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



the use of their grounds for the passenger traffic. The 
large increase of business had made it necessary to pur- 
chase land adjoining the lumber grounds on the South 
Branch, the tract extending westerly along North 
Street, about two thousand feet, and comprising the 
south half of blocks 48, 49 and 50. Before the consoli- 
dation there had been expended upon the Central Mili- 
tary Tract and the parent road §1,294,668. By June, 

le whole amount expended upon the entire sys- 
tem was over eight million dollars. The officers of the 
company for 1S57-5S were : John Van Nortwick, presi- 
dent : Chas. G. Hammond, superintendent ; Amos T. 
Hall, secretary and treasurer ; Samuel Powell, ticket 
agent ; and William Martin, general freight agent. 
During the next year the company purchased the Bur- 
lington ferry boats, to run between Quincy and Hanni- 
bal, in connection with the Hannibal & St. Joe Rail- 
road. In the spring of 1861, Messrs. M linger. Armour 
& Dole finished the largest elevator in the city, with a 
capacity of eight hundred thousand bushels. It was 
leased by the company for ten years. A slip was also 
built into the depot grounds, that the grain might be 
elevated from vessels directly irfto the warehouses. 

It was during this year, that James H. Stipp, repre- 
senting the Jacksonville & Savannah Railroad, and 
Judge Henry L. Bryant, acting for the Peoria & Hanni- 
bal Railroad, entered into a contract with James F Joy 
and J. W. Brooks, in behalf of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Company, giving them a perpetual lease of 
that portion of both roads upon which labor was ex- 
pended, on condition that the purchasers should com- 
plete and equip the road; which was accordingly done, 
to Lewiston, in June, 1862. By June, 1863, the con- 
struction and equipment account had amounted to 
§12.373,000; capital stock, §5,738,000 ; funded debt, 
§1 [,841,000. The great increase in business during that 
year made the addition of sixteen locomotives necessary ; 
also of many cars to replace a number taken for gov- 
ernment use, on a requisition from Major-General U. S. 
Grant. The depot grounds were enlarged by the pur- 
chase of the south one-half of block 47, and fifteen hun- 
dred feet further west on North, now Sixteenth, Street. 
In July, 1862, the extensive new freight and transfer 
houses were occupied, and between that time and the 
spring of 1863, a second huge elevator was constructed 
by Messrs. Armour, Dole & Co. In October of this 
year 1863 that portion of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy road, between Peoria and Burlington, was sold 
under foreclosure of the mortgage held by Messrs. 
Harding, the contractors, and purchased by the 
trustees of this company In the fall of 1862, another 
purchase of land was made, near the Peoria & Burling- 
ton line, and in June, 1864, a consolidation was effected 
with that company. The system then included the line 
from Chicago to Burlington, via Galesburg, the 

1 .V Aurora line, being in course of completion, 
amounting to two hundred and four miles , Galesburg 
to Quincy, one hundred miles; Galesburg to Peoria, 
fifty-three miles ; and Yates City to Lewiston, thirty 
miles. The total number of miles then in operation was 
four hundred, and the outlay, up to April 30, 1864, ex- 
ceeded $15,000,000. The company then owned all the 
land I) -In: Galena & Chicago Union road, 

the river and Sixti et, formerly North Street. 

Including the ground which it hid recently purchased 
for stock yards, on Western Avenue, just within the city 
limits, and near the Chicago cV Aurora track, the com- 
pany owned seventy-five acres in the city It also owned 
a water front of three thousand and two hundred feet. 
During the year, the new line from Chicago to Aurora 
was entirely completed, and the ten miles of double 



track to Lyons finished. A new set of officers also was 
elected : James F Joy, president ; Robert Harris, su- 
perintendent ; Amos T. Hall, secretary and treasurer; 
Henry Martin, general freight agent ; and Samuel Pow- 
ell, general ticket agent. In June, 1865, a contract was 
entered into with the Burlington & Missouri Companv, 
to extend the road fifty-six miles west, to a point one 
hundred and thirty-two miles west of Burlington. Dur- 
ing the year 1866-67, an agreement was entered into 
with the Hannibal & St. Joe Company, by which the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company should 
become purchasers of its securities for ten years, con- 
vertible into preferred stock, at §120,000 per year. 

The first pile under the east abutment of the Bur- 
lington bridge, was driven January 30, 1867. High 
water drove off the workmen, but in March, 1868, the 
last stone was placed in the main structure. Its total 
cost was §1,227,000. The first train passed over the 
bridge August 13, 1868. In June, 1869, the bridge at 
Kansas City, the western terminus of the Hannibal & 
St. Joe Company, opened the connection from Chicago to 
all the Kansas roads. The Burlington & Missouri line 
was being rapidly completed to Omaha. The bridge at 
Quincy, which was completed soon after, was built by a 
bridge company, and did not interfere with the finances 
of the Chicago, Burlington &: Quincy road. The road 
from Lewiston to Rushville was opened to the public 
July 18, 1869, at an additional cost of §340,000 to the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy ; the Keokuk & St. Paul, 
bought by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, was com- 
pleted to Burlington, October 27, 1869, at a cost to the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy of §562,000 ; Dixon, 
Peoria & Hannibal Railroad, from Buda to Elmwood, 
February 1, 1870, at a cost of §895,000. During 1869- 
70, about one hundred and twenty-five miles of road 
were built, making over six hundred miles in operation. 

In June, 1870, the St Louis division of the road, 
which had been constructed as the Rockford, Rock Is- 
land & St. Louis Railroad, was thrown open to traffic 
from Beardstown to Bushnell, the money for its con- 
struction being raised principally by the citizens of Ful- 
ton County. The road was not purchased by the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy until six years thereafter. 
During the succeeding year the Quincy & Warsaw line 
was constructed from Quincy to Carthage ; the Ottawa, 
Oswego & Fox River Valley Road from Aurora to 
Streator, January 15, 1871, and from Aurora to Geneva, 
May 1, 187 1, there connecting with the Chicago & North- 
western ; and the Illinois & Grand Trunk, from Men- 
dota to Prophetstown. On May 14, 187 1, the system in 
operation embraced seven hundred and sixty-one and 
one-half miles of road, the local traffic was maintained, 
and the through business was rapidly increased. 

That year is marked by a change in the manage- 
ment of the company, James M. Walker succeeding Mr. 
Joy as president. 

The following table, bearing upon the business of the 
road, is self-explanatory. 

Year. Gross Earnings. Expenditures. 

1S5S Si, 505, 166 71 ... $ 694.399 66 

1859 1044,57363 .... 541. S05 76 

i860 L383.957 65 67S.I59 43 

1861 1.732,08469 .... 752.597 47 

1862 1,825,13025 73103020 

1863 3.037.372 54 i.072,gSS 7S 

[864 4,039,92281 1.573.395 00 

1865 5,581,85222 2436,147 10 

1866 6.175,553 35 3,020,164 7S 

H<'7 6,083,138 05 3.°93.574 07 

1868 6,154,647 25 ... 3,067.165 55 

1869 6,812,809 l8 --- 3,390,111 19 

1870 6,621,773 12 .... 3.754.555 36 

1871 7,2o7,6S5 20 4,202,977 76 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



145 



Up to April 30, 1871, the construction and equip- 
ment of the road amounted to $21,585,635.25. 

Charles Goodrich Hammond, deceased, the son of Chester 
and Fannie (Goodrich) Hammond, was born at Bolton, Conn., June 
4, 1804. At the age of four years, his father removed to Smyrna, 
Chenango Co., N.V., where young Hammond attended the Dis- 
trict School and the Academy at Whitesboro', of which latter 
institution he subsequently became principal. Mr. Hammond's 
parents intended him for the ministry, but failing health induced 
him to decide upon a less sedentary occupation, and he therefore 
established himself in Canandaigua as a merchant. As a business 
man he met with no great success, and in his mercantile career he 
removed to Detroit, in 1S34, and to Union City, Branch Co., Mich , 
in 1S36. The bent of his mind was quite intellectual as well as 
executive, and it was soon seen by his fellow citizens that he was 
fitted to conduct public affairs and to manage large interests. In 
1S313, he was sent to the Legislature where he soon became a lead- 
ing member of the Judiciary Committee. He became auditor 
general, under Governor Barry, and did much to reform the tax 
and financial systems of the state. During President Polk's ad- 
ministration, he served as deputy-collector at Detroit, and in 
May, 1852, he brought the Michigan Central Railroad into 
Chicago, removing to this city and taking charge of the freight 
department of the road. As this was the first line opened from the 
east, it required a man of great energy and executive ability to 
systematize its business. Air. Hammond was equal to the task, 
however, and made such a reputation for himself within the next 
three years, that when the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad was 
opened between the first two points, in March, 1855, he was chosen 
to become its superintendent. Under his management, the road be- 
came one of the most prosperous in the West, the superintendent 
inspiring his energy and fairness of dealing into the actions of his 
humblest subordinates. His great labors, however, had so worn 
upon him that he was obliged to resign his position and take a trip 
to Europe for his health. Restored in strength, his activities did 
not long languish, for, in the fall of 1S69, he was chosen to the 
general superintendency of the Union Pacific road. After putting 
it into good working order, at the expense of a second shattering 
of heallh, he was forced to resign, and soon afterward accepted the 
vice-presidency of Pullman's Palace Car Company, a position not 
so arduous in its labors. At the re-organization of the Relief and 
Aid Society, soon after the great fire, Mr. Pullman was elected 
treasurer. The actual burden of the labors fell upon Colonel 
Hammond, who there showed his usual foresight, ability and kind- 
liness of heart. In 1871, also, he was elected one of the inspectors 
of the House of Correction. From early manhood. Colonel Ham- 
mond had been marked by his faithful, religious and benevolent 
work. He was one of the committee which, in May, 1S53, drafted 
articles of faith, covenant and rules for the establishment of the 
New England Congregational Church, and was ever an earnest 
supporter of that denomination and organization. He was one 
of the founders of the Chicago Theological Seminary, and, in 
1858, when that noble institution was threatened with financial 
ruin, he, with a few other generous citizens, rescued it from its 
peril. Colonel Hammond also served as president of the Home for 
the Friendless for a number of years previous to his death. The 
following account of Colonel Hammond's death is taken substan- 
tially from the Chicago Tribune of April 16, 1SS4: — " Colonel C. 
G. Hammond died suddenly yesterday afternoon, in the eightieth 
year of his age. Entering Marshall Field's retail establishment, 
accompanied by his daughter, Mrs. Max Hjortsberg, he sat down 
on the bench near the entrance, to wait until she completed her 
shopping. He was approached by two acquaintances, and they 
began chatting, Colonel Hammond repeating a formerly expressed 
opinion, that it was better to give to charitable objects during life 
than to wait until one drew up his will. He then mentioned the 
name of a friend who had died recently, and his head suddenly 
dropped on his breast. His companions took it for a sign of grief, 
but the next moment saw that the aged gentleman had fainted. 
Assistance was called for, and in five minutes the stupor had 
deepened into death, notwithstanding all that medical skill could do. 
The body was laid out on the counter, and shortly afterward was 
removed to the house of the deceased. The funeral services took place 
from the New England Congregational Church, which Colonel Ham- 
mond had been so instrumental in establishing more than thirty 
years previously." At Whitesboro', N.Y., while principal of the 
academy, the deceased met his wife, Charlotte B. Doolittle, daughter 
of General Doolittle of revolutionary fame, a highly accomplished 
lady, who, with two daughters, Mrs. Hjortsberg, of Chicago, and 
Mrs. J. R. Nichols, of Salt Lake City, survive him. 

Thomas J. Potter, vice-president and general manager of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, was born in Carroll 
County. Ohio, August 16, 1S40, the son of John and Nancy Pot- 
ter. He received his education at the common schools of that 



county, and, in July, 1862, entered the employment of the Burling- 
ton & Missouri River Railroad, as lineman in the engineer's corps, 
where he remained for six months. In January, isi>6, he entered 
the service of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, as station 
agent at Albia, Iowa, from which position he was advanced to that 
of fuel and claim agent of the same road, at Burlington, Iowa, 
occupying that position until January, 1S73, when he was made 
general agent at Creston, Iowa. In August, 1873, he became 
assistant superintendent of the Iowa Division of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincv Railroad, with headquarters at the same place, 
and retained that situation until February, 1875, when he was pro- 
moted to the superintendency of that division, comprising the 
various lines operating in Iowa. In June, 1S78, Mr. Potter 
became general superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad, with his headquarters at Burlington, Iowa, and, in 
December. 1879, was made assistant general manager, with his 
headquarters in Chicago. In November, 1880, he was made gen- 
eral manager, and, in November, iSSr, was also made third vice- 
president, and, in September, 1SS4, was made first vice-president 
and general manager as above. Mr. Potter is likewise vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the following railroads: St. Louis, 
Keokuk & Northwestern; Kansas City, St. Joe & Council Bluffs; 
Chicago, Burlington & Kansas City; Chicago & Iowa; and is vice- 
president of the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad. Mr. Potter was 
married on May 21, 1S63, to Miss Urdilla J. Wood, of Ottumwa, 
Iowa; they have three children, William T. S., Fannie H., and 
Mary. 

William McCredie, freight auditor of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Railroad, was born in Wigtownshire, Scotland, in 
1832, the son of William and Margaret (McKinnon) McCredie. 
He received a country school education during his very early years, 
but at the age of thirteen hired out as a farmer's boy, and worked 
during the summer and attended school in winter, and thus acquired 
the most of his scholastic training. In 1S48, he left his native 
shiFe and went to Glasgow, where he made his entry into the rail- 
road business, as an office-boy of the Edinburgh & Glasgow Rail- 
way. He remained there nine years, with the exception of one 
year, when he was an employe of the Caledonian Railway, of Scot- 
land. During this period, also, Mr. McCredie was gaining addi- 
tional learning, as for five years he attended to his office duties 
during the day, and studied at night-school after office hours. It 
is, therefore, easy to comprehend how he rose from office-boy. 
through the various gradations, to the position of senior clerk. On 
April S„ 1S57, he left Scotland and came to the United States, 
landing in New York; from whence he went to London, Canada, 
and stayed for a month; after which he came to Chicago, and 
immediately entered the employment of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railway, as clerk in the general freight office, being pro- 
moted to various positions until, in 1S65, he was appointed to his 
present position. Mr. McCredie was married, in 1869, to Miss 
Jeanie Logan Stewart, of Aurora, Kane Co., 111. They have had 
two sons, who died, in 18S1, of scarlet fever, aged seven and eight 
years respectively, and the sudden loss of whom caused the one 
great agony of their parents' lives. One daughter, Jeanie, still 
remains to them. 

L. A. Howland, assistant superintendent of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad, was born in October, 1834, at 
Barre, Vt., the son of Arnold and Harriet (Wright) Howland. He 
received a partial education at the common schools of Burlington, 
Vt , and commenced his first permanent employment as passenger 
brakeman on the Rutland & Burlington Railroad, where he 
remained three years, and then went as baggageman on the Boston 
& Burlington Railroad, where he continued for two and one-half 
years. In the winter of 1S56-57. he came to Chicago, and became 
a freight conductor on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 
continuing in that capacity two and a half years, and, in the fall 
of 1859. was made passenger conductor, which situation he retained 
until February 17, 1S79, when he was appointed trainmaster, at 
Chicago, in charge of the passenger service. On November 15, 
1S80, he was further promoted to the assistant superintendency of 
the Galesburg division, with headquarters at Galesburg, remaining 
there for seven months, when he was made assistant superintendent 
of the passenger service, at Chicago, and was transferred here June 
20, 1SS1, since which time he has remained in that position. He 
took Masonic degrees in Alpha Lodge, No. 55, A. F. & A. M.. 
and in the chapter and commandery, at Galesburg ; subsequently 
demitting from the commandery, and affiliating with Apollo Com- 
mandery, No 1, K. T., of this city. He was married on January 
15, 1S60, to Miss Ellen Jane Keyes, of Bellows Falls, Vt. 

James M. Walker was born in Claremont, N. H., February 
14", TS20. While still quite young, he removed, with his father, to 
Farmington, Mich. Entering the University of Michigan as a 
sophomore, he graduated with unusual honors in 1S49. His pros- 
pects were of the mo^t brilliant nature, and when he was admitted 
to the Bar, at Ann Arbor, he at once took his place among its 



1 46 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



leader*. In .1 comparatively short period of time, he was made 
Washtenaw County. He became also local 
attorney for the Michigan Central Railroad. So successful was he 
in his practice that the railway looked for a larger and more im- 
portant held for the lawyer who promised to be of so great service 
to them. In 1S53, he came to Chicago, as the attorney for that 
road in this city. Very shortly after settling here, he was appointed 
: for the company From the inception of the rail- 
iw known as the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy— he 
became its general solicitor, and so continued to the day of his 
lie was elected president of the company in the year 1871. 
lie was also president and legal adviser of the Union Stock Yards 
■in the time they began business, and bore the same 
Chicago & Wilmington Coal Company. During 
the years 1J70--J. he was president, as well, of the Leavenworth, 
Lawrence & Galveston Railroad, and managing director of all the 
so-calk s,"in Kansas. It was as early as 1855, that Wirt 

Dexter entered Mr. Walker's office as a student, soon to become a 
junior partner and the life-long friend of his instructor. From 
that time, their names were constantly associated, even after Mr. 
\\ '.. ker had retired from the active pursuit of his profession. 
Identified for years with so many great corporations, he became a 
complete master of the complicated law which governs their being, 
and which he had been largely instrumental in creating. It was 
the willing tribute of the profession and the country that, in cor- 
poration law, his opinion was final and his authority unexcelled. 
Coming suddenly. January 22, 1SS1, his death was a sad blow to 
the hundreds of loving friends his sterling traits had won and a 
loss to the community he had honored. 

L. O. GODDARD, assistant solicitor of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton i Quincy Railroad, was born in 1 S 4 5 , in Wayne Co., N. V., 
the son of Lester O and Mabel (Robinson) Goddard. In 1S54, he 
was brought to Lenawee County, Mich., and there received his pri- 
mary education in the common schools. He subsequently attended 
Adrian College for one year, and then matriculated at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, from whence he graduated, with the degree of 
B.A., in 1867. He then accepted the appointment of superintend- 
ent of public schools in the city of Monroe, Mich., in 1S6S, and 
remained there until January. 1^70, when he went to the University 
of Michigan again, and attended the law school. In March, 1S70, 
he came to Chicago, and entered the employ of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington iS; Quincy Railroad, as assistant to James M. Walker, 
who was then general solicitor. He, however, neglected to be 
admitted to the Chicago Bar until March. 1881; and in 1SS2 was 
made assistant secretary of the road. Mr. Goddard has never 
sought political office or preferment. He is retiring in disposi- 
tion, carefully avoids newspaper notoriety or comment, and makes 
the conscientious performance of his duties, and their. successful 
culmination in the interests of the road, his one aim and object. 
Hence, he daily becomes more valuable as an official and more 
thorough as a lawyer. Mr. Goddard was married in 1S71 to Miss 
Martha E. Sterling, daughter of Joseph M. Sterling, of Monroe, 
Mich. They have two children, Joseph Sterling and Emma. 

s\n til. chief engineer of the Chicago, Burlington 

& Quincy Railroad, was born at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., N. 

V , on December 31. 1 s 3 7 . the son of Justus and Fanny (Chipman) 

Smith. He received the principal part of his early education in 

ax. although he attended school in Burlington, Vt., whither 

he removed, with his mother, in 1S54, his father having died in 1851. 

His curriculum comprised the common and high school studies, 

and his first entry into business was as an apprenticed machinist, 

at Burlington, Vt., in 054, and as an advanced apprentice, at 

, in 1855. He came from that city to Chicago in 

! worked here as a machinist, afterward occupying the 

same position on the Indianapolis tV St. Louis Railroad, then 

1 errc Haute, Indianapolis iV St. Louis Railroad. 

■iiti, went to Aurora and worked for the Chicago, 

>, worked as machinist 

-orth-Western Railway, continuing in its 

In the early part of that year, he enlisted 

Volunteer Infantry, recruiting at 

.;. he was elected orderly sergeant. 

He in the battli Wo., Fori 

many minor engagements and 
tment of Vicksburg. About fune, 
1861, be ■ ccond lieutenant of his company, and 

was mbwquc oi the same company. In the 

commence! commission, 

and, af" - 1 lilway as 

Machinist foi do, where he remained 

three year*, re; ur;,;,: . and again working 

at his trade. In Ij rki •! for the 1 

Burling' ent, where 

po itions of 
assistant engine- .-, 1 lines in Illinois 



from t88l until 1SS2, and being appointed to his present position 
iu January, 1S84. During this period in the engineer department, 
however, he acted for about five months as purchasing agent. He 
was married on March 16, 1871, to Miss Amelia Richburg, of 
Chicago. 

F. C. Smith, cashier of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad, was born in Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., N. V., in 1S34, 
the son of Justus and Fanny (Chipman) Smith. His father was a 
merchant of Potsdam, and a man of prominence, not only in that 
town, but in the country surrounding. Mr. Smith received his 
education in St. Lawrence Academy. Potsdam, and, when he was 
eighteen years old, went to Boston, and became an employe of the 
firm of Pierce & Bacon, general commission merchants and cotton 
dealers, where he remained for about three years, and then came 
to Chicago. At that time, he had two brothers in this city, J. H. 
and S. C. Smith, who were engaged in the grain and commission 
business, under the firm name of J. H. Smith & Co , and with this 
firm Mr. Smith engaged ; but upon the death of one of his broth- 
ers, in 1857. the firm was dissolved, and, in July of that year, he 
entered the employment of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy road, 
as general accountant in the treasurer's department, in this city — 
Amos T. Hall being, at that time, treasurer. Mr. Smith occupied 
that position until about 1864, when he was made receiving cashier 
in the same office, and held that situation until 1S72, when he was 
made cashier, which position he has since retained without inter- 
mission. Mr. Smith was married, in 1862, to Miss Martha L. 
Parks, of Whitehall, N. V., the daughter of an old settler of that 
region. They have two children, William Parke and Clarence 
Warren. 

E. P. Ripley, general freight agent of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Railroad, was born in Boston, Mass., in 1845, the 
son of Charles P. and Ann R. (Payson) Ripley, both of whom were 
residents of Boston. In that city, young Ripley received his edu- 
cation at the renowned common and high schools ; and there, also, 
made his entry into commercial life as a dry goods clerk, in 1863. 
This business, however, was not congenial to him, and, therefore, 
after giving it a thorough trial, he entered into the railroad busi- 
ness as contracting agent of the Union Line at Boston, his office 
being located in that city. This was in 1S66, and he remained in 
that position two years, after which he became clerk in the 
office of the general eastern agent of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad, at Boston, and remained there about 
two years, after which he was appointed New England 
agent of the same road at Boston, and occupied that situation 
until 1876, when he was appointed general eastern agent of the 
road at Boston and New York, and there remained until 1S7S, in 
June of which year he was appointed to his present position, and 
came to this city. Mr. Ripley was married, in 1S70, to Miss 
Frances E. Harding, of Boston. They have four children, Alice 
II., Frances P., Robert H. and Fred. C. Mr. Ripley is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, and belongs to Union Lodge, of Dor- 
chester, Mass. 

The Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road (operated by the Pennsylvania Company was 
originally chartered as the Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road, in 1852, and consolidated with the Pittsburgh 
Division, in November, 1856, under the title of the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad Company. 
The line was opened to Pittsburgh, four hundred and 
sixty-seven miles, on Christmas morning of the year 
1858. The first train of cars which left the West Side 
for the seaboard, started at 7:20 a. m. on that day, from 
the Rock Island Depot, on Van Buren Street, corner of 
Sherman, carrying the United States mail for Philadel- 
phia. A salute of thirteen guns was fired in honor of 
the occasion. 

Although terminating in Chicago this line is not con- 
sidered peculiarly a home institution, its general offices 
being in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. After passing 
through a struggling existence for a number of years, 
the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, with 
William B. Ogden as receiver, was reorganized under 
special enactments of the Legislatures of Pennyslvania, 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. On the 24th of October, 
1861, the road was sold at auction, at Cleveland, by 
John Ferguson and Thomas E. Walker, trustees and 
master commissioners. The sale took place at the south 
door of the ( ourt-l louse, there being four bids ; $60,- 
000, $75,000, $80,000 and $2,000,000. The purchaser 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



147 



was J. F. D. Lanier, of Winslow, Lanier & Co., New 
York, in behalf of himself, Samuel J. Tilden, John Ed- 
gar Thompson (who had been president of the old road), 
Samuel Hanna and L. H. Meyer. The Ohio & Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio & Indiana and the Fort Wayne & Chi- 
cago companies' first-mortgage bonds, with accrued in- 




EARLY LOCOMOTIVE. 

terest, were merged into a new issue of $5,350,000 sink- 
ing-fund bonds, secured by a first mortgage over the 
whole road. A second mortgage of like amount, se- 
cured bonds to be awarded to the holders of the second- 
mortgage bonds of the old companies, and a third mort- 
gage of $2,000,000 secured the interest on bonds to be 
given to the holders of the old real-estate bonds and 
other classes of old indebtedness. Stock for $6,000,000 
drew six per cent, dividend, the balance of the net earn- 
ings. 

In 1871, the main line from Chicago to Pittsburgh 
was four hundred and sixty-eight miles in length, which, 
with thirty-two miles of connecting roads, made up a 
system of five hundred miles. The officers of the road 
that year were: Thomas A. Scott, president; William 
Thaw, vice-president; J. N. McCulloch, general mana- 
ger: F. R. Myers, general passenger and ticket agent; 
W. P. Shum, general agent; W. Stewart, general freight 
agent. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Com 
pany. — The Milwaukee & Mississippi Company was 
formed in the Cream City, in 1849, with Edward D. 
Holton as president. Seven and a half years from the 
time ground was first broken in Milwaukee, in April, 
1857, the road was completed to Prairie du Chien. In 
1859-60, the company being unable to pay its interest, 
a mortgage sale was advertised. To take advantage of 
this forced sale, a new company was chartered by the 
Legislature on April 14, i860, under the name of the 
Milwaukee & Prairie du Chien Railway Company, and 
its members were Lewis H. Meyer, William P. Lynde, 
Allen Campbell, William Schall, John Wilkinson, John 
Catlin, Hercules L. Dousman and N. A. Cowdrey.. The 
purchase was effected January 21, 1861, and the road 
to Prairie du Chien was managed by them until it was 
absorbed by the present corporation (then called the 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company) in 1866. By- 
ron Kilbourn was president of the line to Prairie du 
Chien from 1849 to 1851; John Catlin, 1852-56; E. H. 
Brodhead, 1857; John Catlin, 1858-59; L. H. Meyer, 
1860-65; Alexander Mitchell, 1866. The Milwaukee & 
Watertown Railroad, now the LaCrosse Division of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, was incorpo- 
rated in March, 185 1, and the preliminary survey made 
in 1853. By the latter part of 1856, trains were running 
from Milwaukee to Columbus. After going through a 
variety of changes, the road became the Milwaukee & 



St. Paul Railroad in 1863, and the LaCrosse Division of 
the present company in 1S66. In April, 1852, the La- 
Crosse & Milwaukee Railroad Company was incorpo- 
rated; and in June, 1853, by a consolidation of two other 
railroad charters, the Milwaukee, Fond du Lac & Green 
Bay Railroad Company was formed and work begun on 
a line from Milwaukee toward Fond du Lac. In 1854, 
the LaCrosse & Milwaukee was consolidated with the 
Milwaukee, Fond du Lac & Green Bay road ; assuming 
the name of the latter, and pushing on toward LaCrosse, 
the work begun by the former in the direction of Fond 
du Lac. In December, 1856, the line was completed 
to Horicon, fifty-one miles from Milwaukee. The 
financial crash of 1857 brought along series of litiga- 
tions, and the road was in the hands of two rival sets of 
officers in 1859, having been opened to LaCrosse in 
1858. In i860, it was operated by Hans Crocker, who 
was appointed receiver by the Court. He continued re- 
ceiver of the line until 1863, when the Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Company obtained possession, by purchase, of that 
portion lying between Portage and LaCrosse. In 1867, 
the same company secured possession of the balance of 
the line, or that lying between Portage and Milwaukee. 
It still remains a part of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railway line, designated as its LaCrosse Division. 
In 1852, the Milwaukee & Horicon road was chartered, 
and was built from Horicon to Berlin in 1856 and 1857. 
Remaining in the hands of a receiver, Lindsey Ward, 
for some time, it was sold to the Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Company in 1S63, and now forms a part of the Northern 
Division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul lines. 

The present Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
way Company grew out of the organization formed 
May 5, 1863, for the purpose of purchasing all the 
roads thus far described. That organization consisted 
of Isaac Seymour, N. A. Cowdrey, Horace Galpen, D. 
M. Hughes, William Gould, F. P. James and George 
Smith, of New York; Asahel Finch and William N. 
White, Milwaukee. They received authority for the 
purchase of all these lines; but the word "Chicago" 
was not prefixed until February, 1874, the line between 
the two cities having been constructed during the pre- 
vious year. D. M. Hughes was president of the road 
in 1863 and 1864, and Alexander Mitchell has filled that 
position since, including 1865. The vice-presidents of 
the road, up to 1872, were, G. W. Rogers, 1863-64 ; 
Russell Sage, 1865 ; Walter S. Gurnee, 1866-67 ; and 
Russell Sage for seven years thereafter. Russell Sage, 
Jr., was secretary for the first two years ; A. Cary from 
from 1865 to 186S, inclusive; and R. D. Jennings from 
that year until long after 1871. The treasurers have 
been A. Cary, 1863 to 1867, inclusive; succeeded by R. 
D. Jennings. E. H. Goodrich was general manager 
for the first two years, and S. S. Merrill from that time 
to date, with the exception of 1873, when John C. 
Gault held the position. 

Joseph Francis Tucker, assistant general manager of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, is perhaps better known 
to the shippers, and western people generally than any other rail- 
road man in the west. His long connection with the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad, covering a period of over twenty-eight years, has 




served to make his name most familiar with those who have been 
at all concerned in railroad matters. Mr. Tucker was born in the 



i 4 S 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



Pine Tree State, the place of nativity being Saco, Me The date 
of his birth is Septembei 29, 1835, and he passed his boyhood in 
his native town. When Mr. Tucker became of age he was a resi- 
dent of Illinois, and on September 15, 1S56, he entered the railroad 
service. From 1 S=;r- to 1861, he was ticket agent, and during the 
following two years he was secretary to the president of the road. 

• 1 he was appointed general freight agent of the company, 
and held that position for ten consecutive years. In 1S73. he was 
made general superintendent, and he vacated that office, to take the 
important post of traffic manager, in 187b Mr. Tucker remained 
in that capacity for a little over seven years, and then terminated 
his connection with the Illinois Central Railroad. In October, 
iS>4. he was selected as arbitrator of the Trans-Continental Traffic 
.111 and California, Colorada and Utah Pool. In 1SS5, 
having been tendered the position of assistant general manager of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road, he resigned his office 
as arbitrator, and again entered into active service as a railroad 
manager. 

T. YV. Wadsworth, general agent of the passenger depart- 
ment of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, was born in 
New Hartford, Conn., December 2S, 1S28. His father was Ter- 
tius Wadsworth, who died in Hartford, in 1S72. The subject of 
this sketch passed his bovhood in Connecticut until he was eighteen 
years of age, and received his education at the common schools of 
his native state. In 1S47, he decided to come to Chicago, where 
his brother, Elisha S. Wadsworth, had located in 1S36. Upon 
arriving here, he first engaged in the employ of Wadsworth, Dyer 
& Chapin, and afterward in the insurance business, remaining in 
that about three years, when he went into the wholesale boot and 



shoe trade with George M. Wells, now a resident of Massachusetts. 
The firm of Wadsworth & Wells continued successfully for a 
number of years, and then Mr. Wadsworth became interested in an 
omnibus company which did business between the South and West 
sides. In June 1S62, C. F. Loomis, W. R. Loomis and Mr. 
Wadsworth, under the firm name of C. F. Loomis & Co., opened 
the Cottage Grove Stock Yards. They continued until the estab- 
lishment of the Union Stock Yards a short time later, when all the 
small yards of the city closed up. Mr. Wadsworth was actively 
engaged up to this time in business, and during his connection 



with the enterprise in which he was interested, he came in contact 
with the leading business men of the country, and his character as 
a man of integrity and ability was recognized as of the very highest 
standard. During the past ten years, he has been connected with 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, of which corporation 
his brother, Julius Wadsworth, is now vice-president. He was 
contracting agent in this city for the company, and later was made 
II general agent of the passenger department. In April, 
was appointed general agent, which office he holds at the 
time. On June \(>, [885, Mr. Wadsworth was elected a 
director of the largo .\: Southern Railway, of which corporation 
he has been secretary and treasurer since 1882 He is also a direc- 
tor in the Chicago & Evanston Railway, and has held the offices of 
secretary and treasurer for some years past. In the early days 
when the property owners of Chicago were the chief components 
of the fire department, Mr. Wadsworth was among those who be- 
tmpany and "ran -with the machine." lie was a 
memljer of Engine Company No. 3 for aboul ten years, and was 
one of n, most active members, participating in every lire that his 
lage 233, vol, 1). lie was secretary of 
the Firemen's Hen volenl Association in 1853-4, •'""' is still a 
member of that bodj 230 Vol. n Mr. Wadsworth 

was married J i I 1 B. Ellsworth, of Chi- 

amton, N. Y. They have two daughtei Helen 
C. and Georgians li mu l be a great source ol pleasure to such 
men as Mr. Wadsworth, when they can look back upon a life de- 
. the pursuits of a business which ha brought its rewards 
— rewards not on f in a I ipeti ice, but rich in the 

thoughts of achievemei triumphs over 

hardships which may I en ragei 1 to the 

younger generation which fol 



Union Depot. — In July, 1858, specifications were 
drawn up for a new union depot, to accommodate the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne cS; Chicago, the Chicago, St. 
Paul & Fond du Lac, the Chicago & Milwaukee and 
the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis railroad companies. It 
was to be the largest depot in the west, 'eighty feet 
wider than the Central depot, at the foot of Lake Street, 
and about the same length. This depot, however, got 
no further than the plans. There was so much rivalry 
between the West and North divisions of the city for 
the location, that ground was not broken on Canal 
Street, near Madison, until 1861. A temporary struc- 
ture was erected during the latter part of that year, and 
in March, 1862, it was struck by lightning and burned. 
The fire occured shortly after one o'clock a. m., and 
Captain H. J. Spaulding, formerly connected with the 
Michigan Central Company, then depot master, had a 
very narrow escape from death. At first he saved the 
tickets and office effects, and then returned for books 
and papers. A current of air closed the door, and Cap- 
tain Spaulding would have been suffocated had he not 
been rescued by the watchman. He was seriously burn- 
ed about the head and shouldets. A large amount of 
baggage was destroyed, as well as the entire eastern 
mail and about $10,000 worth of other property. The 
damage to the depot was at once repaired, and served 
the public, after a fashion, for many years— in fact, with 
additions and slight improvements, until the present 
magnificent brick structure was erected, in 1881. 

During the fall of 1862, the Fort Wayne Company 
extended the new freight house several hundred feet 
south, and, finally, from Madison Street, along the river 
bank, to Adams Street. 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway 
Company. — The original charter in Illinois was granted 
February 27, 1847, to the Rock Island & LaSalle 
Railroad Company. This road was chartered for fifty 
years, the line to extend from Rock Island to " the 
Illinois River, at the termination of the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal. '' The capital stock was $300,000, and the 
commissioners appointed to receive subscriptions were 
Joseph Knox, F. R. Burnet, N. B. Buford, William Van- 
dever and Nathaniel Belcher, of Rock Island County; 
Joshua Harper and James G. Bolmer, of Henry County; 
Cyrus Bryant, Justus Stephens and R. T. Templeton, of 
Bureau County; John V. A. Hoes and William H. W. 
Cushman, of LaSalle County. Although nothing was 
done under this charter, in the way of actual railroad 
construction, public attention was called to the feasibil- 
ity of a line stretching toward the Pacific. The project 
had been almost slumbering since its inception in 1830, 
when William C. Redfield, of New York, a traveler in the 
West, published a report, in which he proposed a route 
nearly identical with the one finally adopted by the suc- 
cessor of the Rock Island & LaSalle Company; while the 
feasibility of bridging the Mississippi River at Rock Is- 
land had been recognized ever since the first explorers 
and travelers wandered over to its western banks The 
charter of 1847 revived the grandeur of the enterprise, 
the meetings held in Chicago in favor of "a railroad to 
the Pacific " being especially enthusiastic, the voice of 
the " Little Giant " being often heard as an inspiration 
tu the public spirited men of Illinois to " push on. " 
In those days, however, although the spirit was willing 
indeed, the pocket-book was too weak to sustain it in 
the accomplishment of so great a work But the men 
of the State gifted with the powers of persuasion and 
foresight, headed by William A. Ogden, were equal to 
iIk occasion. In 1850, during the market revival in 
railroad matters, occasioned by the Illinois Central land- 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



149 



grant, Henry Farnam came to Chicago from New 
Haven, upon Mr. Ogden's invitation, to assist in the 
construction of the Galena & Chicago Union road. 
While here he examined the Rock Island route, and 
was so impressed with its advantages that he wrote to 
his friend, Joseph E. Sheffield, a rich capitalist of New 
Haven, to come to Chicago and also look over the 
proposed route. This resulted in obtaining a charter 
and building a road, but not before the charter was so 
amended as to authorize the construction of the line to 
Chicago. This amendment was granted February 7, 
185 1, the name of the road being at the same time 
changed to the " Chicago & Rock Island. " Additional 
subscriptions of $300,000 were also required and the 
and the number of directors increased. Certain tolls 
were to be paid to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
upon condition that the trustees should grant to the 
railroad the right of way through the canal lands by the 
first Monday in June, 185 1. By the 13th of February, 
the requisite amount of new stock had been taken, and 
by April the surveys, which had been progressing since 
December, 1850, were nearly completed. During April, 
185 1, the company was reorganized with John 1>. Jervis, 
of New York, president, and William Jervis, chief 
engineer. On account of high water, the survey was 
not entirely completed until August. During that 
month, all surveys and estimates of the line had been 
made, and on the 25th the executive committee met 
Messrs. Farnam and Sheffield in New York City, and 
concluded a contract with them for the construction of 
the road. They agreed to build and equip the line 
from Chicago to the Mississippi River for $3,987,688, 
or nearly $22,000 per mile, to be paid as follows: seven 
per cent, first mortgage bonds at par, $2,000,000; cash, 
at the rate of $25,000 per month, $500,000; certificates 
of full stock at par, bearing interest at ten per cent, and 
payable in stock when the road was finished, $1,487,688. 
This contract was approved by the board of directors, 
who met at Rock Island, on September 17. 

The directors and officers of the road, chosen 
December 22, 185 1, were as follows: John B. Jervis, 
president, New York; James Grant, vice-president, 
Davenport, Iowa; Elisha C. Litchfield, Detroit; John 
Stryker, New York; Isaac Cook, assistant treasurer, 
Chicago ; George Bliss, Springfield, Mass. ; Lemuel 
Andrews, Rock Island; N. D. Elwood, secretary, Joliet; 
T. D. Brewster, Peru ; John Stevens, Indiantown ; 
Charles Atkinson, Moline ; P. A. Whittaker, Rock 
Island; Ebenezer Cook, Davenport, Iowa — all the above 
being directors ; Azariah C. Flagg, treasurer, New 
York; William Jervis, chief engineer. 

Work was finally begun on the line from Chicago to 
the Mississippi River, April 10, 1852, underthe super- 
intendency of Mr. Farnam ; and in October of that 
year, the first passenger train passed over the road to 
Joliet, forty miles. The line was opened to Morris, 
sixty-two miles, January 5, 1853 ; to Ottawa, eighty- 
four miles, February 14; to Peru, one hundred miles, 
March 21 ; to Tiskilwa, one hundred and twenty-one 
miles, September 12 ; to Sheffield, one hundred and 
thirty-seven miles, October 12; to Geneseo, one hun- 
dred and fifty-nine miles, December 19; and to Rock 
Island, one hundred and eighty-one miles, February 
22, 1854. The original estimate of the cost of the road, 
including right of way, fencing, and interest on stock 
to the time of completion, was $4,289,436. On account, 
however, of the phenomenal success of the enterprise 
from the start, it was found that the equipment of the 
road would have to be increased to meet a constantly 
growing business, and extra locomotives and cars were 



therefore ordered from Messrs. Farnam and Sheffield, 
contractors. For other extra work not provided for in 
the contract or original estimates, they were allowed 
$291,000. These sums, with the increased cosl of 

right of way and station grounds, and interest on stoi k 
issued during the construction of the road, swelled the 
cost to four and a half million dollars, before the road 
was finally turned over to the company, July 10, 1854. 
This was eighteen months earlier than specified in the 
contract — a rare and commendable instance of energy, 
ability and good fortune in the history of railroad build- 
ing. In December, 1854, Henry Farnam, who had 
been the superintending power in its construction, be- 
came president of the road. For the past two years 
there had been no change in the general officers. The 
bridge across the Mississippi River at Rock Island was 
completed April 21, 1855, and on the 6th of May, 
fifteen days after, trains commenced crossing. One 
span of two hundred and fifty feet was destroyed by 
the burning of the steamer " Effie Afton," but, by fall, 
the damage was repaired. The bridge was placed 
under the joint control of the Chicago & Rock Island 
and the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad companies, 
having been constructed by the issue of the bonds guar- 
anteed by them, and further secured by a deed of trust, 
executed to A C. Flagg, treasurer of both corpora- 
tions. 

In the meantime, the first section of the Mississippi 
& Missouri line, which was afterward to be consolidated 
with the system east of the river, had been surveyed 
and the road built. Early in the fall of 1852, parties 
who wished to put a western extension through Iowa, 
placed engineers in the field, under Mr. Farnam's direc- 
tion. Three routes were surveyed, Davenport being 
the starting-point. The general result having been 
reported at a meeting held at Davenport, on December 
22, 1852, an association was formed, under the general 
laws of Iowa, its articles being filed February 1, 1853. 
The route named in the articles of association was from 
the eastern line of the state of Iowa, at or near Daven- 
port, to the western line of the state, in the vicinity of 
Council Bluffs. In June of that year, the subscription 
books were opened, and $500,000 received. A com- 
mittee, consisting of William B. Ogden, William Wol- 
cott, and Ebenezer Cook, directors, and Henry Far- 
nam, chief engineer, went to Iowa to obtain the 
necessary rights of way. Upon consultation with 
citizens of Davenport, Muscatine, Iowa City, and 
Cedar Rapids, the articles were so amended as to 
authorize the extension of the line, via Muscatine, to 
the southern or western boundary of the state, and in 
a northwesterly direction by way of Cedar Rapids; 
thus organizing a system of railroads for Central Iowa, 
whose eastern terminus was the bridge at Rock Island. 
The first section, that from Davenport to Iowa City, 
fifty-five miles, and from the junction to Muscatine, 
twelve miles, was put under contract, August 16, 1853, 
and completed January 6, 1856. Upon that day, Gen- 
eral John A. Dix, of New York, president of the com- 
panv, delivered speeches at the principal cities inter- 
ested, and there was general rejoii ing by the people all 
along the line. During the following summer, the land 
granted by Congress, to aid in the construction of the 
road, was accepted, in trust, by the state, upon condi- 
tion that the Mississippi & Missouri line be completed 
by December 1, 1865. 

It will thus be perceived, from this general sum- 
mary, how a continuous line of road, now a portion of 
the great Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific system, was 
completed by the first portion of 1856, and it is neces- 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



sary to return to a specific narrative of the Chicago & 
Rock Island road. During 1855. according to the 
instructions of the stockholders, a grain-house, or ele- 
vator, was erected in Chicago, at a cost of $125,000, 
capable oi containing over seven hundred thousand 
bushels of grain. On the 1st of July, 1S56 the time 
of holding the annual meeting having been changed', 
the general officers of the road were : Henry Farnam, 
president ; A. C. Flagg, treasurer ; Francis H. Tows, 
secretary : John F. Tracy, superintendent ; James L. 
Elwood, cashier; John P. Babcock, general freight 
agent : W. I.. St. John, general ticket agent. For the 
first two vears. the company's business exhibited as fol- 
lows : From July. 1854, "to July, 1855— passengers, 
§750.600.51: freight, $473,205.68; mails, $19,000; 
total, $1,242,906.19. In 1S55-56 —passengers, $742,- 
722.88: freight, $652,296.86 ; mails, $21,284.34 ; total, 
$1,416,304.08. For the year ending July, 1857, the 
receipts from all sources increased over $400,000. The 
only change among the general officers was, that Frank 
D. Sherman became cashier in place of James L. 
Elwood, who took Mr. Babcock's place as general 
freight agent. In July, 1858. E. W. Dunham was 
elected treasurer, in place of Mr. Flagg. The gold 
excitement of the next spring induced the company to 
make extra exertions to obtain its share of the great 
emigration westward. In March, 1859, therefore, in 
connection with the Mississippi & Missouri road and 
the Western Stage Company, it sent passengers through 
from Chicago to Pike's Peak for the sum of $100, fur- 
nishing meals beyond the Missouri River. This, con- 
sidering the length of the route and the country through 
which it ran, was so cheap that hundreds, who were pre- 
paring wagons and teams for the trip, went by rail and 
stage instead. About this time, the opposition which 
the people of St. Louis had shown to the existence of 
the railroad bridge, which they claimed impeded the 
navigation of the river, upon which the city depended 
for the bulk of its business, broke forth into open acts 
of violence. Various crafts were wrecked, intention- 
ally, it is supposed, and suits for damages were brought 
against the company. Finally, in June, 1859, the 
watchman of the bridge found, on the sidewalk and 
track, a quantity of powder and sulphur, oakum, salt- 
petre, camphene, brimstone, lath, etc.; in fact, all the 
paraphernalia of a professional incendiary. It is not 
known who was t lie guilty party. The St. Louis Cham- 
ber of Commerce embodied the respectable elements of 
the opposition, employing attorneys to prosecute the 
bridge company, where navigators brought their suits 
for damage^ and wen- willing to swear that the wrecks 
which their crafts suffered resulted entirely from the 
presence of the bridge and were not caused by their 

The principal attorney thus employed in 
the "legal removal of the Rock Island bridge," was 
Josiah N. Bissell. In August, i860, he and his assist- 
ant, a Mr. Chadwick, were arrested, through the detect- 

' is l'. Bradley, of Chicago, charged 
with conspiring to burn the bridge. The arrest was 
made upon the- testimony of Captain Bradley, supported 
by that of Jo in 1-. Tracy, superintendent of the road ; 
John I'. ' : apin, VV. H. Bradley, a reporter in the United 
States Court, 1 id others, who had been allowed, through 
a slit in a very thin partition, both to see and hear a 
number of interviews between Messrs. Bissell, Chad- 
nick, and Capi in Bradley, "the conspirators." Ac- 
cording to the ■ ted by the prosecution, an 
attempt was to have been made to burn the bridge in 
September, by one of Mi. Bradley's men, thai gentle- 
man undertaking the job in consideration of $10,000, 



promised by said Bissell. On the 8th of August, how- 
ever, Mr. Bradley having played into Mr. Bissell's 
hands long enough to obtain what he supposed was 
conclusive testimony, the tatter was arrested in Chicago, 
Mr. Chadwick was brought a captive from Rock Island, 
and the defendants were bound over for trial. Their 
cases were called in December, but they — especially Mr. 
Bissell — were given such good characters by Derrick A. 
January, president of the St. Louis Chamber of Com- 
merce, and others, that on the 13th of December, i860, 
a jury agreed upon a verdict of "not guilty." Although 
the verdict caused considerable surprise, the cases dis- 
appeared from the courts, and gradually from notice. 

In April, 1864, the early completion of the Missis- 
sippi &r Missouri Railroad to the point where it con- 
nects with the Union Pacific being assured, and the 
line being considered of special importance to the in- 
terests of the company, the directors entered into a 
twenty-year contract for a business connection, agree- 
ing, for this privilege, to advance the road $500,000 to 
aid in its construction. In October, the Mississippi & 
Missouri Company agreed to transfer its property, with 
clear title, to any organization which the Chicago & 
Rock Island might incorporate and designate by De- 
cember 1, 1865 — the road to be purchased for 
$5,500,000, and completed to DesMoines. The con- 
solidated company was to issue bonds in the sum of 
$9,000,000, and create a'sinking fund sufficient to retire 
them. In case the consolidation could not be effected, 
the company to be incorporated by the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Railway Company was to issue 
$7,000,000 in bonds. It was further agreed that the 
Chicago & Rock Island should operate the road after 
December 1, 1865, and that unless the mortgages upon 
the property of the Mississippi & Missouri should be 
foreclosed by December 1, 1866, and everything done 
so that a clear title of the road could be given, the con- 
tract should be null and void, unless the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Railway Company should agree to 
extend the time for such sale. 

The election of officers, held April 1, 1865, resulted 
as follows : Charles W. Durant, president ; John F. 
Tracy, vice-president ; E. W. Dunham, treasurer ; 
Francis H. Tows, secretary ; W. L. St. John, superin- 
tendent. 

By the death of W. L. St. John, on the 15th of August, 
1865, the Chicago & Rock Island road lost one of the most prom- 
ising young men ever connected with the railroad business. Al- 
though but thirty-three years of age, he had acquired a name 
throughout the country for rare executive ability. The deceased 
was a native of Connecticut, and came to Chicago in 1S5;. first 
entering business as a clerk in the general ticket department of the 
road. He soon gave such marked evidence of his ability that he 
became general ticket agent, then general freight and ticket agent, 
and, in 1864, general superintendent. Mr. St. John was unmar- 
ried, but left a mother and one sister to mourn his death. 

The articles of association of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Railway Company, of Iowa, were 
formed May 28, 1866. Charles \V. Durant and Francis 
H. Tows, of New York ; John F. Tracy, of Chicago, 
and Ebenezer Cook, of Davenport, were the parties 
who formed themselves into an association, in order to 
purchase the road built by the Mississippi & Missouri 
Railroad Company also to acquire the lands granted 
by Congress, May 15, 1856. The capital stock of the 
corporation was $12,000,000; and the first Board of 
Directors consisted of Ebenezer Cook. John F. Tracy, 
David Dows, Thomas T. Sturges, and Oliver Charlick, 
who were empowered to lease the railroad to any com- 
pany they might designate. The Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific and the Chicago & Rock Island com- 



RAILROAD HISTORY. 



'5> 



panies were consolidated August 20, 1S66, the new 
association being called the Chicago, Rock. Island & 
Pacific Railroad Company, its board of directors made 
to consist of thirteen members, and its capital stock 
the aggregate amount of both roads. The increase, 
however, was only $100,000, that being the amount 
required to be issued by the Iowa company. 

For the year ending April 1, 1867, the president 
and general superintendent of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific was John F. Tracy ; treasurer, E. W. 
Dunham; secretary, Francis H. Tows; assistant gen- 
eral superintendent, P. A. Hall. W. F. Coolbaugh suc- 
ceeded Mr. Dunham as treasurer the next year, and 
Ebenezer Cook followed Mr. Tows as secretary. 

During the year 1867-68, several important im- 
provements were made The road was extended to 
Des Moines, and opened for business on the 9th of 
September, 1867. New shops were erected also on the 
thirty acres of land situated about four and a half miles 
south of its passenger depot. The machine shop was 
336 x 112 feet in dimensions ; the blacksmith and boiler 
shop, 344x80 feet; car shop, 253x80 feet, with a wing of 
200x80 feet; the round-house had a diameter of 278 
feet, with stalls for forty engines. On the 17th of 
March, 186S, a tornado passed over the new buildings, 
unroofing a large portion of the machine shop, de- 
stroying about three hundred feet of main wall, and 
demolishing the blacksmith and boiler shops. The 
damage was so far repaired that the shops were again 
occupied during the winter of 186S-69. 

In 1870, the officers of the road were as follows: 
John F. Tracy, president ; Hugh Riddle, general super- 
intendent ; Francis H. Tows, secretary and treasurer ; 
and P. A. Hall, assistant general superintendent. 

During the year 1869, a contract was entered into 
between the company and the United States Govern- 
ment for the construction of a bridge over the Missis- 
sippi River between Rock Island and Davenport, with 
a view of changing the location across the island of 
Rock Island, to accommodate the government works. 
The proportion to be paid by the railroad company was 
about $600,000, of which $300,000 was required that 
year. The bonds of the Railroad Bridge Company 
were also guaranteed to the amount of $400,000. 
They were to mature January 1, 1870, and the first 
mortgage bonds of the Chicago & Rock Island Com- 
pany, amounting to $1,397,000, on the 10th of July, 
1870. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific road was 
opened for business to the Missouri River, at Council 
Bluffs, June 7, 1869. November 1, 1869, Hugh Riddle 
was made general superintendent of the road. By this 
time, also, the land grants made by Congress and the 
state of Iowa to the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad 
Company had been adjusted, except in one land dis- 
trict of Iowa, so that the Chicago, Rock Island & Pa- 
cific Company had received, by legislation and purchase, 
five hundred and fifty-two thousand six hundred and 
forty-nine acres. A new set of by-laws was adopted, 
June 4, 1870, and the following officers were elected: 
John F. Tracy, president; Ebenezer Cook, vice-presi- 
dent; Francis H. Tows, secretary and treasurer; F. D. 
Sherman, assistant treasurer; Corn Exchange Bank, of 
New York, register of stock; Hugh Riddle, general 
superintendent; P. A. Hall, assistant superintendent; 
George C. Campbell, solicitor. 

The year ending April 1, 1871, was an important 
one in the history of the company. The receipts of 
the road were $6,028,287.29, and the expenditures 
$3,405,459.06. On account of construction and equip- 



ment, the company expended $1,718,184.51; adding six 
locomotives to the rolling stock. At this time the 
equipment of the company consisted of two thousand 
eight hundred and fifty freight cars, one hundred and 
forty-live locomotives, fifty-three day coaches and ten 
sleeping coaches. Over four thousand men were em- 
ployed. During the year, 1,828,690,104 pounds of 
freight, and more than 708,000 passengers were trans- 
ported over the road. 

The new bridge, being built by the Government and 
the railroad company, was not yet completed, although 
the work being done by the latter to approach the main 
structure was well advanced. Good progress had been 
made in the construction of the Chicago & Southwest- 
ern Railway, from Washington, Iowa, to Leavenworth, 
Kas., one hundred and forty-live miles being in opera- 
tion from the first named point to Princeton. During 
the year the Land Department had received certificates 
from the Interior Department for one hundred and 
sixty thousand three hundred and seventy-three acres, 
under the act of Congress of June, 1864. The sales 
amounted to twenty-eight thousand and twenty-two 
acres, for the sum of $213,575. 

The division of the road known as the Chicago & 
Southwestern was opened October 9, 1871. The 
branches begun or completed in 1871 equaled in dis- 
tance two hundred and thirty-nine miles, which includes 
the road between Centerville, Iowa, and Cameron, Mo., 
and the connections with the new bridge at Leaven- 
worth, Kas. The system, then actually operated by the 
road, was as follows: Chicago to Davenport, one hun- 
dred and eighty-three miles; Davenport to Council 
Bluffs, three hundred and ten miles; Washington, Iowa, 
to Leavenworth, Kas., two hundred and seventy-three 
miles; DeMoines, Indianola & Winterset line, forty- 
seven miles; Bureau Junction & Peoria, forty-six 
miles; Washington & Sigourney, Iowa, twenty-nine 
miles; Atchison branch, twenty-nine miles; from Cen- 
terville, Mo., to Cameron, Iowa, one hundred and twen- 
ty-nine miles. Total, one thousand and forty-six 
miles. 

Ransom R. Cable, president of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railway, was born in Athens County, Ohio, in 1S34, the 
son of Hiram and Rachel (Henry) Cable. During his early life he 
received but sparse educational advantages, the tuition imparted at 
the common schools of Athens County being all that he obtained. 
But a desire for liberal attainments, and a determination to acquire 
them, united to a rare faculty for study and the retention of the 
valuable part of the study pursued, matured the intellect of the 
student, and more than supplied the early want of an imparted 
course of science and literature. Hence, at the age of seventeen, 
he is found engaged as a partner in the lumber business, superin- 
tending the work in the forests, and actively participating in the 
general management. These supervisory duties he retained until 
1856; and came west, in 1857, to Rock Island, and from thence 
went to Valley City, nine miles north of Davenport, where he 
remained as the proprietor of a flouring mill, until 1859. lie then 
became engaged in the coal and railroad business at Rock Island, 
111., and subsequently accepted the position of president of the 
Rock Island & Peoria Railroad, which he retained until 1SS0. In 
connection with these olfices, he was also manager of the old Rock- 
ford, Rock Island & St. Louis Railroad, for the four years from 
1S71 until 1S74. His extensive railroad experience and manifest 
capability in the management of railroad business, led to the proffer 
of the position to Mr. Cable, in [880, that he now occupies, and 
which he. in that year, accepted. During 1S80, also, Mr. Cable 
removed to this city, of which he has since been a permanent and 
valuable resilient, prominent chiefly by his unostentatious perform- 
ance of all the duties, official, social and political, which have 
devolved upon him. and becoming honored and esteemed by all 
with whom those duties have brought him in contact. Mi. 
was married twice; the second una to Miss lam- Buford, of Rock 
Island; and has four children. Hiram S., Josephine. Fanny and 
Benjamin. 

Huiat RIDDLE is one of the oldest railway men in the western 
country, and commenced his experience in the engineering depart- 



HISTORY OF CHICAGO. 



mem on the construction of the New York & Eric Railway, in 
1J40, and remained in that connection until the completion of the 
road. In iSft. he was appointed resident engineer of the Silver 
Creek and State Line Division of the Buffalo & State Line Rail- 
road, and occupied that position until the road was completed to 
the Pennsylvania state line, when, in 1852, he entered the _ engi- 
neering department of the Canandaigua & Niagara Falls Railroad. 
In is~;, he returned to the Erie Railway, to accept the position of 
: engineer, which he retained until he was made division 
superintendent, in 1S55. In 1S05, Mr. Riddle was made general 
superintendent of the same road, which position he resigned in 
[869, and. on November 1, accepted the position of superintendent 
of the Chicago. Rock Island lV Pacific Railway. Mr. Riddle sub- 
sequentlv occupied the positions of vice-president and president, 
resigning the latter position in June, 1SS3. He is still a member 
of the directorate of the road, and also a member of the Western 
Trunk Line Committee of Arbitration. 

ABEL Kimball, vice-president and general superintendent of 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, is a native of New 
Hampshire, and his boyhood and the early years of manhood were 
passed in the New England States. Mr. Kimball is one of the old- 
est railroad men in the west, having been connected with different 
corporations all through his life. When a young man, he went into 
service on the Connecticut River Railroad, remaining there for a 
short time. He next engaged with the Cocheco (New Hampshirel 
Railroad, and subsequently was connected with the Newburyport 
(Massachusetts) Railroad. In 1856, realizing the grand opportun- 
ities presented to energetic and ambitious young men in the Great 
West, he concluded to cast his lines among the stirring people of 
Iowa. In that year he went into the employ of the Mississippi & 
Missouri Railroad Company, which operated a railway from Daven- 
port to Iowa City. He took the position of master mechanic, and 
held the same for two years. In 1S5S, he was promoted to the su- 
perintendence - of the same line, and filled that office for eight years. 
In 1 366, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific commenced its rapid 
stride forward as a successful railroad, and the demand for men of 
superior ability and tried experience, to take its management, be- 
came necessary. The excellent reputation which Mr. Kimball had 
won during his ten years' residence in the West, was well known to 
the Rock Island people, and, in 1866, he was tendered the position 
of superintendent of one of the divisions of the road. He ac- 
cepted, and for a number of years filled the office. Subsequently, 
he was made assistant general superintendent of the road, and, in 
April, 1877, was elected general superintendent. He has filled that 
office up to the present time; and his iare executive ability, com- 
bined with his sterling character, as an upright man, and his ener- 
getic labors in behalf of the great Rock Island road, have made 
him recognized and esteemed by the directors as is no other official 
of that corporation. In June, 1882, Mr. Kimball was elevated to 
the office of vice-president, and in conjunction therewith performs 
the duties of general superintendent. In a work of this kind, rep- 
resenting the leading and most prominent officers and managers of 
railroads, it would be a serious error to omit the well known and 
highly esteemed name of Abel Kimball. To him, as much, per- 
haps, as any other man, is due the credit and honor of making the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific route what it now is. 

I ■ . 1 1 St. John, general passenger and ticket agent of the 

Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific Railway, was born in Litchfield Co., 
Conn., February 4, 1*44. He resided there until he was sixteen 
years of age but he did not enjoy the advantages usually allotted 
to the youth of this day. During his boyhood, he was employed 
in a store and the post-office of his native town, and although he 
was unable to obtain the education he so much desired, his young 
business experience deeply impressed upon his mind the principles 
which have been conspicuous in his manhood. His parents were 
endants of one of the oldest families of New England, 
and the) e sturdy virtues which were characteristic of 

the natives of I try. The son found it nec- 

e should "work out" in order to assist in the support 
of his family, and he nobly applied himself to the discharge of thi